4039 Chapters
Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Medium 9781574412567

"A Grave Mistake”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

A GRAVE MISTAKE by Jennifer O. Curtis

It’s been said the only sure things in life are death and taxes. However, I came to question that proverbial wisdom when raising my family in Houston, Texas. Our sense of family always included animals, and there have been many through the years. One cat, in particular, is memorable for his ability to have the last word—even from beyond the grave.

I first saw him clutched to my daughter’s chest. “He’s a stray,” she said. I looked at the young tom draped carelessly over her arm; the cat blinked and snuggled closer to her. The kids named him

Mr. Peabody, reflecting a certain dignity and aloofness he had. I didn’t realize it at the time that this was the pet that would be the constant in a changing household. He became the children’s confidant and counselor, silent witness to their outpourings of frustration as they grew up, his fur bedraggled with their tears.

He was also a con artist with the children and my husband, allowing them the privilege of petting him while gazing adoringly into their faces and purring loudly and contentedly at their slightest croon.

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Medium 9781574412635

18. In and Around Santa Fe

Edited and Annotated by Charles M. Robinson III University of North Texas Press PDF

In and Around Santa Fe


ent a remarkable similarity to the Apaches. We saw a couple of old squaws sitting in what little sunlight struggled through the lowering clouds, and near them were two half-grown boys bearing on their backs huge bundles of firewood. We asked one of the old women to point out to us the house of the “gobernador”. She understood

Spanish and directed one of a party of little boys and girls to show us the way; the little girl not alone but the whole gang with her obeyed the order. We were marched over to the other side of the plaza and observed on our way that the chimneys of the houses were made of earthenware pots,

placed one upon another and coated with mud, that upon the roofs in nearly all cases were bake-ovens, as already described and that to enter any house, it was necessary first to ascend a ladder to the roof of the first story and then descend to the living rooms. Because we did not attend to this last peculiarity, we walked quite around the residence of the gobernador, followed by the whole swarm of boys and girls laughing and screaming at our ignorance. At last, we found the proper ladder and climbed to the second story. This was built upon the first, but the walls were not, as with us, flush with the front walls of the edifice. They receded in such a manner as to leave platforms in front; this was the roof of the first story and was formed of round pine logs; covered with small branches and afterwards plastered smoothly with mud.

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Medium 9781574414868


Kris Rudolph University of North Texas Press ePub


All the chiles used in this cookbook are readily available in most parts of the United States. If you cannot find them at your local grocery store, try a Latin supermarket.

POBLANO CHILE– A large, deep green chile mainly used for making Chiles Rellenos and roasted pepper strips (rajas). The poblano can vary from mild to hot, not giving away its true heat until you bite into it.

SERRANO CHILE– The serrano is very common in Mexico, especially in the central region. It is small, narrow, and dark green in color with an intense heat. Serranos are used in a wide variety of salsas and can be eaten either cooked or raw.

JALAPEÑO CHILE– The jalapeño was one of the first chiles introduced to the U.S. market. It is larger than a serrano, but with the same shiny, green color and spiciness. Jalapeños can be found year-round and are often served pickled with vegetables (en escabeche).

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Medium 9781574415193

34. Lipan Exodus

Sherry Robinson University of North Texas Press ePub


Lipan Exodus

I am now utterly opposed to their being coaxed back.

—General Ranald S. Mackenzie, 1882 1

Lipans described their journey from Mexico during interviews with Morris Opler in the 1930s. This is their account: Most of the Lipans still in Mexico were living peacefully near the towns and trying to get along. Antonio Apache’s grandfather was a mail carrier. The government couldn’t keep mail carriers on the route between Zaragosa and Presidio del Norte because they would be waylaid and killed, but for three years, the wily Lipan mail carrier completed his rounds on horseback every six days, one way.

Some Lipans were then in the hills making trouble. (This could have been Alsate and Colorado.) One day they attacked a wealthy Mexican family traveling to their ranch and killed the entire party. Next they killed the employee of a Zaragosa man who was a friend to the Lipans. They took the hired man’s clothes and killed the two steers he was driving, according to Antonio Apache. (In February 1880 unidentified Indians killed some people near Zaragosa, murdered an entire family at Guererro [Presidio del Norte], and attacked a ranch. A party of Mexican citizens pursued them inland.) The wealthy Mexican called a meeting to organize and fight the Lipans, but the friendly Mexican, despite his losses, defended them. The wealthy man prevailed.

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