2758 Chapters
Medium 9781935542575

2. The Student as Tutorial Designer

Alan November Solution Tree Press ePub

If you question whether students are truly willing to do the work necessary to make real and substantial contributions to the learning experience, consider the story of Jasmine, a student in Eric Marcos's sixth-grade class in Santa Monica, California.

One afternoon, Jasmine's mother was surprised that her daughter was not waiting in front of the school for her usual ride home. When twenty-five minutes had passed, Jasmine's mother went into the school to look for her. She stopped one of her daughter's friends who was on her way out the door and asked if she knew where Jasmine was. “Yeah,” the girl said, “she's in the math room working on a tutorial for the class.” Jasmine's mother headed right to the math room, where she found her daughter totally focused on adding music to the intro of what looked like a movie about solving some kind of math problem.

Jasmine's mother said, “What are you doing? I've been waiting in the car for thirty minutes.” The girl briefly glanced up before looking back at her work. She said, “Sorry, Mom, I have to get this right. Everyone in class will be able to use this video to learn how to factor with prime numbers. I need another hour. Can you come back then?”

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Chapter 2

Boogren, Tina H. Solution Tree Press PDF


Physiological Needs


he first rung of the ladder includes basic physiological needs—water, food, exercise, rest, and shelter. If your basic needs are unmet, you won’t get very far. You may not have eaten breakfast because you woke up late. Or, you may have eaten a hearty breakfast of steel-cut oats, a hard-boiled egg, and a handful of almonds, which allows you to start your day strong, but if you’ve skipped lunch in lieu of tutoring a student, by 3:00 p.m. your hunger needs are unmet. What happens then? You probably have trouble paying attention to tasks at hand because you are truly hungry in that moment. In foundational research known as the Minnesota

Starvation Experiment, physiologist Ancel Keys and his colleagues

(Keys, Brožek, Henschel, Mickelson, & Taylor, 1950) report participants who are hungry suffer a myriad of negative symptoms, including listlessness, depression, and apathy (Carter & Watts,

2016). A blood-sugar drop can occur when you need protein or eat a lot of sugar. Those physical symptoms can lead to sweating, shakiness, or trouble concentrating (Thompson & O’Brien, 2014), none of which is helpful, particularly as an educator.

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Medium 9781936764914

Chapter 2: Supportive Conditions

National Council of Supervisors of Mathe Solution Tree Press ePub


Supportive conditions are the non-negotiable messages and program characteristics that ensure that teachers, leaders, and parents are all pulling in the same direction to see that every student can and will successfully learn mathematics. As such, supportive conditions undergird the specific actions teachers and leaders must take to facilitate success for every student. They serve as both a guide and a measure. More specifically, supportive conditions send a clear and consistent message of expectations and establish rules of acceptable conduct. The three supportive conditions we set forth for ensuring programmatic quality and coherence are (1) beliefs and mindsets that are based on research and not tied to preserving tradition and historical practice, (2) a shared vision, and (3) designated leaders. Without clarity about the beliefs and mindsets that support or undermine social justice and a commitment to quality, a program fails under the idiosyncrasies of individuals rather than succeeds due to the collective wisdom of the community. Without a vision, a program is rudderless. Without designated leaders, no one is positioned to assume responsibility for supporting and monitoring the overall success of the program.

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Medium 9781943874903

3 Robust Roots A–K

Angela B. Peery Solution Tree Press ePub


Robust Roots A–K

You may remember at some point in your own K–12 education completing a unit of study on Greek or Latin roots. My eighth-grade year was the year that my English teacher engaged us in what she called minicourses, most of which consisted of a slew of independent work that had to be completed and then bound into some kind of binder for her inspection. I vaguely remember the minicourses on journalism and word study being my favorites. Learning about roots, word families, and affixes in the word study minicourse was a joy for me. However, years later, when I tried to generate similar joy in my classroom, I failed miserably. Why did my students not find roots as mesmerizing as I did? That question I may never be able to answer, but I do know that the student who has knowledge of frequently used roots is the student who has a useful tool in his or her toolkit. The study of roots is definitely worth spending time on and can support our students in preparing for future academic study. This is not just teacher lore; many studies attest to word analysis as a practice that increases both students’ vocabulary and their general knowledge of language (Graves, 2006; Graves & Hammond, 1980; White, Sowell, & Yanagihara, 1989).

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Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information (INFO)

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub


When you make an argument for or against something, you try to convince someone that it is right or wrong using reasons and evidence.

Examples: When you make an argument, provide evidence to support your perspective. If your argument is that plants and animals alter their environments to suit their needs, you might provide examples of organisms changing the environment—such as a prairie dog burrowing underground—to support your claim.


A bias is a preference for one thing, outcome, person, or group over another.

Examples: If you are doing an experiment, you might have a bias toward a particular result or outcome. To avoid bias, use objective data sources and set criteria and procedures ahead of time.


Something that is empirical is based on evidence that you can physically see or show.

Examples: When you make a scientific claim, especially about a causal relationship, it is important to use empirical evidence to back it up. When you are defining a design question, make sure it can be tested in an empirical way.

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