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Medium 9781855756663

CHAPTER 6: DEVELOPMENTAL TRAUMA IN ADULTS: A RESPONSE TO BESSEL VAN DER KOLK

Karnac Books ePub

Felicity de Zulueta

Following Bessel van der Kolk's excellent presentation on developmental trauma in children and the resulting implica-F tions in relation to their treatment, I shall look at the implications of his presentation in relation to adult patients with a history of child abuse.

It is through an understanding of attachment disorders that we can most easily make sense of findings relating to simple and complex or developmental post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The implications of attachment research in terms of the assessment and treatment of psychological trauma are covered in my recent paper (Zulueta, 2006a) where I underline how PTSD impacts both on the individual and on the immediate family system and can be transmitted down the generations.

After an initial review of current research in the field of attachment, I emphasize the importance of integrating techniques that enable clients to modulate their emotions as part of the therapeutic process. These approaches are essential in the treatment of clients whose lack of affect modulation results from their early traumati-zation or neglect, or subsequent traumatization in adult life. These techniques influence mainly the right hemisphere through thevagus nerve; i.e., yoga breathing, the energy therapies and art and dance therapy. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and sensori-motor therapy also have an important part to play in integrating the mind and body of the traumatized individual, for whom, as van der Kolk says, the “body holds the score” (Siegel, 2001).

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Medium 9781855759428

CHAPTER TWELVE: Freud/Einstein correspondence

Karnac Books ePub

[Original in English] 23 September 1949

To Dorothy Thompson

Dear Mrs Thompson,

It is a pleasure to receive the letter of a normally intelligent person in contrast to the evil flood of idiotic and malevolent insinuations I seemed to have released in the USA.1

Well, you know I am just as deeply concerned with the extraordinary as well as uncanny situation of the world as you are yourself. (By the way, I have read quite a number of your political comments and admired their practical intelligence and common sense!)

I could say quite a lot about the actual dilemma of the world from my psychological point of view. But I am afraid it would lead too far afield into realms of psychological intricacies which would demand a great amount of explanation.

I will try to be simple. A political situation is the manifestation of a parallel psychological problem in millions of individuals. This problem is largely unconscious (which makes it a particularly dangerous one!). It consists of a conflict between a conscious (ethical, religious, philosophical, social, political, and psychological) standpoint and an unconscious one which is characterised by the same aspects but represented in a ‘lower’, i.e., more archaic form. Instead of ‘high’ Christian ethics, the laws of the herd, suppression of individual responsibility and submission to the tribal chief (totalitarian ethics). Instead of religion, superstitious belief in an ad hoc doctrine or truth; instead of philosophy, a low-grade doctrinary system which ‘rationalises’ the appetites of the herd; instead of a differentiated social organisation, a meaningless chaotic agglomera tion of uprooted individuals kept under by sheer force and terror and blindfolded by appropriate lies; instead of a constructive use of political power with the aim of attaining an equilibrium of freely developing forces, a destructive tendency to extend suppression over the whole world through attaining mere superiority of power; instead of psychology, use of psychological means to extinguish the individual spark and to inhibit the development of consciousness and intelligence.

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Medium 9781782200079

CHAPTER SIX Winnicott’s anni horribiles: the biographical roots of “Hate in the counter-transference”

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CHAPTER SIX

Winnicott’s anni horribiles: the biographical roots of “Hate in the counter-transference”

Brett Kahr

I don’t know what to do with the hate.

—Winnicott, 1967, p. 3

I

According to the London weather report, Wednesday 5 February 1947 proved to be a bitterly cold and dull day, with virtually no sunlight. Indeed, the entire winter of 1947, marked by arctic blizzards, power cuts, and a fuel crisis, could only be described as grim (Payn & Morley,

1982). That evening, the fifty-year-old Winnicott trudged through the darkened, snowy streets of Central London, towards 96 Gloucester Place, not far from Baker Street, to read a paper to his clinical colleagues at a fortnightly Scientific Meeting of the British Psychoanalytical Society. As a physician at the Paddington Green Children’s Hospital, in West London, and as a psychoanalyst in private practice on Queen Anne Street, not far from Gloucester Place, Winnicott had already accumulated a wealth of medical and psychological experience, and he had no difficulties writing about his work in great depth. But on this occasion, however, he presented an unusually short essay—a mere six pages in length in its printed version—entitled, quite unremarkably,

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Medium 9781855758827

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Ritual abuse and mind control treatment: greater than the sum of its parts

Miller, Alison Karnac Books ePub

It is my hope that you have learnt from this book that successfully treating survivors of ritual abuse and mind control is possible. I hope that, if you are not already doing it, you will take the challenge and embark on this great adventure, and that if you are, you will feel more secure in your work and be able to hone your skills. There are too few of us doing it, and fewer doing it correctly. Survivors need—deserve—to be able to find competent therapists no matter where they are located.

The following summarizes the guidelines that have been the basis of this book. Some of them might seem deceptively simple; I assure you, they are not. But they do provide a straightforward, clear template that should inform your work:

First of all, recognize that it is who you are, not what you know, that makes you effective as a therapist. It is your ability to “sit with a shattered soul.” This is true even if you are a novice at working with survivors of ritual abuse and mind control. I recently consulted to a very experienced therapist who was working with her first ritual abuse survivor. In her zeal to share with the client what she had learnt from me, she forgot to “tune in” to what the client was telling her in the next session, and there was a breach in the therapeutic relationship. She was alert to this, recognized it, and mended it, but it was a good reminder to both of us. Never forget who you are and never move away from the basic empathy, warmth, and genuineness that make a good therapist.

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Medium 9781780491899

Chapter Six - Two Fundamental Problems for Philosophical Psychoanalysis

Karnac Books ePub

Linda A. W. Brakel

Introduction

This chapter consists of two parts, quite different from one another except in one important respect. They each address a foundational challenge to psychoanalysis—not so much psychoanalysis as a mode of treatment, but to psychoanalysis as a research method and as a general theory of mind.1 Describing the second part of this chapter first, I will mount what I call “An argument for the very possibility of meaningful a-rational mentation”. The problem, as is evident from this title, is that there are those who claim that only the rational (and conscious) can be representational, meaningful, and contentful.2 If this were to be true, no systematic psychological understanding of non-rational mentation, including both a-rational and irrational instances, would be possible—even at the level of consciousness, much less when such mentation is unconscious. A satisfactory account of symptoms, then—including phobias, other anxiety disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive behaviours, as well as the milder problems such as slips of the tongue and physical parapraxes (mistakes in action)—would have to rely on some mixture of neurochemical imbalance, neuroanatomical regulation problem and/or some accidental occurrence at either the physiological or psychological level. But these issues are for the second part of the chapter. So, I will now briefly introduce the first part of this chapter, which concerns a very different, but no less essential, matter.

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