2223 Chapters
Medium 9781786390837

2 Genomics and Transcriptomics – a Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode Biology

Perry, R.N.; Moens, M.; Jones, J.T. CABI PDF

2 

Genomics and Transcriptomics – a

Revolution in the Study of Cyst Nematode

Biology

Sebastian Eves-van den Akker1,2 and John T. Jones3,4,5

Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee,

Dundee, UK; 2Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich

Research Park, Norwich, UK; 3The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee,

UK; 4The University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, UK; 5Ghent

­University, Ghent, Belgium

1

2.1 Introduction

2.2  A Note of Caution

2.3 �Current Status of Genome and Transcriptome Projects for

Cyst Nematodes and Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes�

2.4  Key Findings from Genome/Transcriptome Projects

2.5  Population Genetics and Metagenetics

2.6  Identification of Key Biochemical Pathways and Targets for Control

2.7  Mitochondrial Genomes

2.8  Horizontal Gene Transfer

2.9 Accessibility

2.10  Conclusions and Future Prospects

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Medium 9781780647128

2: Grapevine Endophytes and Plant Health: A Culture-Independent Approach

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

2

Grapevine Endophytes and Plant

Health: A Culture-Independent

Approach

S. Yousaf,1* M. Anees2 and A. Campisano3*

Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University,

Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam

University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3IASMA Research and Innovation

Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all’Adige, Italy

1

Introduction

An endophyte is a bacterial (including actinomycetal) or fungal microorganism that spends the whole or part of its life cycle colonizing healthy tissues of the host plant, either intercellularly and/or intracellularly, and typically causes no apparent disease symptoms

(Wilson, 1995; Sturz et al., 2000). The endophytic population of a given species varies from several to a few hundred bacterial and fungal strains (Strobel and Long, 1998).

The ecological role of these organisms is still not well determined but most of them have positive effects on host plants, which include promoting plant growth, improving resistance to multiple stresses, maintaining a reliable supply of nutrients, biocontrol of plant parasites and microbial synthesis of metabolites antagonistic to predators (Schulz et al., 2002; Schulz and Boyle, 2005), as well as protection against diseases and insects (Rodriguez et al., 2008). Endophytic microorganisms are also presumed to play an active role in enhancing the host defence response against infection by phytoplasmas (Musetti et  al., 2011). Factors responsible for improving plant growth and health are the microbial synthesis of phytohormones (Tudzynski, 1997;

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Medium 9781780641430

H

Edited by Cater, C.I., Garrod, B., and Low, T. CABI PDF

H

 Habitat

An environment with significant biotic and abiotic factors in which species may live in any of their development phases. It normally refers to a natural habitat, which means terrestrial or aquatic areas distinguished by geographic, abiotic and biotic features, whether entirely natural or semi-natural (Article 1, European Commission’s Habitats

Directive). It is also used to describe an environmental area in which an organism

(fauna, flora or human) lives in its physical (natural or ecological) environment, or where a specific species can normally be expected to live (e.g. Arctic regions for polar bears, Montmartre in Paris for artists, the Habitat 67 in Montreal as a specific city dwelling place, etc.).

�SSL

  Hard tourism

1. Large-scale mass tourism developments that are generally externally owned and

  limited local linkages socially, culturally or environmentally. In some cases, these have developments may be focused on quick economic returns, undermine local culture and cause widespread environmental impacts. Tourists to these developments generally seek replication of their own culture in institutionalized settings, with little authentic cultural or environmental interaction with locals. Viewed as the antithesis of soft tourism, examples include many resort developments that have created a tourist enclave that is highly dependent on tourism for its well-being.

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Medium 9781786393647

10 Yemen’s Agricultural World: Crisis and Prospects

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF

10 

Yemen’s Agricultural World:

Crisis and Prospects

Max Ajl*

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Introduction

By 2017, Yemeni agricultural and food supply systems were collapsing, and the population was on the verge of famine amidst war and the conversion of a sustainable and self-subsistent agriculture to an unsustainable one that cannot feed the country’s rapidly growing population.

The capital, Sana’a, may be the first city in the world to simply run out of water as the nearby aquifers draw down. Yemen in too many ways is in slow-motion disintegration.

This chapter examines the collapse’s history. It focuses on North Yemen, but not myopically so. For Yemen’s developmental descent is not the result of purely internal decay – a mismanaged society finally falling to tatters. Indeed, it is much more the fruit of external forces yanking, tugging and ripping apart the country – sometimes with local connivance. Such pulls and pressures remoulded subsistence agriculture surrounding coastal entrepôts into a petroleum capital-­ incubated social formation that has transformed and grown in human magnitude, but barely developed. Yemen relies on constantly expanding flows of cereals to feed the

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Medium 9781786391520

4 The Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

4 

The Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle

Andrew J.K. Conlan* and James L.N. Wood

Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of

Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

The epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis is, by its very nature, inconsistent. Mycobacterium bovis is poorly transmissible between cattle, but has a high potential for spread due to the chronic nature of infection. The risk of infection, susceptibility and progression of disease in individual animals is highly variable but it does vary systematically with age (Brooks-Pollock et al.,

2013; Downs et al., 2016), breed (Ameni et al.,

2007), host genetics (Allen et al., 2010;

­Bermingham et al., 2014) and production type

(Broughan et al., 2016), which in themselves will vary in different epidemiological contexts.

Resolving the impact of these biological factors on transmission is difficult as transmission rates, the duration of latency and the immunological response of infected animals to diagnostic tests all compete on timescales comparable to the life expectancy of the host. As a consequence, despite rich detailed surveillance data and a

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