341 Chapters
Medium 9781780643595

11 Design of a Surveillance System for Non-indigenous Species on Barrow Island: Plants Case Study

Jarrad, F., Editor; Low-Choy, S., Editor CAB International PDF


Design of a Surveillance System for Non-indigenous Species on

Barrow Island: Plants Case


Justine Murray,1* Peter Whittle,2 Frith Jarrad,3

Susan Barrett,4 Richard Stoklosa5 and Kerrie



Biosecurity Flagship, Brisbane, Australia; 2Queensland

University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; 3The University of

Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4National Plant Biosecurity

Cooperative Research Centre, Bruce, Australia; 5E-Systems Pty

Limited, Hobart, Tasmania


Complex surveillance problems are common in biosecurity, such as prioritizing detection among multiple invasive species, specifying risk over a heterogeneous landscape and combining multiple sources of surveillance data in surveillance design.

Programmes for surveillance generally do not incorporate power but instead are heavily influenced by budgetary constraints.

However, when designing biosecurity programmes for surveillance, monitoring and eradication, it is logical and desirable to design to a statistical standard to detect invaders and then demonstrate that standard was achieved in implementation.

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Medium 9781780643960

18: Australian Brushtail Possum: A Highly Susceptible Host for Mycobacterium bovis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Australian Brushtail Possum:

A Highly Susceptible Host for

Mycobacterium bovis

Bryce M. Buddle,1* Geoffrey W. de Lisle2 and Leigh A.L. Corner3­


Hopkirk Research Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand;


National Centre for Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt,

New Zealand; 3University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland


The Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is highly susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis infection and serves as the principal wildlife reservoir for M. bovis infection in

New Zealand. Following their introduction from Australia in the mid-1800s to establish a fur trade, possums spread throughout New

Zealand and are now a noxious pest. It is now well recognized that possums cause extensive damage to crops, forests and native birdlife as well as serving a vector for the spread of ­bovine tuberculosis (TB) to both cattle and farmed deer. Epidemiological investigations have estimated that the majority of new breakdowns of TB in cattle and farmed deer herds in New Zealand can be attributed to direct or indirect contact with infected possums (Hutchings et al., 2013). The

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Medium 9781780641645

7 Synergies between Climate Change and Species Invasions: Evidence from Marine Systems

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF


Synergies between Climate

Change and Species Invasions:

Evidence from Marine Systems

Cascade J.B. Sorte

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of

California, Irvine, California, USA


The hypothesis that climate change will facilitate species invasions has recently received increasing focus in studies of marine systems. Over the past decade, approaches to testing this hypothesis have shifted from time-series observations of concomitant increases in both processes to experimental tests that are beginning to reveal the mechanisms underlying the synergies between these two aspects of global change. The results of many studies conform to expectations that under climate change, invasive species’ abundances, ranges and per capita effects – collectively indicative of invader impacts – will increase. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of responses to non-thermal factors (such as changes in ocean pH, dissolved oxygen and storm events) and how species-specific idiosyncrasies will manifest in changes at the community level.

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Medium 9781780641850

8 Surface Transport and Information Technology

Benckendorff, P.J.; Sheldon, P.J. CAB International PDF

chapter 8

Surface Transport and Information


Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter you should be able to:

explain the components of an Intelligent

Transportation System and how they are applied to surface transport;

● describe the different applications in road, rail and water transport; and

● evaluate how technology facilitates the connection of systems in intermodal transport.


Getting to and around a destination is critical for a successful trip. In addition to the airlines covered in the previous chapter, there are many surface transport modes that tourists use for mobility. This chapter covers the

use of IT in surface transport modes including road (car rental, bus, taxi, bicycle), rail (regular and metro or subway) and water (cruise ships and ferries). These transport modes not only provide the utility of moving from place to place, they can also be at the core of the tourist experience (e.g. cruises, epic rail journeys, cable car gondolas). Surface transport operators vary significantly in size and scope. Some are operated by private companies (tour bus, cruise lines, taxis) and some by public agencies (bus, rail, subway), and increasingly public-private partnerships are teaming up to offer intermodal transport in destinations. Some operators are local to a city or a destination and some have national and international networks and coverage. IT enhances all surface transport by making it faster, safer, more efficient and user-friendly for the tourist.

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Medium 9781780642789

Soybean (Glycine max Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

SOYBEAN (Glycine max Linn.)



Plate 536. Pale green nitrogen-deficient leaf (left) compared with a dark green normal leaf (right).

(Photo by Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. Nitrogen-deficient plants become short in height with slender and spindly stems.

2. Fewer pods are produced.

3. The number and size of seeds per pod are reduced, producing poor grain yields.

4. The entire plant becomes light green in colour.

5. Leaves become smaller in size and the number of branches gets reduced.

6. Nitrogen is a fairly mobile nutrient in plants and it is readily translocated from older to younger leaves as its supply becomes restricted.

7. The deficiency symptoms appear primarily on older leaves and progress rapidly to upper leaves (Plate 535).

8. Initially, the old leaves become pale green to pale yellow

(Plate 536).

9. In the later stage, leaves turn dark yellow or almost white (Plate 538).

10. Eventually leaves turn brown, die and drop early.

Developmental stages

Stage I: In the early stage of deficiency, the entire plant can become uniformly pale green.

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