1179 Chapters
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Ch_8_F

P.S.Sona Laxmi Publications PDF

Determination of Pressure of Gas Flow by Inclined Manometer 29

EXPERIMENT

8

DETERMINATION OF PRESSURE

OF GAS FLOW BY INCLINED

MANOMETER

AIM

To determine the pressure of flow of gas by inclined manometer.

To find out the gas pressure at different gas flow rate.

REQUIREMENTS

Inclined manometer

(1)

Pipe connections

(1)

Gas source

(1)

Scale

(1)

Protractor

(1)

PRINCIPLE

Inclined manometer is used to determine small differences in pressure during fluid flow. In this type of manometer, one of the legs is inclined at angle a and the liquid in the limb should move a considerable distance for a small difference in pressure. The inclined manometer or slant manometer is an enlarged leg manometer with its measuring leg inclined to the vertical axis by some angle.

The inclination is done to expand the scale & thereby to increase the sensitivity. Commonly used

Manometric liquids in inclined manometer are:

1. Mercury: It has low freezing point � 38 °F & high boiling point 675 °F but it corrodes many metal & it is poisonous & expensive.

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Ch_11_F

K.V.S.G. Murali Krishna Laxmi Publications PDF

206 Air Pollution

11

NOISE POLLUTION

Unwanted sound is called noise. The noises of modern society are profoundly annoying to the individual human being. One noisy motorcyclist or scooterist crossing a city can disturb the sleep of many people. The most important change which is evident in most places in this century, is the explosion of human population. This has exerted pressure on all available resources. One of them is significant rise of noise level. Not only raised human voices but also sound from various sources like construction sites, loudspeakers, radio, microphone, automobiles, aeroplanes, railway engines, irrigation pumps etc., break the silence of the environment. Noise has gained such an intensity that it grates on everyone�s nerves. Surveys of complaints and physical measurements, all show noise pollution to be one of the major hazards of modem life, especially in urban areas� areas which are the most industrialized, urbanized and motorized.

Surveys show that noise is now perceived in many countries to be the major negative factor affecting the quality of life. In the United States, for example, noise is ranked second only to crime.

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Medium 9789380856933

CH1-1

S. Anandamurugan Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

1

C CONCEPTS

1.0 OVERVIEW OF C PROGRAMMING

C language is one of the most popular computer languages today because it is a structured, high level, machine independent language. It allows software developers to develop programs without worrying about the hardware platforms where they will be implemented. C is called a high level, compiler language. The aim of any high level computer language is to provide an easy and natural way of giving a programme of instructions to a computer.

C is one of a large number of high level languages which can be used for general purpose programming, i.e., anything from writing small programs for personal amusement to writing complex applications. It is unusual in several ways. Before C, high level languages were criticized by machine code programmers because they shielded the user from the working details of the computer. The C language has been equipped with features that allow programs to be organized in an easy and logical way. This is vitally important for writing lengthy programs because complex problems are only manageable with a clear organization and program structure.

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5.3. Nature/Characteristics of Control

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF

112

PRINCIPLES

OF

MANAGEMENT

5.3. NATURE/CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL

1. Control process is universal. Control is essential function in any organization whether it is an industrial unit, university, government office, hospital etc.

2. Control is a continuous process. Control is a never-ending activity on the part of managers. It is a non-stop process. The manager watches the operation of the management and to see whether they are going towards the desired end and if not actions are not taken to correct them.

3. Control is action based. Action is essential element of the control. It is the action, which ensures performance according to the decided standards.

4. Control is forward looking. Control is linked with future not past. A proper control system prevents losses, minimizes wastages. It acts as a preventive measure.

5. Control is closely linked with planning. Plan gives the direction to various business activities while control verifies and measures the performance of these activities and suggests proper measures to remove the deviations.

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Ch_1

Dr. V.N. Kala; Rajeshri Rana Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

1

INTRODUCTION TO MATRICES

1.1

MATRIX: DEFINITION

A matrix is rectangular array of scalars i.e., all those numbers that obey the algebraic laws of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The system of numbers, arranged in rectangular array is in rows and columns and bounded by brackets. Normally, this array is enclosed within square brackets. [ ], sometimes parenthesis ( ) or otherwise double vertical bars || are used.

More refined definition illustrates matrix as set of (mn) numbers (real or complex) which are arranged in a rectangular array having m rows (horizontal lines) and n vertical columns, called as

(m ´ n) type matrix.

Each of (mn) numbers which constitutes matrix, is called element of matrix.

- 1ù

é5 7 is a 2 ´ 3 matrix or in other words, it is called matrix of order 2 ´ 3. It has

For example, ê

4

8 úû

ë3 got 2 rows and 3 columns and 5, 7, – 1, 3, 4, 8 are its elements.

In order to locate the position of particular element of matrix, we specify the number of row and column in which the element occurs. Any element occurring in ith row and jth column will be referred to as (i, j)th element.

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