1179 Chapters
Medium 9789383828494

Ch_4_F

Rishab Anand Laxmi Publications PDF

4

TRANSPORT AND

APPLICATION LAYERS

4.1

INTRODUCTION

� Network: A network can be defined in many ways. One of its definition is �A network is a set of connected devices that can communicate with each other.� Examples of such devices are computers and printers.

� Internet: The Internet is nothing but a group of networks that communicate with each other.

Internet is a combination of many networks connected together.

Internet has several applications like electronic mail, web browsing etc. which are the part of today�s life style. The Internet is an organized and structured system. It is used by industries, educational institutions, libraries etc. in many countries.

� Traditional TCP

Brief history of TCP/IP : In the year of 1973 the importance of protocols which support endto-end data packet delivery came into the data communication. The Transmission Control

Protocol (TCP) is an end-to-end protocol that assures faithful data packet delivery. TCP has many important concepts like,

(i) Datagram

(ii) Encapsulation and

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Medium 9789380386324

LAX8-3

Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF

CELL GROWTH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

%�

n Protoderm, which forms the surface tissues such as the epidermis. n Procambium, which forms the vascular tissues. n Ground meristem, which gives rise to ground tissues.

At this stage, the embryo takes on the shape of an axis with meristems at both ends. These meristems are the apical shoot meristem and the apical root meristem, from which structures of the shoot system and root system will ultimately develop. In addition, two bumps appear near the anterior; these are the two cotyledons, characteristic of dicot embryos. The cotyledons rapidly elongate, and the embryo is divided into regions, with respect to the cotyledons. The region above the attachment of the cotyledons is the epicotyl, which contains the apical shoot meristem. The region below the attachment of the cotyledons is the hypocotyl, which ends with the radicle, containing the apical root meristem. Typically, the embryonic axis will have to fold, to fit within the embryo sac. Endosperm may or may not be absorbed into the cotyledons. It may be consumed completely in the maturation of the embryo, or some may remain for germination. One of the main differences in the growth and development of plant systems from that of animal tissues is that in plants the growing ends or the meristems are very small but repeated many times above the ground as the terminal parts of shoot systems. These meristems are always active and never stop their embryonic nature. Because of this they continue to produce new tissues and cells throughout their life.

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Medium 9788131805220

ALLC10-2

Manish Goyal Laxmi Publications PDF

578

NUMERICAL METHODS AND STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USING ‘C’

10.17. FITTING OF THE CURVE 2x = ax2 + bx + c

Normal equations are

Σ 2xx2 = aΣx4+ bΣx3 + cΣx2

Σ 2x x = aΣx3 + bΣx2 + cΣx and

Σ 2x = aΣx2 + bΣx + mc where m is number of points (xi, yi)

10.18. FITTING OF THE CURVE y = ae�3x + be�2x

and

Normal equations are

Σye–3x = a Σe–6x + b Σe–5x

Σye–2x = a Σe–5x + b Σe–4x

EXAMPLES

Example 1. Find the curve of best fit of the type y = aebx to the following data by the method of Least squares : x:

1

5

7

9

12 y:

10

15

12

15

21.

Sol. The curve to be fitted is y = aebx or

Y = A + Bx, where Y = log10 y, A = log10 a, and B = b log10 e

∴ The normal equations are ΣY = 5A + BΣx and

ΣxY = AΣx + BΣx2 x

y

Y = log10 y

x2

xy

1

5

7

9

12

10

15

12

15

21

1.0000

1.1761

1.0792

1.1761

1.3222

1

25

49

81

144

1

5.8805

7.5544

10.5849

15.8664

Σx = 34

and

ΣY = 5.7536

Σx2 = 300

ΣxY = 40.8862

Substituting the above values in the normal equations, we get

5.7536 = 5A + 34B

40.8862 = 34A + 300B

On solving A = 0.9766 ; B = 0.02561

∴ a = antilog10 A = 9.4754 ; b =

Hence the required curve is

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pragmc-13-new

R. K. Jangda Laxmi Publications PDF

13

LINKED LIST

(Supplement for DOEACC ‘0’/‘A’ Level Students)

A very simple and useful data structure is an Array. Large number of applications can be easily implemented with the help of arrays, such as one-dimensional array is similar to a list and a two-dimensional array is similar to a table. However, there are some problems which are associated with arrays, some of these are :

An array is static in nature i.e., its size should be known before its usage.

A large enough array is required to store a list of data in an array, so that maximum amount of data can be stored. This results in wastage of computer memory.

Insertion and deletion of an element from the array involves a large number of shifting of elements. This is a very time consuming process.

These problems can be overcome by employing linked lists.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

A linked list is a linear collection of data elements, called nodes, where the linear order is given by means of pointers. Each node has two parts — information and pointer to next node.

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Ch_2_F

Arvind Kumar Bhatt Laxmi Publications PDF

The Communication Process

13

2.1  INTRODUCTION

Communication is an active process which involves a series of actions and reactions with a view to achieving a goal. Communication, is a complex process undertaken to have a shared importance among the sender and receiver, this also has many elements involved in the communication model. The communication mix intermingle together several different elements. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate.

Faulty communication causes the most problems. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. And effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intends to transmit.

2.2  ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

The various elements of communication are briefly described here to understand the process of communication.

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