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21 Ceratopsid Dinosaurs from the Grand Staircase of Southern Utah

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Scott D. Sampson, Michael A. Getty, Eric K. Lund, and Patrick M. O’Connor

Recent Fieldwork and Research in the Upper Cretaceous Wahweap and Kaiparowits formations of southern Utah has greatly increased our knowledge and understanding of ceratopsid dinosaurs from the Campanian of southern Laramidia. This research, undertaken by the Kaiparowits Basin and Horned Dinosaur projects, has documented evidence of at least six distinct taxa, three each from the Wahweap and Kaiparowits formations. The Wahweap Formation taxa consist of Diabloceratops eatoni and at least two other undescribed centrosaurines. No evidence exists of chasmosaurines from this unit. The Kaiparowits Formation has yielded multiple individuals of two previously unknown chasmosaurines, Utahceratops gettyi and Kosmoceratops richardsoni, as well as at least one new centrosaurine. The Kaiparowits Formation is unique among Campanian-aged units in possessing evidence of at least three distinct, co-occurring ceratopsid taxa.

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15 Depression, Dieselization, and Another War

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The Great Depression prepared the railroad industry for another world war. The twin pains of unemployment and lost revenues forced railroads to reexamine their operations. Investment in building projects enhanced capacity, which, combined with new equipment, gave many companies the ability to respond quickly and positively to American entry into the war in 1941. Unlike World War I, the railroads performed admirably in the nation’s hour of need. The coordinated, responsible actions of railroad leaders and workers staved off a repeat of the dreaded government control exerted during the earlier conflict. Railroad workers again benefited from wartime wage increases and resented the resumption of postwar “normalcy.”

The collapse of share prices on October 24, 1929, was an unprecedented economic calamity, but it did not appear to be so at the time. Railway Age called it “a mild recession in business,” and the stock market leveled off after the initial plunge. Many financiers continued as before, assuming they could weather the storm. Samuel Insull, for example, saw in the misfortunes of others an opportunity to expand his Chicago-area interurban empire. But consumer buying declined, industrial output tumbled, and the demand for railroad transportation collapsed. Auto sales plummeted from 4.6 million units in 1929 to 1.3 million only four years later, and rail equipment suppliers likewise suffered. The American Locomotive Company (ALCO), which sold an annual average of six hundred locomotives during the 1920s, sold one in 1932.1 The financial sector contributed to the crash: investors had been encouraged to purchase shares on margin—borrowing against the presumed perpetual increase in the value of their holdings—but found themselves unable to repay their loans when the value of their stock tumbled.

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“The Algerian Army Made Me a Man”

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

ON HIS ARRIVAL at Houari Boumediene International Airport in Algiers on May 16, 1990, Nelson Mandela said that it was the Algerian army that had made him a man. Three decades earlier, with an Ethiopian passport, Mandela (under the assumed name of David Motsamayi) sought to learn what he could about armed resistance from the Algerian National Liberation Army (ALN) in Oujda, Morocco. “The situation in Algeria was the closest model to our own in that the rebels faced a large white settler community that ruled the indigenous majority,” Mandela writes in Long Walk to Freedom. The ALN’s resistance to the “Native Code” that imposed strict regulations on Arab inhabitants of the country, and its struggle for Algerian independence from the French, became a beacon and a model for other freedom movements, and Mandela and other freedom-fighters sought to learn from the Algerian example. During his three weeks with the ALN, Mandela would receive, in addition to military training, guidance on the importance of diplomacy. But upon his return to South Africa, he would be arrested and imprisoned for twenty-seven years.

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6. Building a Giant

Donald R. Prothero Indiana University Press ePub

Now that we have thoroughly explored the geology of the regions that produce indricothere fossils and their evolutionary roots within the rhinocerotoids, let us look more closely at the monsters that still hold the record for the largest land mammal that ever lived.

The most impressive part of the animal is the business end: its immense skull (Figs. 5.1B, 6.1). The nearly complete presumed male skull from Mongolia (American Museum of Natural History, or AMNH 18650) is a truly awesome sight all by itself. It measures about 1.3 meters (52 inches, or almost 5 feet) long, according to Granger and Gregory (1936), 33 cm tall at the back of the skull, 33 cm wide at the base of the back of the skull, and is about 61 cm (about 2 feet) wide across the skull at the zygomatic arches. Another partial skull from Mongolia, AMNH 26165, is even larger than this specimen, measuring about 35 cm wide at the base of the back of the skull and 35.5 cm tall at the back of the skull. An even larger partial skull from Mongolia, AMNH 26167, measures 36.5 cm at the back of the skull base and 38 cm tall at the back of the skull. The presumed female skulls from Dera Bugti (Fig. 5.1A) are almost as large in most of these dimensions (according to measurements in Forster Cooper, 1923a, 1923b), so far as can be determined from their less complete preservation and subsequent deformation and distortion.

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Six Britain and the Defeat of the U-boat Guerre de Course

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER SIX

BRITAIN AND THE DEFEAT OF THE U-BOAT GUERRE DE COURSE

STATES AND THEIR ARMED FORCES must fight wars as they must rather than as they would, but at a distance of some eight decades from events it is very difficult to discern what the inter-war British Navy intended, hoped, or anticipated would be the type of war it would be called upon to fight. What seems clear is that for most of the inter-war period the navy never expected to have to fight another U-boat guerre de course, and there are at least three obvious indications of this belief. First, for much of the inter-war period British destroyers were not equipped with depth-charges. The first destroyers built after the war with asdic (to Americans, sonar) were ordered in 1923–1924,1 and very few escorts were built in a period of difficult financial circumstances. Second, in the entire inter-war period something like one in fifty appointments to flag rank were officers versed in anti-submarine operations, and in 1935 just 11 of 1,029 lieutenants and 16 of 972 lieutenant-commanders in the British navy were anti-submarine specialists.2 Third, the one detailed study of convoy and the experience of the First World War, undertaken in 1917–1918 by Commander Rollo Appleyard, was classified, with the result that in the inter-war period his study was all but inaccessible to its intended readership, and in 1939 the Admiralty ordered that all copies of his report be destroyed.3

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