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4 Terrorism

Thomas G. Weiss Indiana University Press ePub

• Antecedents: Putting 9/11 into Context

• Knowledge Gaps: Confronting Alternative Hypotheses

• Normative Gaps: Democracy, Human Rights, and the Elusive Definition

• Policy Gaps: Group Grievances, Intractable Conflicts, Poverty Alleviation, WMDs

• Institutional Gaps: Making Better Use of Existing Capacities

• Compliance Gaps: Mixing National and International Measures

• Conclusion: Steps to Controlling the Global Menace

On 11 September 2001—now usually referred to as 9/11—global terrorism struck at the symbolic headquarters of global power and globalization. This was followed over the next five years by other horrific terrorist attacks in such locations as Bali, Madrid, Beslan, Tel Aviv, London, and Mumbai.1 Iraq witnessed more acts of terrorism than anywhere else in 2004–2008; there, the preferred modus operandi of large-scale car bombings was complemented by the kidnapping and beheading of foreigners. These examples confirm that terrorism is indeed, in the words of a 2002 UN report, “an assault on the principles of law, order, human rights and peaceful settlement of disputes on which the . . . [UN] was founded.”2

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5 What is the Matter with Mexico?

Patrick M. Brantlinger Indiana University Press ePub

Imprisoned country. . . . It’s the children who play with skeletons.

—JUAN BAŃUELOS

Every morning around two hundred Mexican and Central American immigrants gather outside a Home Depot in Washington, D.C., waiting for a house painter or carpenter or plumber to hire them for a few hours or, if they are lucky, for a few days. Many—perhaps most—are “undocumented aliens” or “illegals.” This is a scene repeated in every major city in the United States. If the average gringo does not jump to the conclusion that something is the matter with these “illegals” (besides their being “illegal”), then he or she probably wonders, “What’s wrong with Mexico?”

Why can’t the Mexican economy provide enough jobs to prevent thousands of Mexicans from spilling over the border in search of work, especially when the United States is also struggling with high unemployment? Securing the border and deporting the “illegals” will not help, in part because many U.S. businesses are eager to hire undocumented workers. The jobs they take are supposedly ones that U.S. citizens will not take. Or is it the case that some businesses prefer to hire undocumented workers because they can pay them less and exploit them more easily than they can U.S. citizens?

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3 Christian Purāṇas: Hermeneutic, Similarity, and Violence

Alexander Henn Indiana University Press ePub

[Cambay]… is inhabited by a people called Guzarates … among whom there are some men, like philosophers and religious men, who are called Bramenes, who believe in the Holy Trinity, Father, Son, Holy Ghost, and many other things of our very sacred law.

—Dom João de Castro (Pearson [1992] 2005b: 154)

Inconsistencies and controversies lived on in other areas of the Catholic mission field in India. Instigated by Francis Xavier, an important goal of the missionaries was to render the Christian message comprehensible to the local population. Apart from the use of images, music, theater, and rituals, all of which played a significant role in contemporary proselytizing strategies, great attention was paid to the ability to communicate with Indian people in their own languages. Thus, the Jesuits made great efforts not only to learn but to systematically study Indian languages and teach them to newly arriving missionaries and seminarians trained in India. For this purpose, a considerable number of vocabularies and grammars of Indian languages—Tamil, Malayalam, Marathi, Konkani, and Gujarati—were produced, which today are considered to represent the start of European scholarship in Indian linguistics. Moreover, missionary scholars began to compose educational Christian texts in the Indian vernaculars, in particular biblical stories, hagiographies, catechisms, and confession manuals, which were widely disseminated with the help of newly imported printing presses. Recognizing that these translations required more than merely linguistic skills, the missionary scholars also took a distinct interest in Hindu literature, especially the popular epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana, the ancient collections of myths known as purāṇas, and the devotional literature of Hindu bhakti religiosity, which they used as literary models for the composition of Christian texts. Most famous was the Kristapurana, the adaptation of the Christian Bible in Marathi composed by the English Jesuit Thomas Stephens, which adopted the style of Hindu religious literature so perfectly that Stephens to this day is, alongside famous Hindu poet-saints such as Jnaneshvara (1271?–1296) and Ekanatha (1533–1609), one of the most-lauded bhakti poets of Western India. In sum, the Jesuits developed an impressive hermeneutic effort and linguistic skill in their compositions of Indian-language Christian texts, since they did not just translate Christian meanings to Indian idioms but also consciously borrowed from poetic models, aesthetic styles, and the lexical expressivity of local Hindu literature that was familiar to actual or potential converts.

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Part 3: The Clades of Dinosaurs

Art Consultant Edited by M Bob Walters Indiana University Press ePub

J. Michael Parrish

Most readers will be familiar with groups such as dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and crocodiles, but the larger group to which all of these organisms belong, the Archosauria, is more obscure. Archosauria was initially erected by Cope (1869) to include dinosaurs, crocodilians, and all their presumed common ancestors. It has been slightly redefined by modern systematists to include the last common ancestor of the two extant groups of archosaurs–the crocodilians and the birds–and all of the descendants of that common ancestor. This is the sense in which I will use the name here.

The amniotes (the evolutionary group containing reptiles, mammals, and birds) have historically been differentiated on the basis of the arrangement of openings in the cheek region of the skull behind the orbit (Fig. 17.1). The pattern that is seen in fishes and amphibians, and that is primitive for the amniotes, is a solid cheek, without any openings. This pattern, termed anapsid, is also seen in early amniotes like captorhinids and pariesaurs, and is retained today in turtles, although some studies suggest that turtles may have acquired this condition secondarily (DeBraga and Rieppel 1997).

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10: Future Expansion of the Arctic Dinosaur Record

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

The Colville River: The Red Deer River of the Arctic?

The southern Alberta buffalo plains greet you with their vast grain and forage fields, slight topographic undulations, endless skies, scattered ranches, and small sleepy towns as you proceed eastward from the hustle and bustle of urban Calgary. If you had no previous knowledge of the region’s geography, within an hour you would find yourself trying to fend off the boredom of what seems to be endless flatlands that characterize most of the 90 miles (145 kilometers) to Drumheller. When you finally see the sign that directs you towards Drumheller, you turn north and slowly descend through a series of roadcuts that fail to stimulate even the ardent field geologist. However, this soon changes in dramatic fashion as you reach the outskirts of the small town of Drumheller and the gently meandering Red Deer River. The stacks of sedimentary strata interspersed with dark lenses of coal, lens-shaped ancient channel sands and conglomerates complexly sculpted into labyrinthine badlands delight even the jaded geologist’s eye. Drumheller is about midway along the Red Deer River, which winds its way east, then south, then east again for over 400 miles (650 kilometers) as it seeks a confluence with the Saskatchewan River. This incised river valley was host to important early twentieth-century coal mining operations. It is now the heart and soul of Alberta’s Cretaceous dinosaur country. This is where the magnificent Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology is to be found nestled within the Red Deer River badlands, just a few miles to the northwest of the center of Drumheller. If you follow the Red Deer River as it winds its way over 100 miles (163 kilometers) southward from Drumheller, you will come upon Dinosaur Provincial Park.1 The park with its dinosaur research station, labs, and outdoor dinosaur exhibits is, like Drumheller, set within the spectacular Red Deer River badlands. Whether you are a paleontologist or a “dino” tourist, the Dinosaur Provincial Park will exceed your greatest expectations and impress you with its extraordinarily rich record of dinosaurs and the world they roamed in. This is why the Park was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

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