336 Chapters
Medium 9781780645353

4: Policy Issues and Prospects for Ukraine’s Grain Exports

Schmitz, A.; Meyers, W.H. CABI PDF



Policy Issues and Prospects for Ukraine’s Grain Exports

Kateryna G. Schroeder1* and William H. Meyers2

The World Bank Group, Washington, DC, USA; 2Food and Agricultural Policy

Research Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA


The Ukrainian agricultural sector has been plagued by erratic and often unfavourable government policies.

Both policy uncertainty and the actual nature of policies have the effect of increasing producer risk and reducing incentives to invest and improve management and inputs in agricultural production. Progress has also been hampered by the poor marketing infrastructure, by the moratorium on land sales and by the costly transportation systems. The farm-to-port costs in Ukraine are estimated to be more than 50% higher than they are in comparable markets in the European Union (EU) and the USA. Moreover, there is very little attention drawn to research and development in the agricultural research system and the very slow and costly certification procedures for the improvement of seed technologies. This chapter focuses on the major contextual issues that impact the development and implementation of land and agricultural policies in Ukraine and discusses their implications for the integration of Ukraine with world markets. Also, this chapter provides suggestions on how to improve the policy environment in the growing Ukranian grain sector.

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Medium 9781780644325

22 Feed-based Approaches in Enteric Methane Amelioration



Feed-based Approaches in

Enteric Methane Amelioration

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, N.M. Soren, V. Sejian, A.

Mech, K.S. Prasad and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,



22.1 Introduction

Mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants is necessary not only from the global warming point of view but also for saving dietary energy. Livestock being the significant contributors to the anthropogenic

CH4 pool have remained the prime target of global research for the past two decades, in order to find suitable, sustainable and economical possibilities of reducing enteric

CH4 emission. The adoption of a particular strategy by the stakeholders depends on the input cost, economic status, toxicity to host/ inhabiting microbes, mitigation potential and persistency in long run. Among all the available options, feed-based intervention seems remarkable, and can be tried anywhere by making little alterations to the available feed resources and prevailing feeding practices. This chapter deliberates the pros and cons of various nutritional interventions, along with their future prospects to reduce enteric CH4 emission. Issues like necessity of methanogenesis in the rumen, the feasibility of reducing livestock numbers and cutting down emissions, and the expected reimbursements that arise from this practically feasible reduction, are well debated in the chapter.

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Medium 9781780642635

23: Natural Toxins that Affect Plant Amino Acid Metabolism

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF


Natural Toxins that Affect Plant

Amino Acid Metabolism

S.O. Duke* and F.E. Dayan

USDA Agricultural Research Service, Natural Products Utilization

Research Unit, Oxford, Mississippi, USA

23.1 Abstract

A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism.

Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. The inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of particular interest because a major herbicide is based on the microbial inhibitor of this enzyme, i.e. phosphinothricin. Natural inhibitors of plant asparagine, glutamate, ornithine, methionine and lysine synthesis are also discussed. Glutamate is one of the most abundant and significant amino acids in living organisms. Ornithine is a key intermediate in the urea cycle and is a precursor of polyamines. Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and humans, but its metabolism to cysteine and use as a sulfur and methyl donor is of universal importance. Lysine is also an essential amino acid for animals and humans. The discussion includes the secondary effects of inhibitors on various aspects of plant physiology. Finally, natural compounds that may cause toxicity at a l-phenylalanine binding site, that appear to interfere with amino acid transporters and that can cause specific photodegradation of l-phenylalanine are mentioned.

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Medium 9781780643786

1 Climate Change and Insect Pest Distribution Range

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF


Climate Change and Insect Pest

Distribution Range

Andrea Battisti1* and Stig Larsson2


DAFNAE-Entomology, University of Padua, Padua,

Italy; 2Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural

Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden


There is a pressing need to understand better the dynamics of species’ distribution, in particular when it comes to predicting the outcomes of climate change-inflicted variations in the range distributions of insect pests.

Several insect life history traits, such as survival, growth rate and voltinism, are likely to change in a warmer environment, and it is to be expected that at least some changes will contribute to altered range edges. For many insect taxa, range expansions are not easy to detect, simply because their presence remains undetected in habitats at range edges, where they are likely to occur at low densities. Insect pests are a group for which information on range expansion is beginning to accumulate, for the obvious reason that their effects on managed ecosystems often require action. Thus, increasingly managers of agriculture and forestry are concerned with the predicted range expansions of important insect pests.

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Medium 9781780642635

18: Uptake, Transport and Redistribution of Amino Nitrogen in Woody Plants

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF


Uptake, Transport and Redistribution of Amino Nitrogen in Woody Plants

S. Pfautsch,1* T.L. Bell2 and A. Gessler3

Hawkesbury Institute of the Environment, University of Western Sydney, ­Richmond,

New South Wales, Australia; 2University of Sydney, Eveleigh, New South Wales,

Australia; 3Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL,

Birmensdorf, Switzerland


18.1  Abstract

Nitrogen (N) is the main limiting macronutrient for plant growth and N deficits lead to severe negative effects in plant metabolism and development. Hence, knowledge about the complex dynamics of plant N nutrition is essential to comprehend plant functioning in natural and managed ecosystems. The availability of N varies widely among these systems, and this has a significant effect on how successful plants compete with soil microorganisms for available sources of N. It is widely accepted that plants incorporate, transport and recycle inorganic and organic forms of N, including amino-N. Uptake of amino-N can be direct via shuttle mechanisms that transport intact amino acids, but amino-N can also be gained through plant-fungal (i.e. mycorrhizal) or plant-bacterial (i.e. rhizobial) symbioses, yet it can also be lost through parasitism. Regardless of origin, once amino-N has entered the plant root, synthesized amino-N compounds play a key role in long-distance transport of N, metabolism,

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