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21: The Development of Forest Conservation in Europe

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


The Development of Forest

Conservation in Europe

James Latham*

Bryn Ffynnon, Llanddona, Anglesey, UK

21.1  Introduction

Much of the forest cover of Europe is ‘protected’ for a variety of interests and purposes, and hence nature may also be conserved in some way, but protection and conservation do not always go hand in hand. Forests may be protected for practical reasons, such as to ensure timber supplies or for the physical protection of villages in mountainous regions, or for aesthetic, cultural or political reasons. Nature conservation interests may sometimes be damaged by management for these other interests.

Equally, the designation of areas as important for nature conservation may mean that some other services such as wood production or grazing are curtailed; and if the special conservation interest is a non-woodland habitat or species, then trees and woods may be cleared for conservation reasons.

Protection and conservation are often viewed largely as passive processes – the prevention of damaging activities. However, some kind of intervention may be needed to achieve the desired goals, not least because of the cultural nature of much of the European landscape. The management of woodland for conservation and the integration of this with other forestry management objectives has

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31 Avoided Land Degradation and Enhanced Soil Carbon Storage: Is There a Role for Carbon Markets?

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF


Avoided Land Degradation and Enhanced Soil Carbon

Storage: Is There a Role for Carbon Markets?

Meine van Noordwijk*


Avoidance of depletion of soil organic matter as part of land degradation and enhanced restoration in depleted soils are of direct importance to agriculture, ranching, forestry and other land uses, but are also a relevant part of national C accounting and the global C cycle. ‘Carbon markets’ imply economic, performance-based incentives that relate global climate and greenhouse gas concerns, via national commitments to reduce overall CO2 emissions, to incentives at the level of land users to increase net C storage.

We focus on three groups of questions:

1.  What is the value chain involved? Can soil C be separated from aboveground land-use effects?

2.  Are market-based solutions feasible? What can we learn from the pilots?

3.  Will the prices be worth it for land managers once transaction costs are accounted for? Are there better ways to provide effective performance-based incentives from the public perspective?

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10 Carbon Sequestration and Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with Climate Change



Carbon Sequestration and

Animal-Agriculture: Relevance and Strategies to Cope with

Climate Change

C. Devendra*

Consulting Tropical Animal Production Systems Specialist,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Carbon sequestration is an important pathway to stabilize the environment with minimum effects of climate change. Farming systems provide a non-compensated service to society by removing atmospheric carbon generated from fossil fuel combustion, feed production, land restoration, deforestation, biomass burning and drainage of wetlands.

The resultant increase in the global emissions of carbon is calculated at 270 Gt, and increasing at the rate of 4 billion tonnes year–1. Strategies to maximize carbon sequestration through enhanced farming practices, particularly in crop–animal systems, are thus an important priority to reduce global warming. These pathways also respond to agricultural productivity in the multifaceted, less favoured rainfed environments. Sustainable animal-agriculture requires an understanding of crop–animal interactions and integrated natural resource management (NRM), demonstrated in the development of underestimated silvopastoral systems (tree crops and ruminants).

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2 Introducing the Methodology and Participants


Methodology and Participants



Because the methodology utilized in this study – particularly in the analysis of data – contributed in a unique way to the development of the study’s results, the purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with the methods used. A brief discussion of the rationale for choosing a feminist approach to the study is presented first. The research design, aims and objectives then precede individual sections on the data-gathering methods and the use of reflexivity. The method of analysis used to examine the data is addressed in detail, followed by profiles of the study’s participants.

2.1 Feminism and Methodology

2.1.1 Why feminism?

Choice of method entails powerful, unavoidable consequences as related to the production of knowledge (Walby, 2001). Since – to many researchers – social science research is a social interaction which cannot be separated from its context

(Lal, 1996), questions of knowledge production have been connected to calls for methodological choices to be made with a keen awareness of the study’s social, political and historical setting (Stack, 1996). The challenges of these settings represent issues being faced by the entire social research community (Ramazanoglu and Holland, 2002). However, Letherby (2004) goes so far as to centralize within feminist research the choice of appropriate method in combination with implications of power relations between researcher and participant.

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4: Rodents as Carriers of Disease

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF


Rodents as Carriers of Disease

S.A. Battersby

Robens Centre for Public and Environmental Health and Environmental

Regulatory Research Group, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK


In the human mind, it seems, rodents have always been associated with disease. This no doubt is because of the association, over the centuries, of rats with bubonic plague and the ‘Black Death’, which was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history and peaked in Europe in the mid14th century. The Black Death is widely thought to have been an outbreak of ­bubonic plague that transmuted into the pneumonic form. This disease led to the death of nearly a third of the human population, and in some parts of the world it is still causing illness and death (Keeling and

Gilligan, 2000). As a result, the disease left an indelible mark on the development and social history of Europe. Its effects can be seen in literary references, including the poem by Robert Browning of the Pied

Piper of Hameln, which came from a much older legend in Germany concerning the disappearance or death of a great many children from the town. Although not as closely associated with plague as rats, the house mouse is still an unwelcome pest in any household, and it carries with it the social stigma of lack of hygiene, lack of cleanliness and squalor and, as this chapter shows, is more than just a ‘nuisance’.

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