3334 Chapters
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Medium 9781935249634

Chapter 4 The Role of Emotion and Skilled Intuition in Learning

David A Sousa Solution Tree Press ePub


Advances in neuroscience have been increasingly used to inform educational theory and practice. However, while the most successful strides forward have been made in the areas of academic disciplinary skills such as reading and mathematical processing, a great deal of new evidence from social and affective neuroscience is prime for application to education (Immordino-Yang & Damasio, 2007; Immordino-Yang & Fischer, in press). In particular, social and affective neuroscience are revealing more clearly than ever before the interdependence of cognition and emotion in the brain, the importance of emotion in guiding successful learning, and the critical role of teachers in managing the social environment of the classroom so that optimal emotional and cognitive learning can take place (van Geert & Steenbeek, 2008).

The message from social and affective neuroscience is clear: no longer can we think of learning as separate from or disrupted by emotion, and no longer can we focus solely at the level of the individual student in analyzing effective strategies for classroom instruction. Students and teachers socially interact and learn from one another in ways that cannot be done justice by examining only the “cold” cognitive aspects of academic skills. Like other forms of learning and interacting, building academic knowledge involves integrating emotion and cognition in social context. Academic skills are hot!

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Medium 9781935249665

Chapter 6: Creating a Unit Assessment Plan

Gwen Doty Solution Tree Press ePub

If we align our class assessments with our class goals, then when students work toward one, they will naturally be working toward the other.

—Jeffrey K. Smith, Lisa F. Smith, and Richard De Lisi

In this chapter . . .

• Thinking About Assessment

• Building the Unit Assessment Plan

• Thinking About Your Thinking

• Tools and Templates

In addition to assessments that will be scored, you will most likely be asking questions, observing, and providing other informal assessments throughout the instructional process to determine the status of knowledge relating to the standard being taught. Although they are informal, these assessments should be designed to provide an accurate picture of current student knowledge. For example, maybe you currently use the “thumbs up if you understand” method. While this is certainly a quick and easy way to make sure students are awake and paying attention, it does not really ensure that they had the foggiest notion of what you were talking about. A more precise informal assessment in this case might be to periodically ask students to be ready to share one new piece of learning with the class. This brings their level of concern up a notch, and they will feel more accountable for listening if they know you have a few surprises planned. Give them 1 minute to either reread the content or discuss it with a partner. At the end of 1 minute, you may call on only one student to share the new learning, but all students will have been preparing. We have always viewed techniques like this as an instructional strategy, but they are also a means by which to assess student understanding.

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Medium 9781935543640

Section Two: Meeting the Special Needs of Difficult Students

Lee Canter Solution Tree Press ePub

Reaching out to difficult students and building positive relationships require skilled use of specialized behavior management techniques. In section two of Succeeding With Difficult Students, we will begin the process of individualizing your responses to difficult students’ behavior.

Chapter 5

Identifying the Primary Needs of Difficult Students

Chapter 6

Teaching Appropriate Behavior

Chapter 7

Providing Positive Support

Chapter 8

Redirecting Nondisruptive Off-Task Behavior

Chapter 9

Decreasing Disruptive Behavior

A sixth-grade teacher shared this observation about a student in her class:

“Something’s going on with Andrew that I don’t see in my other students. It’s more than just his behavior—his talking back and his refusal to do work. It’s deeper than that. It’s the frustration or neediness I feel behind these behaviors that disturbs me so much. It disturbs me because although I see that something’s wrong, I don’t know exactly what it is or what to do about it. The only thing I know for sure is that most approaches I try with Andrew backfire. If I give him positive attention, he rejects it—in fact, he behaves worse. If I hold him accountable with consequences, he doesn’t blink an eye. I feel like this is a kid crying for help, and I don’t even know what he needs.”

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Medium 9781936764167

Chapter 4 Implementing the Common Core State Standards for Speaking and Listening and for Language

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy Solution Tree Press ePub


• To what extent does your team understand the Speaking and Listening standards and the Language standards? What is our current level of knowledge about this standard? How can we increase our expertise? How will we measure our growth?

• How much classroom speaking do students do that is academic in nature? Do they use argumentation and provide evidence for their claims when they share their thinking?

• How sophisticated is the language that students use in speaking and writing? Are there language structures that students need to learn to be successful?

Linda Martinez-Garza is leading her second-grade mathematics students in a lesson on fluently and flexibly grouping by tens and fives. She is using One Hundred Hungry Ants (Pinczes, 1993) as a shared reading. The book has a quantitative measure of AD650L, which means that the book is intended to be used as an adult-directed book. Ms. Martinez-Garza has read and discussed the book previously with her students. Now they are ready to explore the mathematical concepts that form the heart of the story. Using interlocking counting cubes, her students are working in groups of two or three to replicate the ants’ formations. Importantly, this activity requires that students collaborate in order to correctly set up the cubes. She reviews the class norms for productive group work, which are the following.

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Medium 9781936764747

One: Clarity Precedes Competence

Richard DuFour Solution Tree Press ePub


Clarity Precedes Competence

Marcus Buckingham (2005) advises that the one thing leaders of any organization must know to be effective is the importance of clarity. Well-intentioned people will be unable to implement the PLC process unless they have a deep, shared understanding of the conditions they are attempting to create, the ideas that should drive their work, and the obstacles they are likely to encounter as they move forward. In this chapter, we address these issues in an initial attempt to establish greater clarity about what the PLC process encompasses. We argue that every person in the system has an opportunity and an obligation to contribute to systemic PLCs.

It is complicated enough to implement the PLC process when administrators and staff throughout the system are very clear on what the process entails and its implications. It is impossible to implement the process when, as is so often the case, people are not clear on the most basic element: what does the term professional learning community mean? Many staff members and leaders use the term ambiguously and do none of the things that members of a PLC actually do. We need to begin, then, by clarifying the characteristics of a PLC, the underlying assumptions that drive the process, the challenges of implementation, and the need for individuals at all levels of the organization to contribute to the process.

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Medium 9781936764518

6 Show Empathy

Eric Jensen Solution Tree Press ePub

When I first started teaching secondary students, I was focused more on content than my students. Like many secondary teachers’ experiences, my students were who I worked with in order to get results. I wasn’t mean (well I did say a few mean things in retrospect), but more important, I just had no clue how important I was, as a person, to my students. Today, one big change you would see and hear with me is that I have developed empathy. The less stability that students have at home, the more they need a caring, trusting adult at school. “Do you care?” is the one of the biggest questions students will ask you. Here’s how to answer that question with a reaffirming, “Yes!”

Many teachers struggle with providing students with what they need the most: someone who cares about them and about their school progress. As we know, bad things happen to everyone. However, students from poverty may not have the cognitive skills, emotional support, or coping skills necessary to deal with adversity. The key isn’t to be sympathetic but to show empathy and provide tools. You see, sympathy is the ability to understand another with feelings of sorrow for their misfortune. Empathy is a bit different; it is the ability to understand and share the same feelings. I am embarrassed to say this, but I had zero empathy until I was in my thirties and forties. I had to learn it from others. The good news is, empathy can be taught (Schumann, Zaki, & Dweck, 2014).

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Medium 9781945349157

Chapter 3

Marzano, Robert J.; Norford, Jennifer S.; Ruyle, Mike Solution Tree Press PDF


Parallel Assessments

As we describe in the introduction, a critical aspect of the new paradigm for classroom assessment is parallel assessments. Without parallel assessments, K–12 educators are stuck in the old paradigm that treats each assessment as an independent event. Conversely, thinking of classroom tests in terms of sets of related assessments on a specific topic is a virtual breakthrough in classroom assessment that opens new opportunities for teachers and students alike. The concept of parallel assessments, however, is not unique to the new paradigm of classroom assessment.

In this chapter we provide a brief history of parallel assessments; introduce taxonomies; discuss proficiency scales for scoring traditional tests, essays, and performance assessments; and explore the role of collaborative teams in designing parallel assessments.

A Brief History of Parallel Assessments

It is important to note that parallel assessments have always been central to assessment theory but mostly from a theoretical perspective. (In the book Making Classroom Assessments Reliable and Valid, Marzano [2018] chronicles the history of parallel assessments back to the early part of the twentieth century.) In fact, the idea of multiple parallel assessments administered to an individual student was used to define the concept of a true score. As we discuss in the introduction, the basic equation for an observed score includes two elements: (1) the true score and (2) an error score. By definition, then, a teacher cannot observe a student’s true score on a test about a given topic with any certainty because observed scores always contain error. How then does a teacher define a student’s true score on a topic if he or she can’t directly observe it?

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Medium 9781942496199

Chapter 3: Pillar Two—Curation

Gayle Allen Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 3

Pillar Two: Curation

If we compiled a list of the most influential ideas that shaped 20th century education, in the top ten would be a term that few of us may even recognize—the Carnegie Unit. This is a measure of contact time that dictates that teachers and students should meet for 120 hours a year, most commonly broken into 50 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 30 to 35 weeks. Former Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot developed it as a way to create a more standardized college admission process in an era in which most secondary schools had individualized methods for tracking student achievement. In a brilliant marketing move, in 1906, Andrew Carnegie made approval of the Carnegie Unit a requirement for participation in the first university retirement program (called Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association–College Retirement Equities Fund [TIAA-CREF]). So ironically, the number of hours of algebra, history, or English that make a typical secondary course is partially the result of the desire for secure retirement benefits (Harris, 2002; Shedd, 2003).

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Medium 9781935542629

Chapter 3 Curiosity

Angela Maiers Solution Tree Press ePub



Curiosity is one of the most permanent and certain characteristics of a vigorous intellect.


Who would want to be without curiosity? Great minds are curious. You would be hard pressed to find an intellectual giant who was not: Thomas Edison, Leonardo da Vinci, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman were all curious characters.

Yet I wonder …

• Why do some students end up more curious than others?

• How can we add curiosity to our teaching toolbox and our conversations regarding teaching and learning?

• How can we live more curious lives ourselves as we model for our students what living a curious life is like?

This chapter seeks to explore answers to these questions. The lessons will help develop and nurture students’ curious instincts as they work consciously on their habitude of curiosity.

Before considering the lessons, let’s review the definition of the habitude of curiosity:

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Medium 9780982259245

Appendix B: What is an Effect Size?

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra J. Marzano Research ePub

Reports on educational research use terms such as meta-analysis and effect size (ES). While these terms are without doubt useful to researchers, they may confuse or even frustrate the practitioner. So what does meta-analysis mean exactly? What is an ES? A meta-analysis is a summary, or synthesis, of relevant research findings. It looks at all of the individual studies done on a particular topic and summarizes them. This is helpful to educators in that a meta-analysis provides more and stronger support than does a single analysis (a meta-analysis is literally an analysis of analyses).

An average ES tells us about the results across all of the individual studies examined. For example, let us say the purpose of the meta-analysis is to examine multiple studies regarding the effect of attention and engagement strategies on student achievement (that is, the effect of X on Y). An average ES reports the results of all the included studies to tell us whether or not these strategies improve student achievement and, if so, by how much.

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Medium 9781934009437

Chapter 6: Respecting Power

Allen Mendler Solution Tree Press ePub

THE BELIEFS THAT WE HAVE ABOUT OUR OWN COMPETENCE, autonomy, and power influence our motivation. People want desperately to be respected and empowered and will often resort to destructive methods when more reasonable pathways are blocked or perceived as unavailable. A common denominator among those committing school shootings has been the shared perception of being put down and disrespected by fellow students. Some students find power and control in their refusals to work. They are competent and capable, but their need to be in control is so strong that they arrive at what is an extremely self-defeating strategy to exert their independence. Whether for competence, autonomy, or influence, poor work and refusals to participate are protective mechanisms that must be respected and challenged in order to help students make better choices. We must help students learn to influence others and define their independence in ways that are more appropriate and less self-defeating than retreating into either aggression or passive inactivity.

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Medium 9781942496298

Chapter 7 Bridging the Rhetoric-Reality Gap: Helping More Students Succeed—As If We Really Mean It

Eaker, Robert Solution Tree Press ePub

Never mistake motion for action.

—Ernest Hemingway

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe said, “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” Goethe’s admonition leaves unanswered the question, Do what? What would actually happen throughout a college or university that really means it when it proclaims that its highest priority is improving student retention and ultimately graduation rates? It is safe to assume that most, if not all, colleges and universities express a commitment to student success. One would not likely find an institution of higher education that promotes itself as an institution committed to making sure only a few succeed!

The issue of enhancing student success is not one of rhetoric but rather one of reality. Sadly, it is all too easy for the cumulative effect of countless acts of thoughtlessness to swamp the message of supporting student success. The leadership challenge is to close the gap between the rhetoric (“We are committed to helping our students succeed”) and the reality that the data indicate (“However, more than likely, only about half of you will graduate”).

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Medium 9781574411713


Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



This brief history focused on one of the most contentious and misunderstood policies in the country: federal bilingual education. It traced and explained, in bold sketches, the rise and fall of federal bilingual education policy during the years from 1960 to 2001 and the role played by the contending groups of supporters and opponents in its development.

Three major findings were presented in this book. First, this study showed that contestation, conflict, and accommodation were integral aspects of federal bilingual education policy development. From its origins in the 1960s to the present, different groups with competing notions of ethnicity, assimilation, pedagogy, and power have contended, clashed, struggled, and negotiated with each other for hegemony in the development and implementation of bilingual education. Second, contextual forces over time, especially electoral politics and a changing political climate at the national, state, and local level, significantly shaped the contours and content of this policy. Finally, those supportive of or opposed to federal bilingual education displayed a wide array of political, educational, and social reasons for their actions.

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Medium 9780253115560

4. Country Bank Failures

Herman B Wells Indiana University Press ePub

THE OFFICES OF the Indiana Bankers Association (IBA) were located in Indianapolis, and during my two years with the association I lived in Indianapolis although much of my time was of necessity spent in traveling throughout the state. I attended county and regional meetings of the members of the association and called on both members and nonmembers to stimulate their interest in the program of the association.1

I had left the University of Wisconsin with the understanding that I would return after one or two years with the IBA. Dr. Kiekhofer agreed with me that the experience in the IBA would give me an excellent opportunity to gather material for my dissertation, which was to be concerned with country bank management and prevention of bank failure. It was appropriate, therefore, that I keep him advised of my activities in Indianapolis.

On March 13, 1929, I wrote in a letter to him:

My work has been very absorbing. Our Association has undertaken a campaign of self-improvement for the banks in the state of Indiana that is unique in the history of cooperative bank endeavor. Our Better-Banking Practices platform includes fifteen planks such as universal service charges, establishment of a credit bureau for the dissemination of credit information on duplicate borrowers in every county, secondary reserves, limitation of amount of money to be loaned to any one borrower, etc. It is being pushed by three key men in every county, with whom I attempt to keep in touch in order to keep them working and informed. I speak on different phases of this program of Better Banking as best suits the occasion, before county and group meetings of our membership frequently. At certain periods I speak several times per week.

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Medium 9781935249788

3 Describing and Planning Learning

Carolyn Chapman Solution Tree Press ePub

Frustrated with the results of his summative assessment on the Revolutionary War, Mr. Creighton was looking for new ways to help his students learn. Under immense pressure to meet adequate yearly progress, Mr. Creighton and his colleagues were working tremendously hard. When so many of his students failed the unit test, he was quite discouraged, as were his students.

After examining the assessment, it became clear that the majority of the items on the test were at a knowledge or recall level in which students were asked to identify the causes of the Revolutionary War and explain how and why the colonies fought for their independence. Each of these topics was discussed at length during class, and the test asked students to recall those discussions in multiple-choice and short-answer questions. The test should have been a slam-dunk for students as the instruction—lectures and discussions—all addressed these concepts.

In response to a professional development training focused on defining learning with a focus on high expectations, Mr. Creighton constructed the next test at a much higher level, with questions that asked students to contemplate specific situations and consider how the law might be applied in response. While some items were simple, such as identifying the branches of government and their functions, the majority of the test incorporated more complex tasks that required students to discuss the role each branch might play in authentic scenarios.

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