4791 Chapters
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Medium 9781475815887

Political Realities in Setting State Educational Standards

International Journal of Educational Reform R&L Education ePub


College of Education

Western Kentucky University

Bowling Green, KY 42101

Jesse Stuart, the renowned Kentucky author and school teacher, wrote in his book The Thread That Runs So True (1958), that he dreamed of a day when Kentucky children would no longer have to “grow up like uncultivated plants.” He recounted the days of the 1920s and 1930s when as a teacher he observed hundreds of farmers who had better barns for their cattle, pigs, and horses than schoolrooms for their children. Poverty, illiteracy, and unequal educational opportunities were the realities of the day, but powerful politicians often blocked school reforms. Stuart, however, refused to accept the idea that children born in the city or town should have a better education than children born in rural areas.

The dream of an adequate and equitable education for all children, to a large degree, remained unfulfilled as Kentucky approached the last decade of the twentieth century. Statistics that were gathered during the 1980s showed that Kentucky ranked near the bottom among the states in per pupil expenditures on education, high school graduation rates, and adult literacy. Many of the poorer districts spent less than half as much as the wealthier districts on each child’s education, they held classes in run down buildings, and they could not provide students with advanced courses in science, mathematics, foreign languages, the arts, or humanities. Differences in achievement test scores and dropout rates between poor and wealthy districts clearly reflected those inequities (Dove, 1991).

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Medium 9781936763818

Chapter 7 Everyone Is Connected to Everyone and Everything

Ian Jukes Solution Tree Press ePub

Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean.


Learning Attribute 4

Digital learners prefer to network and collaborate simultaneously with many others. Traditionally, many teachers prefer students to work independently before they network and interact with others in small groups and whole classroom activities.

Stop and take a moment to think about the older generations’ world growing up. Consider the limited technologies and means of communication we had available to us. Our world was about movies, records, tape recorders, television, telegrams, radio, telephone, cameras, projectors, VCRs, and filmstrips. When we were students, we were often expected to initially work independently when new information was being introduced. Outside of school, there were really only two ways we were able to immediately communicate with others—in person and by telephone.

Now think about the digital world of today: computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, video mash-ups, Instagram, Snapchat, Skype, Facebook, texting, tweeting, social networking, and so on. The digital generations have grown up with literally dozens, if not hundreds, of different ways to communicate—an amazing collection of different tools used for different types of communication to different groups.

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Medium 9781475843057


Russo, Charles J. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Aligning the Tuning Forks

Using the Intersections of Organizational Frames and Systems Disciplines: Facilitating Effective Collaboration between Schools Needing Improvement and Regional Improvement Agencies

Richard Bernato

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to align the needs and wants of schools in need of improvement and state, federal, and regional agencies charged with assisting them in their reform efforts by using spreadsheet thinking through two lenses, Bolman and Deal’s four organizational paradigms and Peter Senge’s five disciplines of a learning organization. Taken together, in a force-fitting Tuning Forks model approach, where analysts use the intersection of each framework insofar as they act on each other, enables school improvement collaborators to align new action perspectives.

This article is divided into three sections: The first part presents the context to the issues associated with collaboration between Regional Educational Improvement Agencies (REA) and Schools in Need of Improvement (SU). The second section provides descriptions of the two analytical dimensions. These are then synthesized into cross impact charts that demonstrate potential issues either driving or obstructing their collaborative efforts. A third section provides guidelines to minimize obstructions and promotes collaborative alignment between schools in need of reform and regional agencies charged with assisting their efforts.

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Medium 9780991374816

Part II: Instructing and Awakening the Learner

Scott, Darrell, Marzano, Robert J. Marzano Research ePub

The teacher who is indeed wise does not bid you to enter the house of his wisdom but rather leads you to the threshold of your mind.

—Khalil Gibran

In chapters 1–7, Darrell has provided a case for an approach to schooling that awakens the learner. It is a compelling case, as articulated by Darrell, with equal measures of heart and mind. Whether one looks at the historical evidence provided by Friedrich Froebel, Johann Pestalozzi, and Elizabeth Peabody, the current evidence provided by educators like Erin Gruwell, or the continuing evidence of fundamental changes in students, teachers, and administrators generated by Rachel’s Challenge, the conclusion is inevitable—schools have the potential and power to awaken the learner. In this chapter and those following, I will place the message of Darrell’s preceding chapters in the context of current research and theory in psychology, teaching, and schooling. Virtually all of Darrell’s recommendations are supported by that research and theory.

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Medium 9781475810554

The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Angela Urick

Alex J. Bowers

The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical linear models using the large, nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to examine the independent effects of principal and student perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in mathematics, controlling for leadership and student and school background and context variables. Results suggest that principal perception of academic climate may have a direct effect on student achievement. Combining these results with the recent literature, we propose a mediated effects model of principal perceptions of leadership on student achievement.

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Medium 9781936764518

5 Connect Everyone for Success

Eric Jensen Solution Tree Press ePub

In this second of three powerful chapters on the relational mindset, we’ll strengthen our skills in connecting everyone, which is at the heart of psychology. Psychologist Daniel Kahneman (as cited in Brockman, 2012) cites connecting with people as one of the few elements that genuinely makes people even happier than money. With that, let’s help make your classroom even richer than before.

While some teachers work hard to keep students quiet and isolated from their peers, their hard work may be misguided. As students mature from the K–2 years, the genetic drive to connect unfolds. Students want to affiliate with likeminded peers (Lewis & Bates, 2010). Therefore, to effectively impact academic achievement, teachers should split class time equally between social time and individual time—that’s the fifty-fifty rule. On any given day, you might split social and individual time seventy-thirty or even ten-ninety, but over a week, it should all even out. Now, a good question is, “Why on earth should I change what I do in my classroom?” Since we all want students to do well academically, let’s look at links between social and academic success.

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Medium 9781475812008

Introduction to the Special Issue: Distributed Instructional Leadership as a Reform Strategy—Activating Teacher Leadership to Improve Student Learning in Urban High Schools



Heightened accountability for student learning, changing demographics, and safety and security issues make leadership of urban high schools a significant challenge. Intensified new instructional leadership demands have been added to the list of traditional responsibilities shouldered by high school principals for successful management of school structures, cultures, and daily operations. Within this environment, high school principals have had to find ways to enhance their focus on instructional leadership.

This special issue describes how urban high school principals mobilize teacher leadership to advance instructional practices and student learning. We conceptualize this as building distributed instructional leadership, embedded in the activities, structures, and processes of the school (Spillane, Halverson, & Diamond, 2001). In addition, we recognize the collaborative nature of distributed leadership and the importance of building teams or professional communities to support this leadership work (Scribner, Sawyer, Watson, & Myers, 2007). Thus, we focus on the ways in which high school leaders build capacity and activate existing roles and structures to build team-based instructional leadership, such as refocusing the work of department chairs on instructional leadership tasks.

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Medium 9781936763092

Chapter 7

Sousa, David A. Solution Tree Press PDF
Taking Care of Your Brain
You know you’ve got to exercise your brain just like your muscles. W I L L  R O G E R S

Your brain works hard to get you through the day. Have You Ever thought about it? Apart from its obvious and vital role in coordinating your movement and internal body functions, the brain also has to simultaneously process an enormous amount of external data that are bombarding your senses every second you are awake. As the brain does its processing, it continually sends summaries of what is going on to your consciousness.

It lets you know that the shower water is too cold, the coffee is ready, the cell phone is ringing, you are out of milk, it is time to walk the dog, you should wear the blue jacket today, the clock reads 8:05 already, you are going to be late for work, and to bring an umbrella because it is raining. Whew! And you have been up barely an hour.

The brain’s phenomenal ability to handle all this information and to make continuous decisions, both consciously and subconsciously, has been the subject of intense scientific interest in recent years. Researchers have poked, probed, and viewed the living brain from all angles, using highly sophisticated imaging techniques. As a result, they have made fascinating discoveries about how the brain works and what keeps it going. Of particular interest to researchers has been how to keep the brain healthy as we grow older and face the challenges of daily life. You read in chapter 2 about one of the most important discoveries: neuroplasticity. The adult human brain is much more malleable than previously thought, so your behavior,  See All Chapters
Medium 9781935542223

5 The Social Development of Boys

Ruby payne Solution Tree Press ePub

In this chapter, we look at patterns of socialization in boys’ social development, including the roles of aggression and competition and the influence of media as a provider—sometimes the only provider—of role models for boys. We examine ways that generational poverty affects boys’ socialization patterns and suggest supports for boys’ social development to help them remain in school.

Boys and girls aren’t born knowing what it means to be men and women. They must be taught through interactions with others. They learn this in a variety of ways: through observation and imitation, coercion and persuasion, reward and punishment, instruction and example (Chevannes, 2001). Adolescence is typically the staging ground for this initiation and integration into the larger adult society, with its roles and responsibilities. Anthropologists have studied the process of coming of age in cultures around the globe, and almost everywhere, they have found that socialization has traditionally been the responsibility of single-gendered communities. Girls learned from the women in the community, and boys learned from men—and not just their mothers and fathers. The process of passing on a culture, with its rules, norms, beliefs, and expectations, traditionally involves the larger community (Sax, 2007; Tiger, 2004).

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Medium 9781936763993

Chapter 7 Planning Goals and Monitoring Progress for All Learners

Heather Frizielle Solution Tree Press ePub

One mark of schools that make headway on the achievement gap appears to be their propensity to promote and organize conversations based in evidence of student progress.

—Judith Warren Little

As school systems, we have grown problem-solving models for students within our implementation of response to intervention legislation. Call it what you will—pyramid intervention team, student services squad, problem-solving team—nearly all schools have in place a group of specialists who have a portion of their workweek dedicated to problem solving. There are countless forms and protocols created by schools and districts to drive conversations, document interventions, and log progress-monitoring data. This support for students is critical for driving results-focused, growth-producing interventions for learners. So why does such conversation stop once students become IEP eligible? Of all students, don’t our struggling learners deserve the most robust dialogue related to their progress and a shared commitment to problem solving?

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Medium 9781936765362

Chapter 7 - Teaching Science with English Language and Literacy

Margarita Calderon Solution Tree Press ePub

Chapter 7

Teaching Science With English Language and Literacy

Okhee Lee

The role of teachers in ensuring that all students achieve high academic standards is becoming ever more urgent and complex as a result of the growing diversity of the student population in North America, persistent achievement gaps among demographic subgroups, and the increasing demands of high-stakes testing and accountability policies across content areas for all students. Teachers of English learners face the additional challenge of helping their students develop oral and written proficiency in English while they are simultaneously learning academic content and processes (Lee, Penfield, & Buxton, in press; Wong Fillmore & Snow, 2002). Effective instruction is required regardless of whether ELs are placed in mainstream classrooms or in English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), English as a second language, or bilingual classrooms.

Research on instructional interventions to simultaneously promote science and English language and literacy has begun to emerge. This chapter addresses the state of the research on integration of science and English proficiency with ELs and describes new developments in the field fueled by emerging funding opportunities. The chapter concludes with implications for the future with regard to classroom practices, research agenda, and educational policies.

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Medium 9780985890247

Chapter 2 Communicating Learning Goals, Tracking Student Progress, and Celebrating Success

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

The first design question under lesson segments involving routine events is, How can I establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? As might be inferred from the design question itself, three elements are important to this question.

Element 1: Providing clear learning goals and scales (rubrics)

Element 2: Tracking student progress

Element 3: Celebrating success

Each of these elements is supported by specific research on the effects of setting goals (Lipsey & Wilson, 1993; Walberg, 1999; Wise & Okey, 1983), giving feedback to students (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991; Haas, 2005; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Kumar, 1991), reinforcing effort rather than innate talent (Hattie, Biggs, & Purdie, 1996; Kumar, 1991; Schunk & Cox, 1986), and the use of praise and rewards (Bloom, 1976; Deci, Ryan, & Koestner, 2001; Wilkinson, 1981). Additionally, specific strategies support each element and each of those strategies can be adapted and improved using technology.

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Medium 9781475824001

Notes From the Editors: Introduction to Special Issue—International Perspectives on School–Parent Relations

Journal of School Public Relations Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


This special issue of the Journal of School Public Relations (JSPR) is our fourth as guest editors. Like in the previous three issues (fall 2011, winter 2012, and summer 2012), the articles herein present work by international scholars who have studied how school–parent relations are influenced by centralized and decentralized education systems as well as by shifts in national educational policies. We have seen a full range of national political strategies unfold over the past several decades, including purposeful ideological manipulation, deliberate marginalization, and hopeful empowerment. With mixed emotions, we have also observed the lasting impact of these approaches on future generations of citizens, educators, and schools. Importantly, we recognize how scholarship on school–parent relations may be severely limited by protracted political and religious conflict, civil war, and ideological domination. Notwithstanding, these comparative international studies provide insight into parents’ profound sense of responsibility for their children’s education in varying sociocultural, economic, and political contexts. Taken as a whole, the articles published in this four-issue collection provide an opportunity to give voice to international scholars whose work is highly relevant to our understanding of national educational reform movements in the United States and other countries. We are indebted to Ted Kowalski and the editorial team of the JSPR for supporting this international endeavor. They joined us as guest editors of this special issue in ensuring that articles were subjected to multiple blind peer reviews and held to the rigorous review criteria set by JSPR.

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Medium 9781935543657

Epilogue: A New Vision of Special Education

Austin Buffum Solution Tree Press ePub


A New Vision of Special Education

The previous chapters provided a detailed vision of how the four essential guiding principles of pyramid RTI, the four Cs, can create the culture and structures necessary to ensure high levels of learning for every child. In this vision, collaborative teacher teams design unit teaching cycles that embed differentiation and flexible time into initial instruction. The school has a systematic process to identify students who require supplemental instruction, determine their specific learning needs, and provide effective, targeted interventions to achieve the desired learning outcomes. For the very small number of students for whom this supplemental support is not enough, the schoolwide intervention team, representing different areas of educational expertise, determines the intensive support necessary to meet the child’s learning needs. By this point, almost all of the school’s students are succeeding. But what does the school do when these three tiers of support do not meet a child’s unique needs?

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Medium 9781475819595

Digital Learning in Education: The Means for Societal Change in an Antieducation Era

Teacher Education and Practice Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Anti-Education Era: Creating Smarter Students Through Digital Learning , by James Paul Gee

(Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 240 pp., $17.00 (paper), ISBN 978-0-230-34209

Can Education Change Society? by Michael W. Apple

(Routledge, 2013), 170 pp., $36.95 (paper), ISBN 978-0-415-87533-2


At first glance, it is probably apparent why a review of James Paul Gee’s book The Anti-Education Era: Creating Smarter Students Through Digital Learning (2013) would be included in a publication focusing on social media and teacher preparation. The rationale for including Michael W. Apple’s book Can Education Change Society? (2013) may not be so evident. A careful reading and analysis, however, find that the books share many themes in support of a common goal: reforming the education system to make it more democratic and to give voice to all learners, not just the ones who have historically had standing. Despite the vast differences in the styles of these two critical scholars, both authors share the belief that education can and should do something about inequalities in education and society at large through care, connections, and collaboration.

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