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Chapter 7

Mason, Christine; Rivers Murphy, Michele M.; Jackson, Yvette Solution Tree Press PDF

CHAPTER 7

Mindful Instruction—

Paying Attention to Your Students

Walk as if you are kissing the Earth with your feet.

—Thich Nhat Hanh

key principle

You can incorporate mindfulness exercises throughout the day. This will increase conscious awareness, a prerequisite to compassion.

Are you able to imagine the sensation of the ground giving way gently to the soft imprint your feet make, step by step? If not, we invite you to step outside, barefooted, and feel the earth beneath your feet. Is it warm or cold? Do you feel the blades of grass or the texture of the dirt?

How does this translate to what happens in classrooms as we teach? What would be the equivalent in your day at school? Is it the spark of interest in one student’s eye? The smile that suddenly appears on a face?

The air of excitement when students are truly engaged?

Mindfulness in the classroom is not only about teaching mindfulness; it involves being mindful. In chapter

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Medium 9781935542728

4 How to Plan and Carry Out Interviews

Daresh, John C., Daresh, Bridget Solution Tree Press ePub

Many principals have considerable skill and knowledge meant to improve the efficacy of teachers who, in turn, will work to increase learning in schools. They are excellent at providing strong instructional leadership, and many are very effective managers of their schools. However, there are also many principals—including strong instructional leaders and effective managers—who are not great interviewers of candidates for teaching jobs. That fact does not in itself make a principal an unsuccessful leader, but it may indirectly result in a school with fewer strong and competent teachers. To help avoid this outcome, we discuss processes for planning and conducting effective initial interviews in this chapter.

Effective job interviewing involves much more than sitting in a comfortable chair with a notebook and pencil and chatting with a candidate for a job. It is more appropriate to think of it as an activity in which a carefully planned set of questions is asked of each finalist for a job. It is a way to go beyond all other devices used in gathering information about potential teachers in a school.

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Medium 9781934009154

Section Four: Utilizing the Behavior Management Cycle

Lee Canter Solution Tree Press ePub

You teach your students the policies and procedures for how you expect them to behave at the beginning of the year. Now you face the question of how to ensure they meet these expectations so you can teach and they can learn in a classroom that is free from disruptive behavior.

The answer can be found, as usual, in examining the practices of effective teachers. Great classroom managers teach us that their singular focus at the beginning of the year or when turning around a disruptive class is to motivate students to quickly follow directions, get on task, and stay on task. The fundamental importance of all the students following your directions cannot be underestimated.

The foundation of managing classroom behavior comes down to your ability to motivate students to simply “follow your directions.”

If you give directions to the students, such as “everyone do the problems on page 28 without talking,” and some students start talking, while others start playing with their cell phones, do you have behavior problems? That is an obvious yes!

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Medium 9781936764518

1 Why Should You Care About Poverty?

Eric Jensen Solution Tree Press ePub

We’ve all noticed that things are changing in America, and they are changing fast. At one school I was working with, a teacher shared some pretty serious frustrations. As she spoke, her eyes moistened, “You want us to do this and that, plus you say it might be hard—and it might even take months or years! For starters, do you even know how much we are being asked to do these days? Do you know how little support we get from leadership? How do we even know these things you suggest are possible? And, really, why should we even bother? After all, things will change again in a few years, and there’ll be some new flavor of the month that we all have to jump on board with again!” She was nearly in tears, and her pain was obvious.

When teachers tell me, “Our jobs have changed,” they’re right. When teachers tell me, “Students aren’t like they used to be,” they’re right. When staff tell me, “The whole profession has changed,” they’re right. Lastly, when teachers like you tell me how frustrating their jobs are, I’m on your side. I’ve been a teacher. I work with teachers, and I know the profession well.

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Medium 9781942496397

Introduction

Juli K. Dixon Solution Tree Press ePub

The only way to learn mathematics is to do mathematics.

—Paul Halmos

When teaching, much of the day is spent supporting students to engage in learning new content. In mathematics, that often means planning for instruction, delivering the planned lessons, and engaging in the formative assessment process. There are opportunities to attend conferences and other professional development events, but those are typically focused on teaching strategies or on administrative tasks like learning the new gradebook program. Opportunities to take on the role of learner of the subject you teach are often not available. As you read Making Sense of Mathematics for Teaching Grades K–2, you will have the chance to become the learner once again. You will learn about the mathematics you teach by doing the mathematics you teach.

There is a strong call to build teachers’ content knowledge for teaching mathematics. A lack of a “deep understanding of the content that [teachers] are expected to teach may inhibit their ability to teach meaningful, effective, and connected lesson sequences, regardless of the materials that they have available” (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2014, p. 71). This lack of deep understanding may have more to do with lack of exposure than anything else.

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Medium 9781935249047

Chapter 3: The Language of Social Studies

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press PDF
Chapter 3 The Language of Social Studies
Cause and Effect Social studies texts are often written in expository mode, and their varied sentence structure makes it difficult for English language learners to determine cause and effect. Though cause and effect statements are common, ELLs often interpret the first event in the sentence as occurring first, and the second event in the sentence as occurring later. They fail to recognize key transitions necessary to determine cause and effect.

Implications for High-Stakes Testing Understanding cause and effect and the sentence structures used to express cause and effect is essential for understanding the texts used on high-stakes tests.

Lesson Plan for Cause and Effect Materials
Cause and Effect T-Chart handout (page 77), one per group.
If You Give a Mouse a Cookie, by Laura Joffe NumeroffMarkers, one per group.
Sentence strips, two per group.
Social studies textbook, one per student.
Social studies questions from a state or provincial assessment, one per group. See All Chapters
Medium 9781626564275

Chapter Six • The Dynamics of Authority and Obedience

Chaleff, Ira Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The Dynamics of Authority and Obedience

“One must always question the relationship of obedience to a person’s sense of the context in which he is operating.”

STANLEY MILGRAM

WHAT IS GOING ON HERE? Why does there seem to be such prevalence of poor judgment in the face of orders from those in authority? Why is training needed to get people to do what common sense seems to require? Why are people obeying when they are uncomfortable doing so? Surely, you wouldn’t obey in these types of situations!

Or would you?

Unfortunately, there is pretty hard evidence that about two-thirds of us would obey under certain circumstances even when we thought doing so was causing harm to others. This well-researched and documented evidence has been around for more than fifty years. It is so important that you would think it would be part of the professional training of anyone in a sensitive position, from mechanics who maintain vehicles that people trust with their lives to the intelligence services that must respect the law when conducting clandestine activities to protect their country. When I have been asked to speak to the intelligence community or armed forces, I have inquired about this because I did not want to spend time on material that was already well known in their culture. I found very few who were sufficiently familiar with this research and its application to their own situations.

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Medium 9780253115560

5. Reopening, Reconstruction, and Reform

Herman B Wells Indiana University Press ePub

TWO VERY BUSY YEARS followed my appointment in 1933 as secretary of the Commission for Financial Institutions and head of two divisions in the Department of Financial Institutions. The pace was terrific, from about nine o'clock in the morning frequently to about midnight, seven days a week, with most meals taken at the desk or conference table. In our dealings with bank officers and directors, my staff and I were guided by the conviction that, with the return of prosperity, assets that appeared to be worthless would again be valuable. Time proved this assumption to be correct as we lessened the economic impact of the bank and building and loan closings in many Indiana communities, and I made a host of lasting friends.

The case of each closed institution had to be studied. Its assets and liabilities, the strength of its leadership, the need for it in the community, and its prospects for success if reopened—all had to be analyzed. Since depositors' funds were frozen, rapid decisions were desirable, but the labor involved was enormous. We worked under intense pressure. Believing that reform could come after recovery with less social cost, we took the position that our mission was to help speed recovery rather than to achieve immediate reform by liquidation of marginal units. In some departments in other states and among some federal bureaucrats, the attitude was almost the reverse. Reflecting the national anger against the banks and disillusion with all financial institutions, they took a punitive point of view and were eager to find ways to liquidate rather than to reopen banks.

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Medium 9780253011329

Appendix A: Course Syllabus

Howard Tinberg Indiana University Press ePub

 

ENG 264

Remembering the Holocaust in Literature and History: An Honors Interdisciplinary Seminar

Mondays, 4:00–6:40 PM

Web Page: contentbuilder.merlot.org/toolkit/users/HT/bcceng64

Contact Info:

Howard Tinberg

Office Hours: M–W 12:30–1:45 PM (or by appointment)

Office: B215

Phone: 678-2811, ext. 2317

E-mail: Howard.Tinberg@bristolcc.edu

Ron Weisberger

Office Hours: M–F 9:00–5:00 (by appointment)

Office: B-110a

Phone: 678-2811, ext. 2444

E-mail: Ron.Weisberger@bristolcc.edu

What is this course about?

The Holocaust, or, as it has come to be known, the Shoah, is one of the most horrific events in all of world history. Even more than fifty years after the fact, the world continues to struggle with the enormity of this human catastrophe. Nevertheless, a body of writing—both historical and literary—exists that enables us to confront this key moment in world history. This course serves as an introduction to this work. Students gain an understanding of the historical facts, including circumstances leading up to the Holocaust itself and the event’s critical aftermath. In addition, students reflect on the role of literature, principally through accounts of that time written by survivors and the children of survivors, in the struggle to represent an event that many have described as beyond the limits of language to capture. Prerequisite: ENG 101 and ENG 102. Open to Commonwealth Honors Program students and others with permission of instructors.

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Medium 9781934009574

Chapter 6 Using Memory Systems to Stimulate Deep Organizational Learning

Casey Reason Solution Tree Press ePub

We used to believe that memory was a rather static, single-function mechanism that allowed us to keep a perfect record of our human experiences, like a camera that digitally encodes a scene. In recent years, we have learned that our system of making memories is much more fluid (Cohen & Conway, 2008). We know today that our memories are much less precise than we previously imagined, that a number of variables go into making and keeping memories, and that individual differences also shape this process. We have also learned recently that memory is not static—how we manage our ability to recall memory has an impact on what we remember. Finally, we’ve learned that the process of making, maintaining, and recalling memories is closely aligned to the learning process (Gathercole, Alloway, Willis, & Adams, 2006).

By having a better understanding of the conditions under which we best embed, maintain, rehearse, and recall memories, we can leverage our energies against a landscape of increased noise and distraction and bring old learning to bear on our newest challenges. A more thoughtful level of awareness about memory can have a significant impact on individual and team learning in schools.

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Medium 9781936763009

Chapter 4 Preparing the Foundation for Collaborative Common Assessments

Cassandra Erkens Solution Tree Press ePub

4

Preparing the Foundation for Collaborative Common Assessments

Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.

—Alexander Graham Bell

It would be wrong to send teams off to employ common assessments—whether pre-endorsed or collaboratively developed—without setting the context and providing a firm foundation for the work. In an accountability-rich culture, it is readily assumed that any data generated are visible and therefore available for decision makers. When the stakes are too high, the process will not work to invite innovation and encourage practice improvement if it is not managed well.

Figure 4.1 frames the foundation by outlining the components that are within a team’s control and that must be part of the team’s work before and during the process of designing and employing collaborative common assessments.

Figure 4.1: The preparation phase for collaborative common assessments.

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Chapter 5 Practicing and Deepening Knowledge

Sonny Magana Marzano Research ePub

In order for students to use new knowledge on their own, they must practice and deepen their understanding of the content after it has been introduced. This design question—How can I use technology to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge?—falls under lesson segments addressing content and includes seven elements.

Element 14: Reviewing content

Element 15: Organizing students to practice and deepen knowledge

Element 16: Using homework

Element 17: Helping students examine similarities and differences

Element 18: Helping students examine errors in reasoning

Element 19: Helping students practice skills, strategies, and processes

Element 20: Helping students revise knowledge

When considering this design question, it is important to remember that there are two types of knowledge—procedural and declarative. As discussed previously, procedural knowledge includes skills, strategies, and processes that students must be able to perform. The skills, strategies, and processes associated with procedural knowledge must be practiced in order for students to perform them with speed and accuracy. Declarative knowledge, on the other hand, includes the content-related details, facts, and principles that students must understand. Rather than be practiced, declarative knowledge is deepened or expanded as students gain a better understanding of the content. The elements and corresponding technology strategies outlined in this chapter have been developed from research on practice (Kumar, 1991; Ross, 1998), revising and analyzing errors (Halpern, 1984; Hillocks, 1986; Rovee-Collier, 1995), examining similarities and differences (Halpern, Hansen, & Reifer, 1990; McDaniel & Donnelly, 1996), and homework (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006). The specific strategies and behaviors associated with each element, as well as the ways in which the elements can be enhanced with technology, are provided here.

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Medium 9781936764488

6 Developing Emotional Capacity

Laura Weaver Solution Tree Press ePub

We know emotion is very important to the educative process because it drives attention, which drives learning and memory.

—Robert Sylwester

Self-Reflection

Which emotions—in others or yourself—tend to be challenging or uncomfortable for you? Why?

Each day, we and our students and colleagues experience and express a wide range of emotions—joy, anger, sadness, frustration, exuberance, apathy, anxiety. Developing our own emotional capacity gives us the ability to work intentionally and conscientiously with emotions—ours and others’—that inevitably show up and impact the learning environment. Developing emotional capacity includes expanding our emotional range, cultivating our emotional intelligence, developing emotional boundaries, creating emotional safety, and developing positive connections between emotions and learning. When we work with this dimension, we cultivate our resourcefulness, resilience, and effectiveness.

Developing our emotional capacity as teachers means that we understand more about what we feel, develop greater comfort with the full range of our emotions, and learn how to develop healthy emotional boundaries so that we are not constantly overwhelmed or stressed.

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Medium 9781935542230

4 Using Nonacademic Student Data

Edie L. Holcombe Solution Tree Press ePub

Mode Middle School’s data team is building its school portfolio. They have assembled and decided how to display three years of state test data as a starting point. In the process, they have had several aha moments, realizing the limitations of the large-scale data, and identified future steps to provide up-close, real-time data to inform instruction and increase learning. They will capture those insights for future discussion with all staff because they know that implementing better assessment practices schoolwide is a change that should be included as a strategy for school improvement.

Now they are immersed in gathering the data that are most readily available to supplement the large-scale assessment data that have been the main focus for the last few years. Even though they have tried to stay focused on what is in the data, they have found it humanly impossible not to veer off course into the “why” territory of assumptions about causes or the “what if” of prematurely brainstorming the actions that should be taken. The upside of their mental wanderings is that they have begun to wonder what else they need to know in order to make sure their theories are well founded and their intuitive solutions will match the reality of the situation.

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Medium 9781935249900

Chapter 4 The Role of Professional Learning Communities in Advancing 21st Century Skills

James A Bellanca Solution Tree Press ePub

________________________

When the Partnership for 21st Century Skills articulated the knowledge and skills essential to the future success of students in the United States, it stressed that the traditional school culture was not designed to deliver those outcomes. To its credit, the Partnership recognized that if its initiative were to have a positive impact on student achievement, educators would need to transform their schools and districts into professional learning communities (PLCs).

The Partnership (2009) was emphatic on this point and stipulated that the environments best suited to teach 21st century skills “support professional learning communities that enable educators to collaborate, share best practices and integrate 21st century skills into classroom practice.” The Partnership called for schools to be organized into “professional learning communities for teachers that model the kinds of classroom learning that best promote 21st century skills for students” and urged educators to encourage “knowledge sharing among communities of practitioners, using face-to-face, virtual and blended communications.”

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