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4.11 Conclusion

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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5.4 Method statements and work procedures

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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9.1 Overview and future directions

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 9

Conclusion

9.1 Overview and future directions

The ISO 9000 certification is a voluntary, third party quality system registration scheme. It assesses and certifies companies’ quality systems to the relevant parts of the ISO 9000 standards. The benefits associated with certification include:

Many practitioners have traditionally viewed ISO 9000 from a purely technical perspective. While an understanding of the technical requirements of ISO 9000 is critical, this alone will not ensure effective development, implementation and maintenance of quality management systems. Other non-technical issues relating to ISO 9000 must also be addressed. As shown in Figure 9.1, this book is an attempt to address the more pertinent non-technical issues in Chapters 1 to 8 as well as discuss the lessons which can be used to overcome some of the pitfalls encountered. Practitioners should keep these lessons in mind when managing the development, implementation and maintenance of ISO 9000 in the construction industry.

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Chapter 10. Great Transformations On the Archaeology of Cooking

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Kathleen D. Morrison
UNIVERSITY of CHICAGO

The difference between the potentially edible (plants and animals) and food—a substance deemed appropriate for consumption—is very often created through the act of cooking. In India, for example, paddy from the fields, though clearly destined for human consumption, is not subject to the same kinds of social restrictions as cooked rice, not yet being classified as a food, with all its attendant power and danger. Cooking is the vital, yet archaeologically neglected process of rendering potential foodstuffs edible, accessible, and appropriate. As a discipline, we expend a great deal of energy examining what we generally call “food production,” though for the most part these studies focus on agriculture, animal husbandry, foraging, and even marketing and shopping, while eliding the transformative process of cooking itself. The cycle of food production (to maintain the common usage), distribution, and consumption is linked by the labor and life of the humans who grow, gather, process, store, cook, and eat food, most of them on a daily basis. Cooking is thus an absolutely necessary aspect of human life, a set of practices at once quotidian and ceremonial, biologically necessary and culturally elaborated. Cooking practices are distinguished by suites of technological objects and residues and, very often, spatially specialized into storerooms, shops, hearths, kitchens, ovens, and cookhouses.

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4.4 Verification

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 4

Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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Chapter 1. Culinary Preferences Seal-Impressed Vessels from Western Syria as Specialized Cookware

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Sarah R. Graff
BARRETT HONORS COLLEGE, ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

In western Syria, a distinctive looking vessel has been found dating to the late third millennium BC. This vessel is known as the seal-impressed jar because it is often impressed with a cylinder seal on the rim or the neck. Seal-impressed jars are considered important for a number of reasons. First, they date to the end of the third millennium BC, a time when early states, such as Ebla, had begun to form in western Syria and subsequently declined. Second, seal-impressed vessels are found distributed widely and as a result are viewed as important economic markers linking different archaeological sites together. Third, seal-impressed vessels contain decorative seal impressions on them, which are viewed as traditional western Syrian symbolic iconography.

As economic markers, seal-impressed jars have become an important indication of a redistributive economy with the palace site of Ebla acting as the center. The most widely accepted view of history during this period (ca. 2400–2000 BC) is that western Syria was under the political and economic hegemony of the royal kingdom of Ebla (Archi 1992; Biga 1995; Matthiae 1981; Milano 1995; Steinkeller 1999). The provinces supplied goods to the central Ebla administration, and then these were reallocated in a redistributive system. Some archaeologists would describe the exchange system between Ebla and its territories as an instance of staple finance (Akkermans and Schwartz 2003). In this model, elites successfully mobilize and organize the labor of commoners, which produces a staple finance for the state. Specialists are given rations at the palace and administrators are given land, labor, and staples to support their maintenance (D’Altroy and Earle 1985). Seal-impressed jars play a crucial role in the construction of this view of Ebla’s political economy because some scholars regard them as archaeological evidence for redistribution. The jars are seen as containers of foodstuffs collected from the provinces and sent to Ebla in a redistributive system (Matthews 1996; Mazzoni 1984).

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Conclusion Trading Places

Sandy Prita Meier Indiana University Press ePub

Today ornate doorways such as the one in figure 5.1 are often celebrated in the west as emblems of local authenticity and Swahili identity. Yet from a local perspective, and much to the discomfort of Africanist art historians, they give material form to the circulatory networks of the Indian Ocean. Their design program was originally meant to evoke a faraway place. Carvers were constantly changing their compositions by incorporating the latest styles and patterns of ornament from objects being imported from overseas. Yet, they did not simply produce copies, but masterfully transformed exotic forms to create works that exist at the edge of stylistic categories, such as African, Asian, and European. For example, the design of this door is typical of nineteenth-century innovations and fashions. This was a time when the tradition of carving doors reached new heights of intricacy and delicacy. As can be seen, carvers cultivated an Indian-inflected style, often preferring the lush ornamentation of British Raj woodwork. The pediment and central post feature minimalist rosettes and abstracted pineapples, their repeating forms creating a rhythmic movement along the horizontal and vertical planes of the massive doorway. Especially the restrained linearity of the floral motifs exemplifies the way local carvers created strikingly innovative works.1

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4. Photography, Narrative Interventions, and (Cross) Cultural Representations

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

CAROL MAGEE

 

Every year in the wintry cold of late January or early February, Time, Inc., releases the much-anticipated Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue. The swimsuit-clad models are meant to transport readers out of the doldrums of winter to the warmth of tropical locations (e.g., Bermuda, Bora Bora, Dominican Republic, Mexico). Shot in a different location every year—Sports Illustrated identifies the locale each time, but in many ways one beach could be any other—each issue offers a fantasy world of sun-drenched fun. Occasionally, however, a site is chosen that manifests its location specifically through well-known land formations or the indigenous architecture. Such is the case with the 1996 swimsuit issue. Shot in South Africa, its presentation of Ndebele visual culture is fundamental to establishing the locale for readers. Beaded jewelry is most common, though there are two images in the photo essay in which Ndebele wall painting predominates.1

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The U. S. in the Nineteenth Century

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

Returning to the American story, we can envision a moment of unity, the most coherent instant in American history, when after the Revolution segmentable houses with symmetrical facades and closed interiors could be found from one end of the new nation to the other. That is as modern as things ever got.

In his excellent introduction to American architecture, Dell Upton comments correctly that the nineteenth century has been studied less well than the centuries that precede and follow it. One reason is that scholars seem to believe that the directions apparent in the eighteenth century continue through the nineteenth. Another is that, with the nineteenth century, there is a sudden flood of paper with words printed on it, and historians can relax at home, reading written texts that are easy to understand instead of the architectural texts that give them fits. But there is absolutely no alternative to fieldwork, to direct and patient study of real buildings in great numbers. The written texts of the nineteenth century are pertinent, but, alas, the story conveniently constructed out of them violently misrepresents the reality.

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Chapter 5. From Grinding Corn to Dishing Out Money A Long-Term History of Cooking in Xaltocan, Mexico

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN

Mexican cuisine is known for a variety of flavors (especially its heat) and dishes made from an endless list of plant and animal ingredients. Women are the ones responsible for such a great variety of flavors and ingredients. Women were the cooks in Aztec society, and they are the cooks in today’s Mexico. Many Mexican men cook, but they do so mostly in contexts where it will bring an income to the house, such as restaurants, markets, and food carts on the street. The majority of cooks in Mexican homes, whether upper-class or poor, are women. This means that technological changes related to cooking have affected women’s work the most, and they also have been mediated by women’s decisions. In this chapter I examine changes in cooking technologies over a very long period of time, focusing on the change from grinding corn with stone tools to buying ground corn and tortillas in markets. What factors affected the shift from grinding corn by hand to buying corn tortillas? Why did grinding continue for centuries, even though it is a difficult and time-consuming task? What roles did women, and men, play in changes in cooking technologies?

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3. Can the Artist Speak?: Hamid Kachmar's Subversive Redemptive Art of Resistance

Joanna Grabski Indiana University Press ePub

JOSEPH JORDAN

I would go to this land of mine and I would say to it: “Embrace me without fear…. And if all I can do is speak, it is for you I shall speak.”

—AIMÉ CÉSAIRE, “NOTEBOOK OF A RETURN
TO THE NATIVE LAND”

 

Berber artists are not really concerned about personal styles; nor do they care if they are remembered as individuals. Their goals are to present personal views…expressed through the lexicon of collective memory rooted in the tradition of tying knots, combining motifs and taking care that the grammar is not breeched.

—HAMID KACHMAR, RESPONSE TO A QUESTION
ABOUT HIS MOTIVATIONS

In the fall of 2009 Hamid Kachmar, a young Moroccan artist of Amazigh heritage, was featured in a solo show in the Robert and Sallie Brown Gallery and Museum located in the Sonja Haynes Stone Center for Black Culture and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The mission of the Brown Gallery and the Stone Center is “to critically examine all dimensions of African American, African and African Diaspora cultures through its education program and through the formal exhibition of works of art and other items.”1

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Pattern in Time

Henry Glassie Indiana University Press ePub

My argument is done. Architecture provides a prime resource to the one who would write a better history. I will contrive a conclusion with a summary. Our history breaks into three great periods. Its dynamic depends upon impurity.

First is the period of the village, a time of compressed housing and dispersed fields. The great creation of the period was the largest, most permanent, most lavishly adorned building of the community. Collective resources were banked and the collective will was materialized in a sacred edifice that was built to last, when houses were not. It should humble us some that the religious buildings of this period are the world’s greatest architectural creations: the parish churches of England, the stave churches of Norway, the earthen mosques of West Africa, the towering temples of India — Chartres Cathedral, the Selimiye at Edirne, the Todaiji at Nara.

Urnes stave church. Sogn, Norway. 1995

San José. Trampas, New Mexico. 1987

In the beginning, there was the village, a neolithic invention, and in the beginning, there was enclosure. Valiant people carved farms out of the waste and built longhouses to shelter themselves and their stock against wolves and cattle raids. Enclosure expanded steadily, chewing away the wilderness on the margins, but it was blocked on the fat lowlands where enterprise was entangled in intricate webs of rights and obligations. Village people wanted to prosper, but no more than they wanted to live in confidence among their neighbors. Their cooperative arrangements worked economically, and their religion gave them a vision of unity. They wanted to prosper, but they understood that an appetite for worldly goods than ran beyond necessity was avarice — a sin as deadly as gluttony or fornication. The aim of life was sufficiently clarified by Christ’s message that it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.

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3: Luminosity ~ Inner Light

Henry Plummer Indiana University Press ePub

3

LUMINOSITY ~ INNER LIGHT

Corner of Attic Center Family Dwelling House South Union, Kentucky

MAXIMUM FENESTRATION

In their efforts to squeeze as much daylight as possible into buildings, Shakers pierced the outer walls with closely spaced windows, allowing illumination to stream in from every side. As the most sacred place in the Shaker settlement, and the nearest thing to heaven on earth, the meetinghouse was made especially airy and bright by a continuous band of repeating windows. But rendered almost as porous, and at times cathedral-like, were utilitarian buildings such as laundries and machine shops, tanneries and poultry houses, mills and barns.

Circles of Windows on Tree Different Levels Round Barn (1826, rebuilt 1865) Hancock, Massachusetts

Meetingroom Windows Meetinghouse (1792–93, moved from Shirley to Hancock 1962) Hancock, Massachusetts

INTERIOR SHUTTERS

The internal shutters with which windows are equipped at Canterbury and Enfield permit a range of lighting adjustments. At Enfield's dwelling house, a four-shutter system allows each panel to be operated independently, or in combination with others, so that light can be regulated at will, like a camera aperture, according to weather, temperature, and human activity. When the shutters are opened, they fold back and disappear into window reveals.

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5.5 Checklists for other work

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Chapter 8. Vale Boi 10,000 Years of Upper Paleolithic Bone Boiling

Sarah R. Graff University Press of Colorado ePub

Tiina Manne
UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND

Animal fats in the form of subcutaneous, muscular, mesenteric, and within-bone deposits represent some of the most high-calorie foods available to foragers. Though the prehistoric extraction of animal body fats has no visible archaeological record, the harvesting of within-bone fats may be recognized through careful, taphonomy-oriented faunal studies. Prior to the Upper Paleolithic, humans practiced only one form of bone processing, that of cold marrow extraction where the focus is the consolidated fatty deposits found in the large central, medullary cavities of the limb bones and mandibles (see review by Stiner 2002). A second method of bone-grease extraction, heat-in-liquid grease rendering, appeared during the Upper Paleolithic (see Audouze and Enloe 1991; Enloe 2003; Manne and Bicho 2009; Nakazawa et al. 2009; Stiner 2003; Weniger 1987; West 1997). This new form of bone processing allowed humans to take advantage of all body fats within a carcass and thus maximize the edible potential of their captured prey (Binford 1978; Brink 2002; Leechman 1951; Lupo and Schmitt 1997; Munro and Bar-Oz 2005; Saint-Germain 1997; Stiner 2002; Vehik 1977).

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