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1 Tourism and Leisure Needs of Older Travellers

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� ourism and Leisure Needs of

T

Older Travellers

The aims of this chapter are to:

•• Provide a general introduction to the growing older population throughout the Western world.

•• Examine the importance of leisure, travel, and tourism as emerging markets for older adults.

•• Understand and define the concepts of leisure and tourism and to examine their similarities and differences.

•• Define the different cohort groups that are included in the general category of older adults, particularly the silent generation, new-age elderly, baby boomers, and the senior market.

•• Explore in greater depth the emerging baby boomer market and its relationship to tourism and leisure behaviour.

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Leisure Behaviour in an Ageing World (I. Patterson)�

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Chapter 1

Introduction

Betty Friedan (1921–2006) the famous feminist wrote about her experiences with ageing in The Fountain of Age, which was first published in 1993. In the following quote, Friedan captures the essence of successful ageing when she suggests the need to redefine later life as a time of growth instead of inevitable decline. ‘Aging is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength’

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2 Socio-demographic Variables Associated with Tourism, Leisure, and Ageing

Patterson, I. CABI PDF

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�Socio-demographic Variables

Associated with Tourism,

Leisure, and Ageing

The aims of this chapter are to:

•• Determine whether an older traveller’s ‘age’ is important in leisure and tourism research.

•• Discuss the differences between chronological age and subjective age.

•• Examine socio-demographic variables such as gender, income, and education to determine their effect on the older tourist.

•• Examine other factors such as heterogeneity, seasonality, and ethnicity to d

­ etermine whether they are important in the travel behaviour of older tourists.

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© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Leisure Behaviour in an Ageing World (I. Patterson)

Socio-demographic Variables Associated with Tourism, Leisure, and Ageing

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Is Age Important?

There appears to be no universal acceptance about how to define an ‘older person’.

Chronological age or calendar age is a numerical index of the length of life typically measured in years since birth and is the main measure that determines whether a person is ageing. According to Laslett (1989),

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11 Different Travel Markets: Health and Wellness Tourism and Older Travellers

Patterson, I. CABI PDF

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�Different Travel Markets: Health and Wellness Tourism and

Older Travellers

The aims of this chapter are to:

•• Introduce the concepts of health tourism, medical tourism and wellness tourism.

•• Provide an overview of the history of health tourism.

•• Discuss where health tourists go for medical care, what are their motivations, and what are the criticisms of this type of tourism?

•• Provide a definition and historical overview of spa tourism (presently referred to as wellness tourism).

•• Describe the three different classifications of wellness tourists and their specific ­motivations.

•• Discuss the importance of health and wellness tourism for older adults including baby boomers.

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© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Leisure Behaviour in an Ageing World (I. Patterson)

Different Travel Markets: Health and Wellness Tourism and Older Travellers

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Health and Medical Tourism

Health tourism is a term that has been used interchangeably with medical tourism, is an emerging global industry and is becoming one of the most important niche markets of the tourism industry (OECD, 2011). Medical tourism refers to meeting the health and wellness needs of patients by travelling long distances (often to countries overseas) to obtain cheap medical, dental, and surgical care. Simultaneously, these countries have deliberately linked the patient’s medical care to a holiday experience so as to provide a total medical-tourism package.

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12 Conclusions and Recommendations

Patterson, I. CABI PDF

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�Conclusions and

Recommendations

The aims of this chapter are to:

•• Summarize the major findings of research on tourism and leisure behaviour of older adults.

•• Offer suggestions for future research for academics and to make recommendations to government policy makers.

•• Discuss the implications of this research for the tourism and leisure industry.

The Dimensions of the Older Travel Market

There is little doubt that we are becoming part of an ‘ageing world’. Population projections expect that the global number of older adults aged 65 years and older will double from roughly 617 million to 1.6 billion by 2050 (United Nations, 2013).

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© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Leisure Behaviour in an Ageing World (I. Patterson)

Conclusions and Recommendations

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This will account for approximately 22% of the world’s population, compared with only 10% in 2000, and is a demographic shift that will occur across all continents. Another direct result of these changing global ageing trends is that older travellers are becoming a separate and distinct market segment, who are creating both challenges and opportunities for the tourism industry. This is because older adults are now placing leisure related travel as a higher priority in their retirement years than did previous generations. The World Tourism Organization

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4 Changing Technological Trends and the Travel Behaviour of Older Tourists

Patterson, I. CABI PDF

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�Changing Technological Trends and the Travel Behaviour of

Older Tourists

The aims of this chapter are to:

•• Examine the changing role of travel agents in providing travel information and bookings for older adults.

•• Critique the lack of senior models in the mass media promoting travel products that are aimed at the older market.

•• Ascertain whether older adults use computers and the Internet to gather travel information.

•• Establish whether older adults use the Internet to plan and make their own travel bookings.

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Changing Technological Trends and the Travel Behaviour of Older Tourists

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The Role of Travel Agents as the Provider of Information and Booking

The first serious efforts at research that focused on the role of the travel agent began in the 1980s. These studies set out to determine how consumers perceived the role of the travel agent, and the reasons why people chose a specific agency over another information source to make travel bookings. Sheldon (1986) examined the role of the travel agent from an economic point of view. The author affirmed that the main function of a travel agent was to reduce the time and money spent on information and transaction costs for consumers, as well as providing promotional expenditure for suppliers. Sheldon found that basic package tours provided a bigger discount to the consumer (15%) than all-inclusive tours

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