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12 Pilgrimage and the Challenging of a Canadian Foundational Myth

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF

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Pilgrimage and the Challenging of a Canadian Foundational Myth

Matthew R. Anderson*

Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

Walking pilgrimage is growing in popularity. Initiatives to create routes on Canadian soil raise an important issue: how should local pilgrimage reflect Indigenous1 history and concerns? As First Nations leaders point out, all Canadians are ‘treaty people’ (i.e. on one side or the other of historical agreements concerning land). They call for Canadian academics and artists to help raise awareness of a suppressed history and of its ongoing, and devastating, consequences. Despite this, First Nations and Métis2 groups are often ignored in Canadian pilgrimage discourse. The North West Mounted Police (NWMP) Trail is a 300-km track across the northern Great Plains. It was roughly parallel to this route that the first recruits of Canada’s military force marched west in 18743 to establish a police presence on Canada’s western frontier. The story of their nearly disastrous trek, while not as well known as it might be, is none the less celebrated (Wilson, 2007, p. 248). What is less well known is that the

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11 The Future Generations Ride of the Lakota Sioux

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF

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The Future Generations

Ride of the Lakota Sioux

George D. Greenia*

The College of William & Mary in Virginia University, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA

On 29 December 1890, an unanticipated but malicious massacre of Lakota Sioux took place near Wounded

Knee Creek in South Dakota. In advance of the centenary of this tragedy in 1990, a commemorative midwinter horseback ride was organized by members of the Lakota Nation who are now largely confined to reservations and suffer from a poverty rate of 50% and an unemployment rate of 70%. The modern trek was staged intuitively from the outset as a pilgrimage event, commemorative in nature and as a solemn procession to a site of mourning, much as secular pilgrims visit sites like the Atocha train station in Madrid, Guernica in the north of Spain or Ground Zero in New York. The Big Foot Memorial Ride concluded annually on the anniversary of the tragedy and covered some 200–300 miles, the approximate number of Indian deaths in 1890. The 1990 mourning ritual has been supplanted by a redesigned communal event enlarged and deepened in scope, the Future Generations

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6 Richard Burton: Disguise as Journey to the Self and Beyond

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF

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Richard Burton: Disguise as Journey to the Self and Beyond

Aateka Khan*

University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

This chapter interrogates the act of pilgrimage as undertaken by the celebrated British Haji, Richard B

­ urton, in

1853, and recounted in the Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, a work he penned shortly after.

What motivated Burton to undertake such an enterprise? Glory? Adventure? Curiosity? Perhaps it was an eagerness to appease imperial authorities to further his career. Probably one can never know the truth (not even of one’s own self), but I attempt this interrogation of pilgrimage from a postcolonial consciousness, which I find deplorably under-represented in studies on B

­ urton. By bringing to bear in this discourse a voice from the other side of the fence, I hope to enrich the understanding of the p

­ ilgrimage a

­ dventure that Burton undertook and to draw attention to anomalies in Burton’s narrative that have been, not surprisingly, glossed over. Most writers on

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5 Medieval Pilgrims in Modern Times: Buñuel’s The Milky Way

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF

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Medieval Pilgrims in Modern Times:

Buñuel’s The Milky Way

Alison T. Smith*

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina,

Charleston, South Carolina, USA

Luis Buñuel’s surrealist film The Milky Way (1969) is posited as a modern pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, and it is most often evaluated according to its thematic content or its filmic structure. The film follows two modern pilgrims, Pierre and Jean, as they make their way from Paris to Santiago. Grounded in surrealist film-making practices, the plot ignores conventions of time and space, and the protagonists inexplicably travel across centuries and continents. The film uses the pilgrimage motif as a means of highlighting and examining the principal heresies of the Catholic faith, and the pilgrims Pierre and Jean at times appear to be of peripheral importance as these weighty themes are explored. Pierre and Jean are far from superfluous, however, and although they appear to be quite average 20th-century men, they are in fact emblematic of the pilgrims of the Middle Ages in certain ways.

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2 Pilgrimage: A Distinctive Practice

McIntosh, I.S.; Quinn, E.M.; Keely, V. CABI PDF

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Pilgrimage: A Distinctive Practice

Richard LeSueur*

St George’s College, Jerusalem, Israel

Drawing on more than 25 years’ experience facilitating programmes of pilgrimage, the author presents a practical philosophical construct for locating pilgrimage within the spectrum of contemporary travel. A model is presented that consists of horizontal and vertical axes creating four quadrants. The horizontal axis represents a continuum between hardship, risk and privation on the right; and ease, comfort and abundance on the left. The vertical axis represents a continuum between immersion in a local culture at the bottom of the diagram, and the choice of isolation from the local culture at the top. The upper-left quadrant represents the traveller who seeks primarily an experience of comfort and rest. This is the realm of the sun holiday, Club Med and cruise ships. The upper-right quadrant represents the realm of adventure tourism where one primarily seeks experiences of risk and adventure in a particular geography. The lower left represents the realm of cultural tourism where the principle aim is to ‘see sites’, learn history and encounter the local culture, but also be back at a pleasant hotel by 5 o’clock for cocktails. The lower-right quadrant expresses the intent of pilgrimage: one elects to enter an experience of risk, challenge and even hardship over a sustained process of walking, in anticipation of the unknown, but ready to be changed. The lower-right quadrant, the principal focus of this chapter, highlights the nine characteristics that point to the unique domain of pilgrimage.

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