11461 Chapters
Medium 9781780645230

7: Motivations for Religious Tourism, Pilgrimage, Festivals and Events

Edited by Razaq Raj and Kevin Griffin CABI PDF


Motivations for Religious Tourism,

Pilgrimage, Festivals and Events

Razaq Raj1*, Kevin Griffin2 and Ruth Blackwell3

Leeds Business School, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK;

School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of

Technology, Dublin, Ireland; 3Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK




The religious tourism phenomenon arouses the interest of many researchers and practitioners, but few concentrate on the non-religious motivations of religious travellers. The aim of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the motivations for religious tourism, pilgrimage, festivals and events. Religion and spirituality are very common motivations for travel over the last few decades for religious pilgrimage. Major world religious tourism destinations having developed over the last century due to links with sacred people, holy places and religious festivals. The religious tourism phenomenon in the last decade has provoked major discussion among many leading researchers and practitioners, but only a few have managed to look at the motivation theory, or why travel to religious destinations has increased.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781626569737

5 The Amazing and Scary Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Wadhwa, Vivek Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Many of us with iPhones talk to Siri, the iPhone’s artificially intelligent assistant. Siri can answer many basic questions asked verbally in plain English. She (or, optionally, he) can, for example, tell you today’s date; when the next San Francisco Giant’s baseball game will take place; and where the nearest pizza restaurant is located. But, though Siri appears clever, she has obvious weaknesses. Unless you tell her the name of your mother or indicate the relationship specifically in Apple’s contact app, Siri will have no idea who your mother is, and so can’t respond to your request to call your mother. That’s hardly intelligent for someone who reads, and could potentially comprehend, every e-mail I send, every phone call I make, and every text I send. Siri also cannot tell you the best route to take in order to arrive home faster and avoid traffic.

That’s OK. Siri is undeniably useful despite her limitations. No longer do I need to tap into a keyboard to find the nearest service station or to recall what date Mother’s Day falls on. And Siri can remember all the pizza restaurants in Oakland, recall the winning and losing pitcher in any of last night’s baseball games, and tell me when the next episode of my favorite TV show will air.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781623490140

10. Land Conservation: Messaging for Success

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub


Land Conservation

Messaging for Success

Example isn’t the main thing in influencing others—it is the only thing.

—Albert Schweitzer

Impatience is indispensable to getting reform started; patience is essential to seeing its promise fulfilled.

—E. J. Dionne

THE STUNNING SUCCESS of the nation’s land trusts’ efforts at open space conservation, over the same period of time that environmental progress has ground to a halt, is a great example of the power of engagement and a positive “first steps” approach to conservation. If you look at the campaign materials for these land conservation initiatives, you see little strident rhetoric and a lot of practical solutions.

Land trusts are land conservation organizations that include small groups working in local communities and some of the largest conservation organizations working nationally and internationally, such as the Nature Conservancy, the Conservation Fund, the Trust for Public Land, and Conservation International. In 1980, there were only a few land trusts in existence. Today, there are about seventeen hundred land trusts that work locally, but they are organized nationally by the Land Trust Alliance. By 2010, almost fifty million acres had been privately and voluntarily protected by landowners and these groups. This is an area equal to the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut together.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780874254471

Chapter 6. Termination: Procedure and Documentation

Terry L. Fitzwater HRD Press PDF

6. Termination



Procedure and Documentation

TERMINATION REQUIRES the utmost attention to safe procedure and detailed documentation. Wrongfuldischarge lawsuits and charges of discrimination are common responses to termination, and they are costly in terms of litigation expense and negative impact on an organization. The ultimate goal of any company is, of course, to avoid termination by effectively facilitating performance improvement.

However, it is unrealistic to assume that improvement will always occur—not all employees will be dedicated to excellence. And even the best disciplinary practices cannot prevent offenses that require immediate termination. The most an organization can do is establish a consistent procedure for termination, such as the one in this book, and make sure it is meticulously followed and documented whenever termination is necessary.

In this chapter, we will initially focus on performance-related termination and its procedure and documentation; then we will turn our attention to immediate termination. A list of termination pitfalls and pratfalls is also included.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253009265

10: Unintended Consequences and the Epistemology of Fraud in Dickens and Hayek

Edited by Peter Y Paik and Merry Wiesne Indiana University Press ePub

Eleanor Courtemanche

ONE SURPRISING AND unnerving result of the 2007–8 financial crisis has been the reactivation of the long-dormant Victorian debate about the difference between “investment”—a term that connotes fiscal soundness, prudence, and morality—and irrational, emotional “speculation,” which shades into “gambling” and which might be thinly disguised “fraud.”1 Given the increasing democratization of finance culture on both sides of the Atlantic, and the widespread vestment of prestigious pension funds and university endowments in growth equities, the thought of avoiding the stock market because of moral hesitations about gambling would, up until the late unpleasantness, have seemed positively medieval. It is easy to find places in Victorian literature where this distinction is represented crudely as one of personal character, with scam artists distinguishable by their Jewish or otherwise foreign mannerisms while the “gentlemen” cling to outmoded standards of philanthropy that may or may not actually make them money.2 In many of these novels you can detect who is moral and who is not simply by looking at their flashy clothing or noting their untrustworthy slang. One of the most frustrating elements of the recent crash, however, was the discovery not only that many investments made with perfect confidence were in fact deeply unsound in retrospect (something true of most scandals) but that as a result of inaccurate ratings by the credit ratings agencies it had become at a certain point impossible to tell the difference between sound and unsound investment. Contrary to previous crashes, the victims of the crash included not just the foolish individual investors who are the usual victims of financial scams but the investment banks themselves, which despite multiple safeguards seemed not to be aware that they remained liable for so many bad equities. As journalist Michael Lewis reports in The Big Short, “The big Wall Street firms, seemingly so shrewd and self-interested, had somehow become the dumb money. The people who ran them did not understand their own businesses, and their regulators obviously knew even less.”3 Anna Quindlen expressed this widespread unease in a 2009 column noting that “the great unspoken issue behind the tanking of the market, the mess in subprime mortgages and the bailout bill is that Americans don't understand the basics of the economy.”4 Because no one seemed to understand the complexity of the bad investments, government regulators had no choice but to turn over the cleanup to those who had made the bad investments in the first place.

See All Chapters

See All Chapters