205 Chapters
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Medium 9781574411805

Twenty-five—“It’s Over.”

William T. Harper University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE

Eight hostages on the outside of the “buggy” maneuver it down the ramp while

Carrasco, his two henchmen and four civilian hostages are inside. (Photo courtesy of Robert E. Wiatt)

pressure hoses, topple it. In the resulting melee, they would disarm the desperados and save the hostages. Estelle took up a position on a small balcony on the third floor of the Walls’ Administration Building overlooking the Upper Yard, from where he could look right at the ramp.

He was, he said, “in walkie-talkie contact with Rogers. But,” he continued, “Pete being Pete, once the fire-fight started, he laid that damn radio down. He wanted two hands. So, I was out of contact. I could hear and see—but I couldn’t directly influence anything.”2

As the captives struggled to shove the box off its hang-up, Jack

Branch looked toward the doors where he saw the officers, wearing olive green-colored, camouflage ceramic body armor, and combat helmets. “I said ‘boy, we are saved now.’ I never was glad to see somebody in my life.”3 Ranger Captains Rogers and Burks, FBI agent

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Medium 9781574413533

Chapter 12. I Will Not Be Captured

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 12

I Will Not Be Captured

Bill Longley’s whereabouts after he left Bell County are unknown, but the best evidence indicates that he returned to his old haunts in what was now Lee County, around Evergreen. Not aware that his brother was in custody and hearing numerous rumors in the neighborhood about his own well-being, Longley wrote a remarkable letter to Jim Brown, likely in September or October of 1875, although it could have been later:

Devils Pass

Hell’s Half Acre

Septober the 41st 7777

Kind friend. This lieves me stil floating through the gentle breeses of misrie and feel just as happy as a big sun flour that boes and bends in the breeses. Well Jim I understand that I have threaten your life and if I done it it must have bin when I was a-sleeping. For I know nothing about it myself. I killed the only one in that country that I had any thing against at that time. now Jim Brow[n] if I ever kill any man in that country it will be eather for killing some of my kinfolks or els it wil be in resisting being captured for if the court knowes its self I will not be captured in that country alive tho I wil come there just when I pleas. I wrode by your house the first Monday night in August 1875. I stoped near the old yard fence and stood for an hour and my mind run back over my whole life and I thought of my childhood and the hapy hours that I had passed in the old cabin home.

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Medium 9781574410297

13: INDEPENDENT ACTIONS

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press ePub

13
Independent Actions

I

In a short time, nearly all of Austin's police force had reported for duty. Some of the officers went directly to the campus. Others, including Officers George Shepard, Phillip Conner, Harold Moe, and Milton Shoquist, went to police headquarters first. There, the team was given tear gas and a walkie talkie and told to report to the campus area. Since the officers were in possession of communications equipment and tear gas, when they reached 21st and Speedway, Sergeant Marvin Ferrell, who had been directing officers to their assignments, sent them to the UT Security Office a few blocks north of the Tower at 24th and San Jacinto. There Houston McCoy asked them if they had any additional shotguns. They did not. He also asked if they had any directions or a plan. They did not. At the office, UT's Security Chief Allen R. Hamilton directed one of his men, Sgt. A. Y. Barr, to lead the APD team to the Tower.

From the university police station, the band of officers walked through the campus to an area directly east of the Tower. From that position there appeared to be only one way to get to the Tower—a dash over an open area. McCoy wondered aloud if there was a safer way for six men to get to the Main Building. William Wilcox, a university employee, knew of a maze of tunnels connecting the buildings to allow for relative ease when maintaining the campus infrastructure—telephone, power lines and water lines. Through the tunnel connecting the Computation Center to the Main Building, Wilcox guided McCoy's team.1

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Medium 9781574410297

PROLOGUE: WEATHERED METAL PLAQUES

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press ePub

PROLOGUE
Weathered Metal Plaques

U.S. Highway 59 in Texas spans both rural and urban areas. Through Houston the traffic can be murderous, but just south of the metro area, near Rosenberg, drivers breathe a sigh of relief. They are safely into the countryside. Rosenberg inhabitants, like many small-town Texans, worry about “planned communities” of deed-restricted, monotonous, brick homes creeping closer. They cling to an agrarian tradition while welcoming vast riches from the oil and gas industry Crops of all types carpet tracts of rich, dark soil, while oil-searching and oil-producing rigs dot the landscape.

Near the exit to Farm-to-Market Road 2218 are the Davis-Greenlawn Funeral Chapel and a large, well-manicured cemetery. Golf carts transport visitors and maintenance personnel. The main entrance is near the access road, but many visitors are attracted to a smaller, less ostentatious entrance on the northeast side. The bumpy path leads to an even smaller drive, where blades of grass struggle to grow through compacted gravel. At the confluence is a large white marble carving of Da Vinci's The Last Supper. That portion of the cemetery is nearly full, and unoccupied sites have long ago been sold and await their inhabitants. The graves arc marked by weathered metal plaques on small marble slabs. Visitors are seldom distracted by the traffic noise from Highway 59; more noticeable are the chirping birds in a nearby wooded area. Here is peace.

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Medium 9781574410723

6 An Absence of Beauty

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

6

An Absence of Beauty

“You look out the window and wonder and say,

‘Somebody ought to neuter all these people.’”

—J. W. Thompson, Austin Police Department

I

Interstate Highway 35, the major artery for Central Texas, connects San

Antonio, Austin, Belton, Temple, and Waco. Around Austin, the highway runs along the Balcones Fault, separating alluvial bottoms and agricultural lands to the east, from the rocky sediments of the Hill Country ranches to the west. In his biography of Lyndon Johnson, Robert Caro called the Hill Country “The Trap,” which accurately contrasts its mesmerizing beauty with the hardiness it took to tame the area.

San Antonio and Austin are splendid examples of the power of multiculturalism, and monuments to cooperation among diverse populations. Further north, the hamlets of the Blackland Prairie surround the larger cities of Belton, Temple, and Waco. Baylor University in Waco, the

University of Mary Hardin-Baylor in Belton, Southwestern University in nearby Georgetown, and other colleges and technical schools in the area provide splendid educational opportunities to the people who live here. The hard-working, conservative, largely religious people help contribute to and take pride in their neighborhoods and schools. Throughout the area, man-made lakes provide water, recreation, and breathtaking scenery. Central Texas is a beautiful place to live.

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Medium 9781574410723

4 Freed to Kill Again

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

4

Freed to Kill Again

“You know, when you’re on parole and you been on death row, it’s hard to find a date.”

—Kenneth Allen McDuff

I

Furman v Georgia was not the only significant development affecting the prison life of Kenneth McDuff in 1972. That year, a disgruntled Texas prison inmate named David Ruiz, who was serving a twenty-five-year sentence for armed robbery, initiated a handwritten lawsuit alleging a variety of violations of his civil rights in the prison system. His complaint alleged overcrowding, poor medical care, and the use of Building Tenders as guards of other inmates. The Building Tenders kept control of their area, and in turn, received preferred treatment by guards and prison officials. Ruiz alleged that Building Tenders beat other prisoners to keep them in line.1 The Ruiz case went before United States District Judge

William Wayne Justice of Tyler. Thus began the longest and most expensive trial in the history of Texas.

Years later, during the early to mid 1980s, Judge Justice, in effect, seized the prison system from the people of Texas. His ruling concluded that the system violated inmate rights through crowding, poor medical care, using inmates as guards, brutality by professional guards, and unconstitutional grievance and discipline procedures. He ordered a complete overhaul of the prison system and set up federal monitors and

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Medium 9781574413052

Chapter 4 I Kept on Pumping Lead

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter

4

I Kept on Pumping Lead

L

ong­ley said that he decided that the most practical way to get to Utah was by joining one of the many cattle drives headed north through the Indian Territory and terminating at the railhead at

Abilene, Kansas. According to him, he rode north to near Gainesville, in Cooke County not far from the Red River, and ran upon a large herd. The boss of the herd, a man named Rector, who Long­ley said came from Bee County in southwest Texas, hired Long­ley to go along on the drive, offering him pay of a dollar a day. Rector also furnished

Long­ley with an extra horse so that the horse Long­ley was riding could be turned out with the other extra horses on the drive in order to rest and gain a few pounds. Long­ley said that he picked out a horse and joined the trail drive as it headed into the Indian Territory.

Fuller quoted a letter from Long­ley that described his days with the trail drive as tedious, “following a big herd of cattle, seeing that none drop out by the wayside or are stolen and in the days of which

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Medium 9781574410297

3: Austin Is Different

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

everything out. Naturalized Texans soon discover that Austin, at least, is different from all that.

Charles Whitman might have fallen for the Texas stereotype, but he lived in Austin, where-as John T. Davis and J. B. Colson have written-equally stubborn influences of southern nostalgia and western idealism meet and battle. 1 Added to the mixture are rich

Latino and African-American influences with literate and articulate leaders. Throughout Austin's history, incredulous observers have been entertained by some of the nation's most memorable city council and school board meetings. Like it has in the rest of Texas, legend has infiltrated much of Austin's history. Austin has always been different.

Mirabeau Lamar, one of Texas's founding fathers, first visited the area that would become the City of Austin while on a buffalohunting trip. The beauty of the area stunned him. A four-family settlement called Waterloo had been situated there near the Balcones

Escarpment, better known as the Balcones Fault, a dramatic topographical boundary separating dark, fertile alluvial bottoms on the

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Medium 9781574410723

Epilogue “FLOATING ON A CLOUD, PLAYING A HARP”

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

Epilogue

“FLOATING ON A CLOUD,

PLAYING A HARP”

“That’s a strange bird.”

—J. W. Thompson, referring to Kenneth McDuff

I

“This will not be over for any of us until we find Colleen,” said John

Moriarty of TDCJ, seven years after she had disappeared. He spoke for every investigator involved in the Colleen Reed Case. They all tell of thinking of Colleen every time they found themselves in the Blackland

Prairie, and wondering if they were near her. The Kenneth McDuff Case was not over for these men, even though they put him back on death row—twice—for good.

For years, J. W. Thompson of the Austin Police Department and ATF

Special Agent Chuck Meyer painstakingly followed every lead and searched for whatever crumb of information they could uncover that might have led to the discovery of Colleen’s remains. They often found themselves searching woods, ditches, and old wells. Time passed, and leads dwindled, but they never gave up. Like Dan Stoltz and Mike

Carnevale, Chuck and J. W. are very good friends. Their bond strengthens with every difficult case; it is hard to imagine a circumstance where these two men would not trust each other. These men had heavy case loads and could have reasonably decided that Colleen would never be found. After more than four years the pain still showed in their eyes.

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Medium 9781574412246

15. Garrett Takes the Stand

Corey Recko University of North Texas Press PDF

fifteen

Garrett Takes the Stand

The next morning, James Gould, whose cousin was Gililland’s wife, took the stand. The witness stated that he was at McNew’s ranch about the first of February 1896. Gililland had come in a few days before, changed horses, got some cartridges, and left. When he returned, he was accompanied by McNew. Gould said they had told him about Fountain’s disappearance, which was the first he had heard of it.

Gould also said, “Gililland said a posse was out hunting for

Fountain and at dinner at Lee’s ranch young Fountain had become frightened and jumped up and seized his gun. Fountain was eating dinner there and had a fit, vowing vengeance on the murderers of his father.”

Gould testified to a conversation he had had while working on a fence with Gililland when Gililland “told me that old man Fountain had come from Texas in a chicken coop and prized up [pried up] hell ever since he had been in New Mexico, but he wouldn’t prize up anymore. I asked him how about killing the child and he said,

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Medium 9781574413052

Chapter 10 Shot Him Dead

Rick Miller University of North Texas Press PDF

B

Chapter

10

Shot Him Dead

etween July 1873 and Christmas 1874, there is no real record of

Long­ley’s whereabouts. We only have his story that, after being released in Austin, he killed a man in Frio County and then worked for Dr. McIver in Madison County. The 1877 account of his adventures found in the Galveston Daily News had him leaving Madison

County, which is in East Texas northeast of Bryan, visiting his parents again briefly in Bell County, then riding on to old Fort Ewell on the

Nueces River in LaSalle County, at the junction of the San Antonio and Laredo roads. The fort had been established in 1852, but abandoned in October 1854 when army troops there were transferred to

Fort McIntosh on the Rio Grande above Laredo.1 Fort Ewell and Dog

Town, forty miles northeast on the Frio River, became two principal stage stands between San Antonio and the Rio Grande. Fort Ewell was not much of a town, being principally occupied by Mexicans and a storekeeper known as Peg Leg Stuart.2

Long­ley said that he was at Fort Ewell only a short time when he got into a fight with “a noted gambler named Dave Clark.” He said that he shot Clark “a couple of times” but did not kill him.3

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Medium 9781574410723

10 The Car Wash

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

10

The Car Wash

“Nobody should be put through that type of torture.”

—Alva Hank Worley

I

Every Christmas season miles of multi-colored lights illuminate Congress Avenue in downtown Austin. From the Colorado River, which

Austinites insist on calling Town Lake, to the State Capitol, the bulbs form a colorful tunnel, and at times motorists have trouble seeing traffic signals. But it does not matter; Austin drivers have little respect for traffic lights anyway. Mild weather usually greets Christmas time; hardy

Austinites do not bother with winterwear like sweaters or coats. At best, light windbreakers suffice, especially during the Christmas season of 1991 when the average minimum temperature was about forty-six degrees.

The tragic murder of four teenage girls in a Yogurt Shop dominated

Austin news in December of 1991. The “Yogurt Shop Murders” broke the city’s heart. Billboards with pictures of the four beautiful high school girls begged for information about what had happened. Not since Charles

Whitman went on his shooting spree at the University of Texas Tower in

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Medium 9781574410297

2: THE SOLDIER AND THE TEACHER

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press ePub

2
The Soldier and the Teacher

I

After basic training, Charlie was stationed at what was then one of the most troubled spots in the world—Guantanamo Naval Base, Cuba—beginning on 9 December 1959. At least one of his marine buddies believed that, above and beyond being in the marines, being at Guantanamo Bay placed a strain on Charlie.1 Most likely, Charlie's desperation to free himself from his father's support and control made everything else secondary—even Cuba's drift toward Communism. Yet he had entered another life of regimentation; he would still have to take orders. He may have been drawn to another form of strict authority after becoming conditioned to taking orders. More likely, a hitch in the marines resulted from an attempt at a dramatic, irrefutable rite of passage into adulthood. No one, not even C. A. Whitman, could seriously argue that a United States Marine was anything less than a man. For Charlie Whitman, taking orders probably seemed like a small price to pay.

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Medium 9781574412048

Appendix IV

David Johnson University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix IV

The following list was developed by Glenn Hadeler based upon the assumption that men who band together have other affiliations in common. The list presents a scientific approach to determining some of the mob members during the Hoo Doo War but should not be interpreted as a definitive fact. It was first presented at the Second

Hoo Doo War Symposium held at Mason, Texas, during 2003.

Llano

Leather Jackets

Methodist

Church

August 1874

Clark Posse

Carl Bader

Mathew Bast

Jacob Bauer

Wilhelm Bickenbach

Peter Bickenbach

Fred Brandenberger

Otto Donop

Mathew Bast

Jacob Bauer

Wilhelm Bickenbach

Peter Bickenbach

Fred Brandenberger

Otto Donop

Jacob Durst

George Durst

Jacob Durst

Heinrich Hasse

Frederick Hoerster

William Hoerster

Ernst Jordan

Dietrich Kothmann

Fritz Kothmann

William Kothmann

Carl Lehmberg

Germans Mentioned

In the Hoo Doo War

Carl Bader

Peter Bader

Bernard Durst

Heinrich Hasse

Frederick Hoerster

William Hoerster

Daniel Hoerster

Ernst Jordan

Peter Jordan

Dietrich Kothmann

Fritz Kothmann

William Kothmann

Carl Lehmberg

250

Henry Doell

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Medium 9781574410297

11: Ramiro

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

mJ~-------------------- Ramiro

In July of 1966 th e Ramiro Martinez family sat for th eir first form al portrait. Onl y two week s ear lier Jan ice and Janette celebra ted th eir second birthday. Two weeks lat er Ramiro confronted Charles Whitm an atop UT's Tower. Photo courtesy of Ramiro and Vernell Martinez.

cropper who worked on the "one third" system- one third of the harvest went to the landowner. It was a ha rd way to live. Cotton was king and the Martinez family was poor. While Spanish was spoken most often in the home, Ramiro and his two brothers and two sisters, like many Hi spanics of the era, were encouraged to speak English .

Ramiro's father and his children were bilingual. Mother Martinez, a native of Mexico, mostly spoke Spanish. At Rotan High School,

Ramiro established himself as an athlete, earning all-district honorable mention as an end on the football team . Not surprisingly, the

Martinez family was staunchly Catholic, and occasionally, the children had to tolerate silly jokes about their religion. The Hail Mary, the Our Father, th e Rosary and other prayers like the Act of Contrition were taught at home and the children attended Catechism regularly on Sundays. The family moved from farm to farm and did not have much, but they were good, honest people. I

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