258 Chapters
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Medium 9781935543060

1 - Using Educational Neuroscience to Differentiate Instruction

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

1

Using Educational
Neuroscience to
Differentiate Instruction

The argument can be made that schools are again in a time of transition—a period in which it again seems evident that one-size-fits-all approaches to curriculum and instruction are a misfit for too many students, a period in which teachers are once more trying to understand what it means to calibrate instruction based on the varying needs of an increasingly diverse student population.

—Carol Ann Tomlinson

For centuries, teachers have been challenged to address the diverse needs of all learners. As educational neuroscience becomes available to us, we can begin to understand how our students’ unique brains are developing. We can use the emerging information about how learning and memory take place to inform our instructional practices on a daily basis in the classroom. Differentiation and educational neuroscience go hand in hand!

Differentiation in the General Education Classroom

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Medium 9780253356963

9 - Coastal & Sound Steamers: Close to Shore

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Close to Shore

THE ATLANTIC SEACOAST WAS THE GREAT HIGHWAY OF COLOnial America. Small ships sailed over these waters from Maine to Florida, stopping at dozens of ports or inlets. The sinking eastern coasts of North America formed numerous natural harbors, inlets, sounds, and bays, all of which encouraged maritime travel. Some boats ventured no more than 100 miles from home while others sailed the length of the coast to New Orleans. Even more adventuresome sailors would circumnavigate South America and head for San Francisco. Such ambitious sojourners covered 14,000 miles in 180 days. Yet most coasters were content with more modest travels and engaged in transfer trade. They would stop at several small ports to gather shipments for oceangoing vessels. The coaster would transfer goods to larger ports where the cargo would be loaded upon a ship heading for Europe or the Far East. In the same way, they would distribute goods or passengers, dropping them off at large ports by the sea to hamlets on the coast. A typical merchantman would take six to ten days to sail from New York to Charleston, a distance of approximately 650 miles. Small sloops were faster, but they could carry only limited cargoes and so were more often used for shorter commuter trips. Steam power offered both speed and capacity, and by the 1830s it began to offer passage between Charleston and New York in three days. Travelers to New Orleans could expect more than a dozen days at sea, often leaving New York by steamer. Such a journey could be pleasant as long as the sea was reasonably calm.

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Medium 9780253020635

3 Sin and the Aspiring Reporter

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 3

Sin & the Aspiring Reporter

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

THE DOWNWARD SLIDE OF THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY continued as the 1950s progressed. Cloistered at the University of Richmond in a world of history studies and college activities, I rarely noticed what was happening. I did read about trains being discontinued because they lacked riders. Even those that linked Richmond with Washington, where I would go to sit in on the Senate’s proceedings, were only half full.

While those coaches contained a moderate load, many other trains were carrying hardly any passengers. One afternoon I took the train to South Boston, a city on the North Carolina border just east of Danville, to visit a classmate. It was the same train my grandfather had captained, and I found a disturbing change. Instead of a line of passenger cars and a gleaming green steam locomotive, the train consisted of a nondescript diesel and two coaches, both of them nearly empty.

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Medium 9780253337979

Introduction: The Lake Shore Electric—What It Was and Where It Went

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

It never imposed much on the landscape and now has all but disappeared back into it.

Drive west from Cleveland along the rim of Lake Erie to the old lake port of Sandusky, once a serious competitor of Cleveland and Toledo. Then head south to Norwalk, Ohio — another charming nineteenth-century town — and keep moving west on U.S. Route 20 toward Toledo, passing through more nineteenth-century main streets at places like Monroeville, Bellevue, and Fremont. If you are particularly perceptive, along the way you will spot bits of light grading alongside the roads or crossing them; you may spot pole lines marching across fields, and here and there some strange, small, brick buildings of uncertain purpose.

What you are seeing are the dim remains of “The Greatest Electric Railway in the United States,” as it proudly called itself in its earlier days — the Lake Shore Electric Railway. In the few years between the perfection of electric power for railway use and the perfection of motor vehicles and paved highways, the Lake Shore Electric was the premier carrier of people in the well-populated territory between Cleveland and Toledo, and one of the most important links in the network of interurban electric lines which once blanketed the Midwest.

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Medium 9780253220738

7 In Recent Times

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

No industry remains static, else it atrophies and perishes. Railroads in Iowa underscore the intrinsic truth of that statement. Since the 1960s the railroad scene has undergone monumental changes. It has been a fluid period, ironically somewhat reminiscent of the building and consolidation process of the nineteenth century. A combination of happenings, including massive line abandonments, corporate mergers, regulatory reforms, start-up shortlines and regionals, and technological betterments has reshaped railroading throughout the state.

Any observant person who today roams the Iowa landscape will notice the remains of former rail lines. Although some of these abandoned rights-of-way may have been obliterated by farmers seeking to increase their production acreages and urban dwellers wishing to build structures or expand their yards, hundreds of miles remain somewhat intact, albeit nearly always chocked with weeds, brush, and trees. But a few pieces of these one-time routes of the iron horse have become public hiking and biking paths, products of an active statewide rails-to-trails movement. Testifying to the popularity of these recreational resources, the Heritage Trail follows sections of the Chicago Great Western (CGW) in eastern Iowa, and the Wabash Nature Trail follows portions of the Wabash in southwestern Iowa.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Watch the Fords Go By: The Automobile Comes to Old Bell County”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

WATCH THE FORDS GO BY:

THE AUTOMOBILE COMES

TO OLD BELL COUNTY by Kenneth W. Davis

Richard Lee Strout and E. B. White gave verbal immortality to

Henry Ford’s tin lizzie in an essay which once helped freshmen struggling to become literate learn how to string colorful anecdotes together to make sense. Their celebrated essay, “Farewell,

My Lovely,” focused primarily on the wonder of Ford’s inventive genius, the Model T—that vehicle which revolutionized twentiethcentury America. In old Bell County, the arrival of mechanized transportation brought Model T Fords, Saxons, Maxwells, Buicks,

Cadillacs, and a host of other brands now perished, gone with the exhaust fumes and the dust of unpaved roads. Among these many kinds of automobiles there were some which attained the status of folk objects for their stamina, their contrariness, their comfort, or for their near-epic feats of whatever sort. To a Texas folklorist, the antics of the people who herded these snorting mechanical behemoths over those dirt roads of old Bell County are even more interesting than the legends about good mud cars, fast road cars, splendid courting vehicles, and those which doubled as runabouts hauling feed and seed.

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Medium 9781934009628

Appendix E: Cooperative Grouping for the ELL Classroom

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix E

Cooperative Grouping for the ELL Classroom

Advanced Preparation

•   Copy, cut, and glue the grouping shapes on page 153 to index cards.

•   Cut teacher cue cards (page 154).

•   Laminate index cards and teacher cue cards to make them last longer.

How to Use

Assign Cooperative Grouping Cards based on the student’s ability level, using the following guide, for example:

•   Beginning and early intermediate English language learners—bear

•   Intermediate English language learners—zebra

•   Advanced English language learners—lion

•   Proficient English language learners—giraffe

Cards will need to be reassigned every two to three weeks based on the amount of cooperative grouping used during the time frame and the changing dynamics of the classroom. For example, the beginning English language learners could be changed to the zebra.

Teacher cue cards will help facilitate smooth group transitions and aid the beginning learners in the classroom.

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Medium 9780253347572

1 The Forrest Gump of Railroading

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Dawn was creeping up over Lynnhaven Bay as Jim McClellan walked briskly out of his kitchen, down a hallway, and out the back door. It was a perfect October morning. The air was brisk, barely 50 degrees. McClellan drove to his office in downtown Norfolk. He was going early to clear his desk of any unfinished work because he was leaving later in the week for four days of vacation in southern California.

James W. McClellan was vice president for corporate planning at Norfolk Southern Corp., one of the nation’s five largest railroads. His job was to advise NS’s chairman, David R. Goode, on a wide range of key questions that the railroad faced, issues as subtle as changes in the corporate culture or as visual as deciding which tracks to shut down or which railroads to acquire in order to keep the company viable.

It was 1996, and for nearly 20 years he had been watching the moves of NS’s archrival, CSX Corp., and its chairman, John W. Snow, who later was to become George W. Bush’s treasury secretary. The two railroads served almost the entire eastern half of the country save for a highly contested block of states in the Northeast, and both needed to get into those states for access to the rich port of New York and the chemical plants of New Jersey. The only way to do that was to acquire Conrail, a railroad that held a monopoly of the rail markets in New York, New Jersey, and most of Pennsylvania. The railroad that won Conrail would then be able to negotiate a merger with one of the western roads at favorable terms and form a system that spanned the continent. McClellan was worried because he knew that if NS lost this race, it would remain a regional line that would be at the mercy of one of those western roads. Moreover, NS had another reason for wanting Conrail, a need so crucial to the future of the company’s most critical source of revenues, McClellan and others at the top of the company kept it a closely held secret.

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Medium 9780253008329

5 In the Land of the Sooners

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AT OKLAHOMA STATE University presented itself during the first portion of the 1970s. Stillwater was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, located on a spur from what once had been a concave but through route from Newkirk, Oklahoma, to Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, parallel to the east of Santa Fe’s main gut from Newton, Kansas, to the Gulf of Mexico. Passenger service had ended November 10, 1956, but local customers still provided attractive freight revenue.

Santa Fe was a well-managed company with premier routes from Chicago to Los Angeles and Chicago to South Texas. In a relative sense, it was prosperous compared to many other railroads at the time. Yet the mood across the industry was grim, and it got worse as the decade of the 1970s wore on. Causes of financial anemia were many and varied among particular companies, but a popular prescription among virtually all carriers was abandonment of line segments, especially branches and redundant secondary routes. Santa Fe was not immune in this regard.

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Medium 9780253020635

9 The Biggest Railroad Story of Them All

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 9

The Biggest Railroad Story of Them All

ONE FIRST–CLASS PASSAGE

I HAD BEEN AT FORTUNE A LITTLE OVER A YEAR AND, although still fascinated by railroads, had not written a single word about the subject. My latest story was about one of the darlings of Wall Street, a young company called National Student Marketing. NSM had been one of the hot stocks of 1969, and my piece had been an exposé of one of the greatest accounting scams Wall Street had seen in recent years.

Even before beginning my research, I could smell possible fraud. The magazine’s Futures Department, which searched for potential stories, had invited NSM’s president and some of his vice presidents to lunch so that some of us could hear their spin on how their company was so successful. During their presentation they passed around copies of the company’s quarterly and annual financial statements, and while they were talking I glanced at the numbers. I saw that the figures in the quarterly statements and the annual report were not comparable. Also, in the year-end balance sheet there was a most unusual item, called “Unbilled Receivables.” Immediately I sensed a grand exposé.

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Medium 9780253353832

12 Epilogue

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Frank Sprague and Thomas Edison were contemporaries as electrical engineers and inventors in the exciting new world of electricity in the latter part of the nineteenth century. They sometimes worked in cooperation, and sometimes in competition with such great early electrical engineers as Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Elihu Thomson, George Westinghouse, or Charles Steinmetz. From the time the two men met in June 1878, just after Sprague’s graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy, over the next half-century until Edison’s death in 1931, the relationship between Sprague and Edison was one that varied widely. Working together and supporting each other sometimes, engaging in angry disagreements at others, they always acknowledged each other as great electrical engineers and inventors. They had much in common, both had sharp inquisitive minds, and both would prove to be extraordinarily inventive men.

The two men, however, were very different in the way that they approached an inventive task, and this might explain some of their disagreements. Edison, who had limited formal education, often used an intuitive approach, frequently spending hours or days working with different materials—sometimes dozens of them—trying to find one that would work well, or work at all. Sprague, on the other hand, benefited from his scientific training and worked in a much more directed process, proceding in a focused way toward specific designs. Sprague worked according to a set of proven principles, and regularly used mathematics to help resolve questions or achieve the proper design of an instrument.

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Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 5 The Road to Ride

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The Rock Island was usually not the shortest, nor the fastest, nor the most prosperous railroad between the cities it served. So it had to try harder.

Even in the worst of times, the railroad did its best to field a fleet that gave passengers a run for their money. And when times were flush, the Rock Island often ran ahead of the pack. It was among the first with onboard dining and streamliners. It innovated restlessly, if not always wisely. Its trains might run in the red, especially toward the end, but they ran.

As soon as the track was down and open for business in 1852, two daily trains left Chicago for Joliet. Within months the dozen passenger cars provided by contractors Henry Farnam and Joseph Sheffield could no longer meet demand, and 16 additional cars were ordered. Trains ran full, hauling passengers from Chicago’s passenger house to the end of track, wherever that might be. By 1856 the road was advertised “the Shortest, Quickest and Safest Route” to Kansas and Nebraska—though it had reached neither destination. The roadbed was raw, the crude wooden benches were hard, but tens of thousands of immigrants were already riding Rock Island trains on the first leg of their journeys to the Great American Frontier. Within the decade, they would ship their produce to eastern markets via Rock Island.

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5 - Ferryboats: Crossing the Rivers and Bays

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Rivers and Bays

EVERY LARGE CITY OR TOWN ON A RIVER, LAKE, OR BAY WOULD likely have had a ferry at some time in its history. We discuss only some of these conveyances that helped travelers cross over the waters of America. The methods of propulsion – oars, poles, horses, river currents, and steam – illustrate the inventiveness of our ancestors. The type of boats and the nature of their operation will constitute the third general area of our discussion.

5.1. An elementary scow ferryboat of about 1800 by Thomas Bewick, a British engraver.

The ferry has been described as a floating section of highway. It has been useful but hardly ever beautiful. It has lacked the majesty of a great liner, the grace of a square rigger, and even the briskness of a tugboat. It has no knife-edge prow to cut through the ocean waves and almost no beauty of line or symmetry of proportion. The ferryboat emerged as a meek and lowly vessel, squat, humble, and often rather dingy in appearance. Its oval shape and rounded roof made it resemble a giant turtle. Even so, the humble ferryboat had its admirers. America's great poet Walt Whitman found the Brooklyn ferry a source of inspiration. He rode it daily to and from Manhattan in the 1850s and 1860s. In 1882 he recalled, “I have always had a passion for ferries; to me they afford inimitable streaming, never failing, living poems.” He would ride in the pilothouse, having made friends with the men at the wheel. In this elevated station he could view the fine harbor and its enormous maritime traffic. He would revel in the great tide of humanity in motion. The sights of the sloops, skiffs, and ocean steamers and the majestic sounds of the boats offered him a refreshment of spirit not found elsewhere. And all of this for a 2-cent fare. Other commuters on these “people's yachts” shared Whitman's appreciation for the ferry as a cruise ship and an opportunity to be out in the sun and fresh salt air. The view of the skyline, seagulls, and the wonderful variety of watercraft made this part of the commute pleasurable. Even the passage of a garbage scow reinforced an appreciation of the great cities’ complexity and many services. The ferry's steady motion offered a little quiet time to reflect and daydream.

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Medium 9780253355485

5 The Spoilers

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Vanderbilt may have thought he was moving into the South Penn under deep cover, but it took no time for word to get out that something serious was going on in southern Pennsylvania and that Vanderbilt probably was involved. And when it did, several similar projects miraculously materialized, created by promoters who suddenly showed interest in the long-ignored route. Their real motives probably will never be known; perhaps they were truly legitimate enterprises, perhaps corporate blackmailers hoping to be bought out, or possibly Pennsylvania Railroad surrogates aiming to block him. But what is known is that even as Twombly, Reon Barnes, and the others were in the preliminary process of investigating and negotiating, three companies received state charters to build railroads over the South Penn’s general route.

First to appear was something called the Southern Tier Railroad, chartered in June as a 3-foot gauge line stretching 208 miles between a Western Maryland Railroad connection south of Shippensburg and West Elizabeth, near Pittsburgh. (The company’s name referred to its intended route through Pennsylvania’s “southern tier.”) Its incorporators were Philadelphians with no discernible railroad affiliations. Once created, however, the company did nothing further.1

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Chapter 4 Planned Progress

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The man who saved the Rock Island railroad was a understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a square-jawed, flinty-eyed railroader’s railroader, a slow-talker who chose his words carefully and meant every syllable of each.

John Dow Farrington despised incompetence. When he encountered it in an underling, he would fix the man in a gray, unblinking stare, a crocodilian smile would tug at the corners of his mouth, and he would begin a reaming-out the employee would never forget. Farrington understood every detail of the railroad. And he was a demon on track maintenance. So as he rode north out of Fort Worth in the office car Edward M. Durham Jr. had sent to fetch him to his new job, he learned what he was up against. Rock Island’s line to El Reno—and almost everywhere else—was a bone-shaking ordeal.

The first thing Farrington did when he came on board as chief operating officer—at $25,000 a year, the equivalent of $382,000 today—was take to the rails for six months in a V-8 Ford sedan equipped with flanged wheels. Everyone ducked when they saw it coming down the track.

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