258 Chapters
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Medium 9780253220738

3 Down at the Depot

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

Before the widespread presence of internal combustion motor vehicles rails bound together state and nation. At every official railroad station Iowans gained formal access through the depot building to the iron horse or perhaps to an electric interurban car. For decades the gateway to the community, each “deeepo” (a popular pronunciation) meant much to residents.

The depot was usually placed in a central location, although because of line routing, the structure might appear in an outlying area. The selection of a more remote site may have been the result of the local topography or because the railroad arrived after the town site had been established and it was discovered that the expense of a more suitable place was unacceptable. A. B. Stickney, founder and longtime head of the Chicago Great Western Railway (CGW), told fellow executives that “the depot should be built in as close to the business center of the city as possible . . . That way the public will remember you.” It is understandable, then, that when his company constructed its Omaha Extension between Fort Dodge and Council Bluffs in 1902–1903, the depot in Carroll stood only a few steps from the main commercial establishments and just a block from the courthouse.

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Medium 9780253019066

8 A Kaleidoscope of Regulations

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Strikes alienated customers, angered politicians, and fomented a climate of mistrust. Passengers and shippers began to feel that railroad corporations wielded too much influence. Politicians at every level—from municipal to federal—created regulations to address their concerns. Legal precedents based on US Supreme Court cases originating in Illinois gave the federal government the authority to establish minimum and maximum prices for transporting people and products. These regulations restricted railroad managers’ power to set the prices (“rates”) or negotiate with customers from the 1870s to the 1980s. Lowering or raising rates was painfully slow, hurting railroads’ ability to respond to market conditions and contributing to the ossification of the industry in the twentieth century.

By 1870 three railroads—the Chicago & North Western, the Rock Island, and the Burlington—were crossing Illinois and Iowa and preparing to converge on Omaha, the eastern end of the original transcontinental. They earned increased traffic from the new connection, augmenting the grain, pork, and beef they hauled into Chicago from the rich agricultural region they served. But cutthroat competition among the three lines lowered rates and profits, putting pressure on other parts of the systems to compensate. To dampen the competition, the three railroads agreed to share the traffic across Iowa. This informal “pool” collapsed in the face of economic depression, but after 1874 formal, regional associations emerged to share revenues and eliminate competition.1 From the perspective of the railroads, pools were a rational response, but shippers thought they deliberately stifled competition in the name of higher profits. Regulation ensued.

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Medium 9780253337979

5. Not Quite Normalcy: 1919–1922

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

When peace returned in 1919 the Lake Shore Electric faced a mixed but mostly sunny outlook. Entry into the general freight business came too late to contribute much for the war effort, but by the early 1920s that traffic was growing as fast as equipment, physical plant, and new interline arrangements permitted. For the first two years after the war, ridership, revenues and profits rose heartily; the profit growth was especially great.

But the picture was darkening on its outer edges. The general postwar business boom masked some subtle signs of trouble which were noticeable only in certain special types of business. The interurban’s managers discovered, for example, that the peak loads that they traditionally carried to fairs and on day-trip excursions were substantially smaller; many were driving autos to the events.

The two local city systems were their own special kind of problem. Unregulated jitneys continued to take passengers off the streetcar routes, some of which were economic albatrosses to begin with. Yet the cities seemed indifferent to regulating the competition and, especially Sandusky, hostile to fare increases or route adjustments.

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Medium 9780253353832

12 Epilogue

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Frank Sprague and Thomas Edison were contemporaries as electrical engineers and inventors in the exciting new world of electricity in the latter part of the nineteenth century. They sometimes worked in cooperation, and sometimes in competition with such great early electrical engineers as Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Elihu Thomson, George Westinghouse, or Charles Steinmetz. From the time the two men met in June 1878, just after Sprague’s graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy, over the next half-century until Edison’s death in 1931, the relationship between Sprague and Edison was one that varied widely. Working together and supporting each other sometimes, engaging in angry disagreements at others, they always acknowledged each other as great electrical engineers and inventors. They had much in common, both had sharp inquisitive minds, and both would prove to be extraordinarily inventive men.

The two men, however, were very different in the way that they approached an inventive task, and this might explain some of their disagreements. Edison, who had limited formal education, often used an intuitive approach, frequently spending hours or days working with different materials—sometimes dozens of them—trying to find one that would work well, or work at all. Sprague, on the other hand, benefited from his scientific training and worked in a much more directed process, proceding in a focused way toward specific designs. Sprague worked according to a set of proven principles, and regularly used mathematics to help resolve questions or achieve the proper design of an instrument.

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Medium 9780253355485

2 The Back Story

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

In picking up the South Pennsylvania’s corporate charter and its negligible other assets, Vanderbilt and his allies bought into a legacy of doomed dreams. Until then the history of efforts to build a rail route across Pennsylvania’s “southern tier” had been long and notably unproductive, if not downright dismal.

The first try came in 1837, when the new Cumberland Valley Railroad opened its line through the broad valley between Harrisburg and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and began setting new goals. One ambitious idea was to build west from Chambersburg to Pittsburgh, and gathering political support from communities such as Bedford and Everett, the CV managed to persuade the state to survey a route. The state in turn hired a 37-year-old Danish-born civil engineer, Hother Hage, to run the first railroad survey between the Susquehanna River and Pittsburgh in 1837-38. Hage, who came to the United States in 1819, had worked on building the Pennsylvania state canal system and had become chief engineer of the pioneering West Feliciana Railroad in Louisiana in 1835. A year later he was back in Pennsylvania as chief engineer of the Franklin Railroad, which was to form the southern extension of the Cumberland Valley from Chambersburg to Hagerstown, Maryland, and the Potomac River at Williamsport.

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Medium 9780253018663

10 The Government’s Case

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub


The Government’s Case

The government’s case came in two parts. The first, developed to considerable extent in the Final System Plan, was an argument that the country could, if necessary, do without railroads in the Northeast altogether. We thought this contention patently absurd. Indeed, during his examination, one of the government’s key witnesses, Edson L. Tennyson of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, blurted out in exasperation, “Who’s kidding whom? You simply can’t move ore, coal, or grain in the Northeast by land except by rail.” We then set about disproving the government’s assertion by specific examples.

The second prong of the government’s attack was to concede, arguendo, that rail service was indispensable, but to insist that the bankrupt railroads were such hopeless losers that the public, state and local governments and authorities, and the profitable western roads would pay next to nothing for the properties, certainly no more or just a little more than they were worth in liquidation for nonrail use. Their value then would be what the government contended in the Final System Plan. The fundamental thrust of our argument that the government brought the disaster on the railroads was aimed at countering this contention. According to us, if only the government ceased its interference through both regulation and cross-subsidy, the railroads would return to profitability.

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Medium 9780253005915

3 On the North Edge of Africa

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

On the North Edge of Africa. A 72 mph electric passes through the bountiful Mamora cork forests around Rabat. Westbound Rapide No. 2 was on its way to Casablanca.



MOROCCO AND ITS CHEMINS DE FER DU MAROC, or Railways of Morocco (CFM), turned out to have a surprisingly modern railroad early in 1951. A substantial part of the railroad – the busiest part of its line – had already been converted to electric power, and the balance of the line haul had been converted to diesel power since the end of World War II. Steam power, mostly secondhand and elderly power – some dated to the Civil War period – was confined to switching service, and this, too, would be gone within the next few years. The CFM even offered premier trains between Casablanca and Algeria (the CA or AC trains, depending on direction of travel) that carried such amenities as Wagons-Lits sleeping and dining cars, while the Casablanca-Tangier express train carried passengers from the Maroc Express, which ran by train through Spain, followed by a steamer across the Gibraltar Straits between Algeciras and Tangier.

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Medium 9781935543060

6 - Evaluating the Learning

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Evaluating the Learning

Frequent formative assessment and corrective feedback are powerful tools to promote long-term memory and develop the executive functions of reasoning and analysis. Frequent assessment provides teachers information about students’ minute-to-minute understanding during instruction.

—Judy Willis

In this high-stakes environment, teachers are striving heroically to help all students be successful. There is a huge push to increase student success and show well in international comparisons such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. Differentiation is necessary for success because of the differences in the brains of our learners:

 Their prior knowledge and experience

 Their interests and preferences

 Their rate of grasping new concepts and understandings

 The number of rehearsals that are needed to reach mastery

We recognize the need to differentiate instruction, but what does this mean for assessment practices? If students are different and have different needs, then we must also give them multiple ways of demonstrating understanding or mastery over time without penalty for rate of learning. To accurately evaluate student learning, assessments should focus on authentic achievements, genuine products, and creative performances. Assessments must be aligned with how brains learn best.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Driving Across Texas at Thirty-Five Miles Per Hour”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF


MILES PER HOUR by Jean Granberry Schnitz

Progress. That’s what they call it. True, travel is easier and faster than it was when I was a child, but trips across Texas are not what they were during the 1930s and 1940s. Expressways and interstate highways now speed travelers to their destinations. The wonderful little towns, the cities full of amazing sights, the courthouses, many with matching small-scale jails—all are by-passed by modern transportation systems. Gone are stop lights and bumpy roads, but not hot, dusty afternoons and freezing mornings. We just don’t notice the outside weather as much now that the windows are tightly closed!

Imagine having no radio or tape deck or CD player or television to bombard the vehicle with sound! Modern children cannot imagine dashing across Texas at thirty-five miles an hour—or less.

How long would a mere six-hundred-mile trip take at that speed?

It would require seventeen hours of driving, plus time for meals, fuel, and other stops. Seventeen hours strapped into a child safety seat would be pure torture! Despite the long hours, I wouldn’t take anything for the experiences my family had during such trips.

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Medium 9780253353832

5 Sprague and the Electric Elevator

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

As American cities grew rapidly during the nineteenth century, so did the need for a better form of urban horizontal transportation. That need was finally met by the development of the electric street railway thanks to the work of Frank Sprague and others during the 1880s. And much as the need for improved horizontal transportation was met through the application of electricity, so was it through the use of electric power that the development of increasingly tall buildings was made possible, to satisfy the needs of the growing density of urban cities. Once again, Frank Sprague played an important role, this time in the application of electricity to vertical transportation.

Hand-powered elevators or hoists had been around for centuries, but it was not until the mid-1850s that the modern elevator began to make its way into common use. In 1852 a Yonkers, New York, manufacturer, Elisha Otis, developed a simple and innovative apparatus that provided a reliable and automatic safety device for vertical hoists. The most common accidents with these lifts were the breaking or failing of the lifting rope, or an overloaded platform. Otis fitted notched vertical hardwood guide-rails alongside each elevator. A flat-leaf spring was fastened to the roof of the elevator car and connected to the hoist rope so that it was under tension and arched, and the end springs were drawn in. If the rope broke or otherwise failed, the spring would immediately flatten and shoes on the end of the spring would be driven into the notched rails, bringing the car to an immediate stop.1 Otis was persuaded to bring his device to the 1854 New York World’s Fair, where showman P. T. Barnum had Otis climb onto his elevator, raise it high above the ground and then sever its lifting rope. The automatic safety kicked in, and Otis stood right where he was in perfect safety to the amazement of spectators.2

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Medium 9780253347572

13 Booted Off the Property

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

As he had watched Penn Central unravel from his post at the Federal Railway Administration, Jim McClellan had continued exploring ways to relieve Penn Central of its passenger losses. He and the staff of the ICC had found that while the railroads were overstating the losses, the railroad labor unions and politicians who advocated continuing passenger trains were understating them by a significant margin. Moreover, not only Penn Central but all the nation’s railroads were losing more and more cash every month on passenger services.

Their report had been sent to Congress in July 1969, sparking a Senate hearing two months later when Stuart Saunders had traveled down to urge immediate government action. Some senators had responded with open skepticism. “This house is on fire now, and it has been on fire for some time!” Saunders had retorted.

The problem was lack of revenue and high costs. The railroads had a market share of only 7.5 percent, and train after train was leaving the station nearly empty. For example, two Penn Central trains between Harrisburg and Buffalo were carrying an average of only 17 passengers apiece. Just after its merger, Penn Central was allowed to discontinue two trains that ran between St. Louis and the Indiana/Ohio border that carried an average of only seven passengers a day at a loss of more than a half-million dollars a year. The passenger business had once been as profitable as it was glamorous. Twenty-six percent of the Pennsylvania Railroad’s operating revenues in 1900 had come from passenger service. Except for those people who journeyed by river or coastal steamer, the railroad industry’s market share of intercity travelers had been essentially 100 percent. Forty years later, private automobiles had accounted for nearly 90 percent of the mileage traveled by intercity passengers, and railroads had provided only 7.5 percent. Cars would retain pretty much that share of the market for the decades to come.

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10. The Predecessors: 1883–1906

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The Lake Shore Electric’s family tree dated back to the electric railways’ equivalent of Pilgrim Father days and included some especially distinguished pioneers. Inevitably too, it was a complex assemblage of different personalities and lineages. At least ten different company names showed up at one time or another, but by the time the LSE was created in 1901 these had boiled down to four — the Lorain & Cleveland, the Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk, and two Sandusky-based companies, the Sandusky & Interurban and the Sandusky, Norwalk & Southern. A fifth, the Lorain Street Railway, joined the family in 1906.

Three of these had comparatively simple, straightforward histories, but the city of Sandusky seemed to spawn financial and corporate instability for its two railways — perhaps the result of too much competition in a stagnant and marginal market. Whatever the reasons, the Sandusky predecessors were both the oldest and the most complex.

Sandusky’s modest street railway system had its origin in the Sandusky Street Railway, a locally promoted horsecar line which was built primarily to connect its steamship piers and downtown area with the then-remote Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway station. The LS&MS main line was the city’s primary rail route, and originally had entered town from the east along the waterfront. In 1872, however, it was relocated a mile south of the city’s center, and reaching it became a hardship. The first solution was a horse-drawn omnibus line organized by Sandusky’s Gilcher brothers in 1882. But even by then competition was brewing; another group of local businessmen headed by Clark Rude had incorporated the Sandusky Street Railway on August 3, 1881.

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Medium 9780253019066

7 Illinois Railroad Labor

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

As Confederate forces were winning the Battle of Chancellorsville and Union troops prepared to lay siege to Vicksburg, a group of disgruntled railroad engineers met secretly in Marshall, Michigan. Unhappy about the treatment they were receiving at the hands of their supervisors, they decided to assert their republican rights and defend themselves from arbitrary rule. They formed the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (BLE), a fraternal order fighting for decent working conditions and offering insurance protections. Firemen, conductors, trainmen, and other groups created their own organizations in the 1860s, challenging the conventional belief that capital and labor shared a common interest in the profitable operation of railroad corporations.

A period of often dramatic conflict on the railroads followed formation of the brotherhoods. Wage cuts and layoffs led to strikes but owners and managers fought back. The proud industrial peace of the railroads was shattered by walkouts and murders. Financial panics and technological change led to violence and confrontation in Illinois, most notably in 1877, 1888, and 1894. These were the visible manifestations of a seemingly limitless well of unhappiness and subterranean conflict. But the railroads could bring the nation’s economic activity to a virtual standstill, hastening the quest for alternatives. Worse for the industry, federal regulators responded to public complaints about monopoly power by restricting managerial autonomy. The peace of pioneer railroading had been shattered.

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Medium 9781574412383

“High Flyin’ Times”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF



AND A PIPER TRI-PACER by Barbara Pybas

Our High Flyin’ times were good years, the late 1950s and early

’60s, a healthy, optimistic, happy era. Even with the Cuban Crisis and Kennedy’s death, this ten-year folklore period seemed less complicated and stressful than the ensuing decades of the Vietnam

War and national turmoil. Perhaps, to the young, obstacles are undaunting and overcome readily. This account is neither about barnstorming nor acrobatics, but for the pure enjoyment of flying and a good excuse to use it in a farming-ranching operation. DFW

Airport was non-existent and the rigid FAA rules not in place; even a radio was not a requirement. VFR (visual flight rules) was sufficient for little planes.

Jay Pybas was bit by the flying bug in his mid-thirties. After returning from World War II Marine Corps service, completing a stint with GI Bill college time and marrying an Oklahoma A&M co-ed, he found his way back to Texas. For ten years he struggled to revive a Red River bottomland farm released by the U.S. Government. This Cooke County area had been used as the infantry and artillery training area for Camp Howze during the war. It had grown to a jungle with disuse but, nevertheless, was fertile and promising. By hard work, stamina and extreme fortitude, in ten years the valley became beautifully productive.

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1. Genesis: 1901–1903

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The year was 1901, the first year of the twentieth century. Ohio’s own William McKinley was in the White House and Victoria was Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and monarch of Britain’s other dominions beyond the seas — including Canada. Neither would survive the year — McKinley felled by an assassin’s bullet and Victoria of the more natural effects of age. She was 82, had reigned for 64 years, and had defined an entire age.

And in Ohio, reigning over a wholly different empire — which also included Canada — were Henry A. Everett and Edward W. Moore, two Cleveland entrepreneurs who were rapidly moving to exploit the latest and most promising technological development — the electric railway. By the dawn of the new century steam railroads overwhelmingly dominated American intercity transportation; virtually all overland travel and freight movement was by rail. To get anywhere beyond a few miles, there was no other way.

But a different kind of railroading had suddenly evolved during the decade just past. Electricity was applied to urban street railways beginning in 1888, radically changing their form and potential. Now no longer limited by the speed and stamina of horses, these street railways were built outwards from the cities over increasingly longer distances. By the mid-1890s some were beginning to link towns and cities and distinguishing themselves from ordinary streetcar lines with a new name — interurbans. By the turn of the century the development of high-voltage three-phase alternating current transmission made long-distance electrified lines practical, and proved the key to interurban expansion.

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