370 Chapters
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Medium 9780253011817

2 A Rail Road?

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub

2

BEGINNINGS

No one knows the exact origin or date of the first railroad.1 It is probable that in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries mechanics and tinkerers in Great Britain and on the continent, especially in the German states, made the earliest developments. “Its invention, like most other valuable inventions of the present day [1829],” as an early student of railroads opined, “is the result of gradual improvement.” Fortunately, a free-flowing transfer of technology from the Old to the New World laid the foundation for the most significant invention in the development of modern society: the railroad. It mobilized, drove, and advanced the Industrial Revolution. During the Railway Age observers of the American scene likely agreed that the railroad seemed ideally suited for what Alexis de Tocqueville, that perceptive French visitor in the 1830s, called the “restless temper” found in the sprawling republic.2

Although it is impossible to date the “first” railroad, it is known that activities in Great Britain by the mid-1700s had led to the construction of widely scattered private “plateways,” “tramways,” or “waggonways” that served collieries and slate and stone quarries in England, Scotland, and Wales. These primitive affairs fit the standard definition of a railroad: an overland right-of-way with a fixed path consisting of paired wooden rails that are elevated to support self-guided vehicles on flanged wooden wheels (wheels with projecting rims or collars). For more than two centuries an assortment of Lilliputian carriers used animals (horses, ponies, mules, and oxen), gravity, human traction, and occasionally wind to propel these cars to a nearby river, canal, or tidewater port. These bulky cargoes then moved wholly or in part by water transport to their final destinations.3

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Medium 9780253008329

1 In the Land of the Hawkeyes

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

CALLENDER, IOWA: M&STL, THE HOME ROAD

The steam-car civilization came to Callender, Iowa, in the fall of 1870 when Des Moines Valley (DMV) pushed its existing line from Keokuk to Des Moines northwestward from Iowa’s capital city through Perry to Fort Dodge. Kesho, the original townsite, simply picked up and moved across the tracks to the west and rechristened itself Callender. Early train service included a through-passenger run from Keokuk plus scheduled freights.

Des Moines Valley unfortunately was unhealthy. Out of it in 1874 came two roads: Keokuk & Des Moines (K&D), which inherited DMV’s avenue between those points, and Des Moines & Fort Dodge (DM&FtD), which acquired the northern section through Callender. DM&FtD advertised itself as “The Fort Dodge Route – The Great Throughfare between Des Moines and the North and Northwest.” Heady stuff that, but, in fact, the company was no more robust than DMV, its predecessor. Giant Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (Rock Island) took lease of it in 1887, the lease in 1905 passing to Minneapolis & St. Louis (M&StL), which some years later bought the property.

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 4: Body Restoration

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

The subject of restoring an E30 bodyshell in 2004 is a thorny one. At present there are still more than enough good cars to make a major restoration a bit pointless but as time goes on and numbers drop, this will change. Restoring cars is never about monetary gain anyway, just the achievement of bringing something back from the dead. Some cars are never worth doing though. A terminally rotten car without a decent panel is just not worth the effort, no matter what model. If it is really that rare and desirable, then find a better shell to start with and rebuild it using that. Unlike the CS Coupés and ’02 models, the E30 was made in huge numbers and after twenty years there are still plenty around.

Fortunately, the E30 is well catered for when it comes to body panels. BMW still stock just about everything for the E30 and if BMW made the part, it is going to fit properly. Three examples are front wings, bonnet and outer sills. Pattern front wings are normally a waste of time. Sure, if your E30 is just a cheap car that you want to keep on the road for the next couple of MOTs and you plan on being the last owners then go ahead, although I would go to a breaker and buy a good second-hand wing the same colour. Most of the pattern wings will fit after a fashion and line up okay after a bit of minor fettling and the majority are made of half decent thickness metal. However, some are just awful. BMW front wings are made on the original presses from BMW quality steel with BMW quality factory primer. They are a lot more expensive than a pattern wing but they are still inexpensive in absolute terms. They also fit properly and require the minimum of preparation before fitting and painting and will last as long as the original, whereas a pattern wing will not.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Traveling Texan”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

TRAVELING TEXAN by Archie P. McDonald

People just can’t stay put. As much as we love hometowns, or

Texas, or America, curiosity and horizons summon us to adventures beyond the seas. Texans, no less than Connecticut Yankees, wander the world with itchy feet and wide eyes at the wonder of it all.

I joined the caravan late. Apart from occasional excursions across the Rio Grande, I was dangerously close to the epitaph I read in an old novel a half century ago: “Here is my butt, the very watermark of all my sails.” Title and author escape me now, so this is as much attribution as I can muster for a line I wish I had written.

Then, in 1986, Ab and Hazel Abernethy tolerated my tagging along with them to Australia for three weeks on a folklore exchange. Ask Ab about our assignment to entertain the inebriated crew of the USS Joseph Kennedy, in port at American River on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, or the controversies that come with comparison of Queensland versus South Australia beer.

The passport acquired for visiting Australia got another stamp in 1990, when the fellow slated to escort fifteen high schoolers on a three-week summer trip to Germany had to withdraw. “Have passport and will travel,” says I, when the chairman of the exchange committee asked me to take over. The deal involved round-trip airfare and home stay with Rotarians in three cities.

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Medium 9780253017772

Appendix One: Notes on the Plate Captions and on the Plates

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF

APPENDIX ONE

NOTES ON THE PLATE C AP TIONS AND ON THE PLATES

Notes on the Photograph Titles in the Plate Captions

The captions are as the photographer prepared them. Generally, the only changes that have been made are minor corrections to capitalization (for example, “Union Station” for “Union station”), incorrect punctuation or character spacing (for example, “E. K. Hill” for “E.K. Hill”), and abbreviations (such as substituting names of states for their abbreviated forms). James E. Valle, in his groundbreaking 1977 book, The Iron

Horse at War, did not use Delano’s captions, but instead provided his own, extended captions. The design and photographic reproduction in his book does not reflect contemporary art-book standards, but these extended captions provide a wealth of information for those who desire more background on the subjects of the 272 Delano photographs included in the book. The Iron Horse at War covers only Delano’s blackand-white Chicago and Santa Fe photographs; it does not cover his FSA railroad-subject work, nor does it include any color photographs.

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Medium 9780253007902

6   Observations

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

The cars Niles built were used in a variety of service modes: city, suburban, and interurban, as well as freight. In some cases they were called upon to run almost constantly, particularly in city and suburban service, but in others only at night, which became the rule for freight service when cities balked at having them on the streets in daylight. The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon Railway, for example, ran its Niles passenger cars as a boat train that met, in Grand Haven, boats from Chicago and carried the passengers and their baggage to Muskegon. Their freight motors, in season, carried large quantities of fresh fruit from western Michigan to Grand Haven for shipment to Chicago.

Although Niles produced an extensive catalog of car body designs, there is no evidence that Niles had a significant design department. Rather, throughout its existence it was, to a great extent, a contract builder of railway car bodies, and the Niles catalog features numerous cars known to have been designed by others. Niles did not participate in the Master Car Builders organization but preferred to remain independent. Trucks, brakes, and hardware were purchased from other manufacturers and the catalog featured Baldwin trucks. In some cases the cars were designed by the railway companies themselves. Many of the larger traction systems maintained well-staffed engineering departments that were perfectly equipped to design cars and had a better understanding of the requirements for their systems than an independent designer might have had. Additionally, there were several well-known and respected engineering firms that railway companies called upon to design power plants, track, and cars—firms such as J. G. White & Company, Ford Bacon & Davis, and premier among them, Stone & Webster Incorporated, all of New York.

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Medium 9780253005922

7 Coming of Age

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Beginning at this point in the Meridian story, the narrative will digress to include the senior author’s personal recollections from his early years around the city’s constantly changing rail scene. However, to start the record at its beginning, I was born in a white frame house surrounded by fields of cotton and corn outside the tiny crossroads village of Boligee (Greene County), Alabama, founded in 1926. The house sat on a dirt road and was only a quarter-mile from the home of my father’s parents, giving me constant access to their busy family life, which included my youngest uncles and aunts, who were still living at home.

It was four years after the crash of 1929, and the nation, especially the South, was still in the depths of the Great Depression. Fortunately, my father and grandfather were able to work steadily at their blacksmith shop, J. A. Lamb & Son. Even as a three-year-old, I was fascinated by machines, and it was always a treat for me to go inside the dingy, dirt-floored shop to explore the many tools used to make all manner of metal parts, from shoes for horses and mules to components of wagons, buggies, and an occasional auto. Indeed, my father had been one of the first young mechanics in Greene County to learn about auto repair as soon as Henry Ford’s pioneering Model T had migrated to the area’s roads. Moreover, their small shop was the only place for general repair in the tiny village, which was 10 miles from the county seat, Eutaw.

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Medium 9781770906730

19: NOT ALL DAYS ARE SUNDAYS

Neil Peart ECW Press ePub

Return of the Snowdancer

NOT ALL DAYS ARE SUNDAYS

MARCH 2014

THE TITLE IS A WEST AFRICAN SAYING, describing what in that part of the world is a cultural ambivalence toward life’s … vagaries. Some good days, some bad days. Into each life a little rain must fall. Ski trails may turn to ice. Every silver cloud has a dark lining. Not all days are Sundays.

Interesting that the “Sunday” metaphor seems to be fairly universal, not only in the West, but in many regions of Africa and Asia where Christian missionaries have been active. Despite choosing a different day of the week, the tradition is maintained among Jews and many Muslims—an ideal day of rest and ease, and sometimes prayer. I defer to Aldous Huxley’s father, who said a walk in the mountains was the equivalent of going to church. This reporter would maintain that the same equation applies to other pleasurable activities in nature, like the display of devout snowshoeing in the opening photo.

That day, though, was a Sunday, in every sense. It was early February, in the Laurentian Mountains of Quebec—a day that was everything that season, in that place, ought to be. Over two feet of snow covered the ground and clotted on the trees, the sky was pearly gray in a light overcast (often a harbinger of snow, like the proverbial “white sky”), and the temperature was in the single digits Fahrenheit. Cold, but not bitter cold.

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Medium 9780253005922

2 A New Start

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

During the period immediately after the war, rail planning and construction again became important to Meridian’s economy as well as throughout all the former Confederate states. Both of the troubled lines in western Alabama were finally completed. The Selma & Meridian Railroad’s ongoing financial problems led to another reorganization in 1871 as the Alabama Central Railroad. However, a new disagreement arose after the Northeast & Southwest Alabama, operator of the York–Meridian line, refused to give Alabama Central the trackage rights into Meridian it had granted to the Selma & Meridian prior to the war. To counteract this decision, the Alabama Central obtained court approval to construct a 12-mile line from York to Lauderdale, Mississippi, where it would be granted trackage rights over the M&O. This line began operating in July 1878, although later consolidations would render it unnecessary.

These difficulties were no doubt tied to the bankruptcy of the North & South Alabama line in October 1868. This allowed its return to the previous owners, the Wills Valley, which renamed it the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad. However, financial problems continued, and on January 1, 1871, the state of Alabama foreclosed on its bonds and became the legal owner. The state’s efforts to sell the road to another investor dragged out for nearly six years before a London banking firm, Emile Erlanger & Co., made a successful bid in June 1877. It renamed the line Alabama Great Southern Railway Co. Ltd. and began rebuilding it to contemporary standards (Harrison, First Supplement).

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 12: Interior Restoration

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253008329

5 In the Land of the Sooners

Don L. Hofsommer Indiana University Press ePub

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY AT OKLAHOMA STATE University presented itself during the first portion of the 1970s. Stillwater was Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (AT&SF or Santa Fe) country, located on a spur from what once had been a concave but through route from Newkirk, Oklahoma, to Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, parallel to the east of Santa Fe’s main gut from Newton, Kansas, to the Gulf of Mexico. Passenger service had ended November 10, 1956, but local customers still provided attractive freight revenue.

Santa Fe was a well-managed company with premier routes from Chicago to Los Angeles and Chicago to South Texas. In a relative sense, it was prosperous compared to many other railroads at the time. Yet the mood across the industry was grim, and it got worse as the decade of the 1970s wore on. Causes of financial anemia were many and varied among particular companies, but a popular prescription among virtually all carriers was abandonment of line segments, especially branches and redundant secondary routes. Santa Fe was not immune in this regard.

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Medium 9780253337979

6. A Snapshot at the Summit: The Lake Shore Electric in 1923

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

True to the perverse cycles of corporate fortunes, the Lake Shore Electric reached the zenith of its physical growth in 1923, three years after its traffic and income had peaked and had begun to decline. That year marked its last line acquisition when, on November 5, its Lorain Street Railroad subsidiary picked up the bankrupt Cleveland Southwestern’s Oberlin Avenue streetcar line in Lorain. At that time too, the system still operated all its original lines including several weaklings it would soon shed. Including its various subsidiaries, the company’s route mileage totaled almost 210 miles. Later it would add its Sandusky cutoff, but by then several branches and city lines were gone, so the system never again would be as large or as active. Thus late 1923 is an opportune point to pause in the historical narrative and look at the Lake Shore Electric system in some detail.

Despite its size, the LSE was an uncomplicated system essentially consisting of a Cleveland–Toledo main line with several secondary and feeder branches and local city lines in Lorain, Sandusky, and Norwalk.

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Medium 9780253019066

5 Financing Railroads

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads drew Illinois into a global network of capital and capitalists. Fewer than 50 miles of track existed in the state in 1850; by 1860 the Prairie State’s 2,500 route miles connected it with a world marketplace, thanks primarily to foreign money and the growth of Chicago. The iron for all that track was scarce, and much of it had to come from overseas, primarily Great Britain. Rails told only part of the story: railroads needed rolling stock and buildings, workers and coal, managers and paper, bridges and lumber, land and customers. Finding these required capital, raised in the form of stocks and bonds sold in exchanges far from the state and trading outside of local control.

Railroad financing became increasingly complex as capital needs expanded. The experience of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad—funded in part by progressive artisans and exuberant farmers—was unusual, as was that of the land-grant sustained Illinois Central. There was no such thing as purely private or purely public funding during the first two decades of railroading, if private excludes support of any kind from government entities. Confident assertions like that of Swedish emigrant Gustav Unonius, who wrote “Neither the state nor the city has spent a single dollar” building railroads, bolstered the prevailing laissez-faire ideology but were patently false. The promoters of America’s earliest railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, created a joint-stock company in which the state of Maryland bought five thousand shares worth $500,000, one-sixth of the initial $3 million offered. The South-Carolina Canal and Rail-Road Company built the first line in the South using state guarantees and municipal monies to stimulate interest and investment in the line between Charleston and Hamburg. And the company destined to be the largest corporation in the world during the nineteenth century, the Pennsylvania Railroad, mixed guarantees that government entities would purchase half of its stock with private investment.1

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Medium 9780253007902

7   The Survivors

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

A number of cars produced by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company have survived into the twenty-first century in various conditions, from derelict car bodies to fully functional cars. They are located in trolley museums from coast to coast.

FIGURE 7.1. Seattle Everett Traction Company No. 55, as delivered in 1910, is now preserved in Lynwood, Washington. Niles Historical Society.

FIGURE 7.2. Aurora Elgin & Chicago Railroad No. 20, preserved and operating at the Fox River Trolley Museum in South Elgin, Illinois. Built in 1902, it is believed to be the oldest operating interurban car in the United States. It has been modernized by replacing the original arch windows, a common rebuild practice with these old wood cars. Fox River Trolley Museum.

FIGURE 7.3. Rochester & Eastern Railway No. 157 of 1914, preserved inoperable in Rochester, New York. New York Museum of Transportation.

FIGURE 7.4. A “One Owner” car operating in Washington since it was built in 1909, on the traction line of the original purchaser, Yakima Valley Transportation Company, work car “A.” Author’s collection.

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Medium 9780253005922

5 Roller-Coaster Ride

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

The Mobile & Ohio timetable of October 1, 1922, included the same level of passenger service in Meridian as in 1916, namely, Nos. 1–4 plus locals 5 and 6. However, it shows that Pullman transfers had been revived by the Alabama Great Southern to Birmingham and the New Orleans & Northeastern to New Orleans, although there was no sleeping car occupancy leaving the Crescent City, requiring a passenger to ride coach to Meridian and then board the sleeper. Between Birmingham and Mobile, both M&O trains carried sleepers in both directions, although the road had discontinued (presumably due to cost) dining car service on Nos. 1 and 4 and reinstituted meal stops in Cairo, Illinois; Jackson, Tennessee; plus Corinth, Tupelo, and Meridian, Mississippi.

A new approach to passenger relations was clearly evident in M&O’S February 27, 1927, timetable. Gone were Nos. 3 and 4, replaced by the Gulf Coast Special (Nos. 15 and 16), which carried a New Orleans Pullman and a parlor-lounge-dining car. Schedules of the road’s four trains were shortened by over two hours, allowing it to advertise their rides as a “passage through the historic and scenic South in daylight.” The Special continued M&O’S connection with the Montgomery trains (now denoted as Nos. 115 and 116). This timetable also included a note that Nos. 1 and 2 carried a drawing room–sleeper between Memphis and Mobile (via transfer at Tupelo). Conversely, by this time there was only a single local on the main line between Mobile and Saint Louis, consisting of Nos. 7 and 8 between Meridian and Jackson, Tennessee. However, both of these trains also carried a Memphis connection at Tupelo.

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