359 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253347572

18 Selling the Shiny Silver Sphere

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Still pushing his scheme, William T. Coleman approached the chairmen of the Norfolk and Western and the Chessie System. The N&W’s John Fishwick already had some idea of what was to be proposed. Some time earlier at a Washington dinner he had sat next to one of Jim McClellan’s old friends from the New York Central, David DeBoer, now one of the Federal Railway Administration’s top planners and analysts. DeBoer had mentioned the idea of Controlled Transfer, of which he was an avid proponent, and later he had met one Saturday in an Alexandria, Virginia, hotel room with Fishwick’s top lobbyist and outlined the idea in further detail. The lobbyist had expressed interest.

When Coleman met with Fishwick and the Chessie’s Hays Watkins, he did most of the talking while the two railroad chief executive officers listened. Coleman offered each railroad half of all the bankrupt properties and a gift of $500 million to cover the cost of refurbishing the lines. In addition, each would get $2 billion in low-interest federal loans. The two executives told the transportation secretary they would consider his offer and have their answers in a couple of weeks.

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Medium 9780253220738

1 The Age of Steam

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

Much of the history of Iowa is associated directly with the Railway Age. No one would deny that the railroad evolved into a magnificent means of long distance transportation, both for freight and passengers. The process began in the United States at about the point when the first Euro-American settlement occurred in the future territory and later the state of Iowa. By the time residents gained admission into the federal union in 1846, the railroad had emerged from its initial demonstration period. Notions about roadbed design and rails had been largely established, and motive power and rolling stock resembled equipment that for decades would dominate rail operations. As the state matured, so too did railways. On the eve of the Civil War railroad mileage in Iowa had reached 655 miles, but by 1890 trackage had soared to an astonishing 8,366 miles that fully covered the state.

Iowa was well suited for railroad construction. The general terrain in this “Beautiful Land” between the mighty Mississippi and Missouri rivers offered no major impediments for shaping paths for the iron horse. Of course, not all of the state was as flat as a floor, but the hills of the northeast, the “pot and kettle” sections elsewhere, especially in the southern tiers of counties, and the steep loess hills along the banks of the Missouri did not make for painfully difficult and costly construction, conditions that often confronted railroad builders in other sections of the country. After all, crossing the spine of the Allegheny Mountains, for example, had been time consuming and expensive, forcing such roads as the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania to drive and maintain costly tunnels, deep cuts, and monumental bridges.

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Medium 9780253018663

5 The Plot Thickens

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub


The Plot Thickens

With conveyance now past, everything changed. No longer charged with the obligations of providing rail service, both freight and passenger, the company became an entirely different entity. Instead of some two thousand employees, there were three people—Bill Hesse as president, Lock Fogg as secretary and general counsel, and John Brennan as chief financial officer—plus a very small support staff. In addition, there were the two trustees, Drew Lewis and Joe Castle, who were part-time, and me as outside lawyer with my staff, by which I mean Jim. Instead of occupying a large Edwardian pseudo-Moorish building at Twelfth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, the company had a small suite of offices at Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania. Instead of operating a railroad, the company devoted its entire energies to getting value for its remaining assets, above all its claim for compensation for the taking of its rail property into Conrail.

The assets, other than its claim, were principally a small, profitable trucking company, which it sold, some miscellaneous pieces of real estate, and the Reading Terminal Market and adjoining property, whose fate had to await the removal of the commuter service from the terminal. This was to follow the completion of a commuter tunnel linking the Reading and Penn Central passenger service, now, postconveyance, the sole responsibility of SEPTA. Still, unlike the Penn Central, these nonrail assets of Reading were of minor importance, so our claim against the government dominated everything else.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 8: Engine Types

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 2 - Clutch

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9780253347572

19 “God save me from the Planners and Thinkers!”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

While everyone had been preoccupied with the task of creating Conrail, John W. Snow, a tall, balding 33-year-old lawyer from Ohio, had arrived at DOT. A man of innate charm, Snow had earned a Ph.D. in economics as well as a law degree, which stood as a testament to his memory and his ability to focus on specific goals to the exclusion of everything else. Although they would have little contact at DOT, the paths of Snow and Jim McClellan would be entwined for the next 25 years. Behind the scenes they would become adversaries, trying incessantly to outwit each other, and their battles would totally reshape eastern railroading.

Much like some moments in McClellan’s career, when Snow arrived at DOT he was unknowingly being made the beneficiary of adversity. He had been married for eight years to a granddaughter of former senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana. Wheeler was known as a strong-willed man who could be a fierce adversary. When Franklin Roosevelt was trying to steer the country toward its entry into World War II, Wheeler had fought him loudly and tenaciously. Now Snow’s marriage had foundered, the divorce had turned bitter, and Wheeler was subjecting him to the same kind of seek-and-destroy campaign that he had waged against FDR.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 13 - Electrics

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub


Replace the baby Elan heater intake plenum chamber if it has been removed. Ensure that the drain hose at the bottom is intact and mates up with the hole in the body and is adequately sealed with silicone sealant. Pour water into the plenum to test this feature or the carpets will never be dry. Before fitting the plenum chamber, fit any soundproofing that you may have removed against the engine bulkhead.

The heater unit on the baby Elan is a simple affair that is easily stripped down. Clean it out and pressure test to make sure there are no water leaks. Test the fan motor for quiet operation on both speeds. Rectifying faults like these at this stage are much easier than finding them in a fully assembled car. The same applies to the +2 heater but this is a little more complex. Connect the heater pipes to the heater unit ensuring the pipe runs do not interfere with other dashboard fitted items, such as the radio on the baby Elan. The +2 heater pipe connections are made on the engine side of the bulkhead and are just as inaccessible when the carburettors are in place.

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Medium 9780253353832

6 Frank Sprague and the Multiple Unit Train

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

In 1890 when Frank Sprague turned his attention to the development of highspeed electric elevators, he had by no means given up his interest in electric railroads. As early as his 1882–1883 visit to London, he had developed ideas for the electrification of the city’s steam-powered subway. In 1885 he had developed and presented a plan for the electrification of New York’s steam-powered elevated lines, and by 1886 had developed and tested electric equipment for the Els. With the elevated companies still not interested in electrification, he had turned his attention to street railway electrification, which led to his great success at Richmond and a boom in electric railways in the latter 1880s. By 1890 he was pursuing opportunities for electrification of elevators.

But Sprague did not set aside his interests in rapid transit for long. By 1891, New York’s Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners was struggling with the problem of extending the already existing elevated railway system or beginning the development of an entirely new subway system. Frank Sprague, in a long interview with the Commercial Advertiser on February 16, 1891, spelled out how he believed the city could best solve the increasing urgency of an expanded transit system. New York, he said, should build a four-track independent way and express tunnel service, using electricity as a motive power, which he assured the reader would “be capable of satisfying in the highest degree the most exacting demands of the service.”1

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Medium 9781770906730


Neil Peart ECW Press ePub

Dante’s View


APRIL 2014

AFTER RIDING UP the steep switchbacks to the mile-high lookout of Dante’s View, in Death Valley National Park, I straddled my motorcycle at the edge, looking west, and thumbed the kill switch. All was suddenly quiet and still, and I sat for a few minutes, facing that majestic vista, seeing it—and feeling it—as I had so many times before. For seven hours and almost 500 miles, I had been wandering the backroads of California’s Mojave Desert, so I was a little sore and tired, and ready to “get there.” But I would not have missed that unparalleled viewpoint, and hadn’t even considered passing by the winding little road up to Dante’s View.

Eighteen years and dozens of visits had not dulled its radiance. If anything, knowing the place so well made it more alive, with memories of viewpoints, hiking trails, mountaintops, and perhaps most vital of all, so many stories, personal and historic. Since my first sight of Death Valley, under a full moon in late 1996, to two days of filming scenes for my instructional DVD, Taking Center Stage, in various locations around the park in early 2011, my senses have been thrilled and my imagination inspired by one of my favorite landscapes.

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Medium 9780253337979

10. The Predecessors: 1883–1906

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The Lake Shore Electric’s family tree dated back to the electric railways’ equivalent of Pilgrim Father days and included some especially distinguished pioneers. Inevitably too, it was a complex assemblage of different personalities and lineages. At least ten different company names showed up at one time or another, but by the time the LSE was created in 1901 these had boiled down to four — the Lorain & Cleveland, the Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk, and two Sandusky-based companies, the Sandusky & Interurban and the Sandusky, Norwalk & Southern. A fifth, the Lorain Street Railway, joined the family in 1906.

Three of these had comparatively simple, straightforward histories, but the city of Sandusky seemed to spawn financial and corporate instability for its two railways — perhaps the result of too much competition in a stagnant and marginal market. Whatever the reasons, the Sandusky predecessors were both the oldest and the most complex.

Sandusky’s modest street railway system had its origin in the Sandusky Street Railway, a locally promoted horsecar line which was built primarily to connect its steamship piers and downtown area with the then-remote Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway station. The LS&MS main line was the city’s primary rail route, and originally had entered town from the east along the waterfront. In 1872, however, it was relocated a mile south of the city’s center, and reaching it became a hardship. The first solution was a horse-drawn omnibus line organized by Sandusky’s Gilcher brothers in 1882. But even by then competition was brewing; another group of local businessmen headed by Clark Rude had incorporated the Sandusky Street Railway on August 3, 1881.

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Medium 9780253005915

4 Across the Middle East from Berlin to Baghdad

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

Crossing the Bosporus. Coming or going to the station, the handsome white and buff ferry boats that served the Bosporus operated between the ferries near the Istanbul center on the European side and Haydarpasa on the Asian side. Just to the north of the ferry stood the distinctive Galata Tower, while to the west was the Galata Bridge, which transited an immense traffic of pedestrians, autos and taxis, streetcars, and prospective ferry riders. Also to the west are the towers of the splendid mosques and buildings of the old city of Seraglio, such as Hagia Sophia or Sultan Ahmed, while to the north, Leander’s Tower can be seen on a small island near the eastern shore. A view of Haydarpasa station across the Bosporus.



There may have been a rail-shipway somewhere more fascinating than that of Istanbul’s Bosporus, but I have never heard of it. These rail-shipway intersections, where the rail crossing is too great for building a bridge or tunnel link, almost always create a conjunction of great fascination. Southern Pacific’s crossing from East Bay across San Francisco Bay or New York’s big Hudson River ferries that carried great crowds of passengers between the New Jersey terminals and Manhattan were favorites of American train riders, while such rail-water links as the train-ship-train crossings between Great Britain and the Channel terminals of France, Belgium, or Holland were equally popular among European railroad fanciers. These and others, many now gone, had their own supporters, but for me the splendid rail crossing on the Bosporus had become my own special favorite from the first time I saw it in 1961.

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Medium 9780253011817

4 Surveys, Finances, and Construction

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub



Essential to achieving the objective of the Knoxville Railroad Convention was locating the exact route for the Louisville, Cincinnati & Charleston Rail Road (LC&C). The geography of this vast proposed service area meant that decision makers needed to make choices, and often their choices became contentious. Robert Hayne and his supporters strongly favored the French Broad River valley for crossing the spine of the Southern Appalachians. Such a pathway would benefit South Carolinians, both Charlestonians and residents of other important communities in the Palmetto State. Routing options included possible service to Columbia, Greenville, Spartanburg, and York.1

This building strategy through the Midlands and Upstate South Carolina would permit several transportation-starved counties in western North Carolina to receive rail service. As for a route through the western section of the Tar Heel State, rumors flew. Some believed that the LC&C presence would be more extensive. The longer path, it was reported, would enter the state near Rutherfordton before turning generally westward over the crest of the mountains toward Asheville and the French Broad River. So many were hopeful.2

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Medium 9780253347572

4 The Portly Virginia Gentleman

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

When they met, Alfred Perlman and James Symes agreed once again that New York Central shareholders would get 40 percent of the new company and that the Pennsylvania’s owners would hold 60 percent. The “new” company actually would be the Pennsylvania Railroad, but it would assume a new name, Penn Central Corp.

The shareholders approved the merger, and the Interstate Commerce Commission began more than a year of hearings in 1962. As the sessions were getting under way, McClellan was starting his job at the Southern Railway. Although he paid scant attention to rail mergers, his bosses cared, and from their vantage point just nine blocks from the ICC’s ornate quarters on Independence Avenue, they watched with concern as the Penn Central argued its case. Symes and Perlman both defended the size of the proposed railroad, Symes reminding the commission that the combined system would be moving fewer cars than the Pennsylvania carried without any disruptions in its heyday, a reassurance that would help shake the Penn Central’s credibility later.

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Medium 9781855209626

Chapter 2: E28

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781855209657

Chapter 2 Clutch

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub

Note: Models with 1.9 Litre and 2.4 Litre (5-cyl.) engine can also be fitted with a clutch cable operation. The clutch diameter is not the same for all engines, as it depends on the performance of the engine.

To remove the clutch unit, it will be necessary to separate the engine from the transmission, as has been described in Section Engine or remove the transmission from the vehicle, as described in Section Transmission.

Mark the clutch in its fitted position on the flywheel if there is a possibility that the clutch unit is to be re-used. To remove the clutch, unscrew the six bolts securing the pressure plate to the flywheel, lift from the flywheel followed by the driven plate, which will now be free. Before removing the driven plate, note the position of the longer part of the driven plate hub, as the driven plate must be refitted in the same way.

Install in the reverse sequence to removal, noting the following points:

Fig. 2.1. – The component parts of the clutch assembly.

Fig. 2.2. – Using the special VW tools to lock the flywheel and to centre the clutch driven plate.

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