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8 - Lake Steamers: On the Inland Sea

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

On the Inland Sea

NATURE KINDLY DUG FIVE LARGE LAKES ALONG THE NORTHERN border of the United States about twelve thousand years ago. Humans have used these convenient waterways as a means to get around the region since the ice age finally released its frigid grip on North America. The Great Lakes are the largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. They measure from east to west about 1,500 miles long (fig. 8.1). They rank in size, starting with the largest, from Lake Superior to Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario. Superior has places that are 1,000 feet deep; Ontario's mean depth is 400 feet, while Erie's mean depth is only 90 feet. Erie's shallow waters are more easily disturbed by winds, making it stormier than its sisters. She is considered treacherous and dangerous to navigate and so is disliked by sailors. The other lakes can swell up in a grand fury, though they are somewhat more pacific than the Erie. All of the lakes are graveyards of sunken ships and lost seamen.

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Medium 9780253020635

3 Sin and the Aspiring Reporter

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


Sin & the Aspiring Reporter


THE DOWNWARD SLIDE OF THE RAILROAD INDUSTRY continued as the 1950s progressed. Cloistered at the University of Richmond in a world of history studies and college activities, I rarely noticed what was happening. I did read about trains being discontinued because they lacked riders. Even those that linked Richmond with Washington, where I would go to sit in on the Senate’s proceedings, were only half full.

While those coaches contained a moderate load, many other trains were carrying hardly any passengers. One afternoon I took the train to South Boston, a city on the North Carolina border just east of Danville, to visit a classmate. It was the same train my grandfather had captained, and I found a disturbing change. Instead of a line of passenger cars and a gleaming green steam locomotive, the train consisted of a nondescript diesel and two coaches, both of them nearly empty.

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21 “Why the Hell Do We Need Four Tracks Out Here?”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Switching his support for deregulation had been one of Stanley Crane’s last acts as president of the Southern Railway. In September 1980 he turned 65 and under the railroad’s retirement rules was forced to step down. Having been in the post only three and a half years, Crane wanted to stay, for he had only just begun to have fun. Nevertheless, the rule was rigid, and he moved out of his spacious office on the eleventh floor and into a modest room tucked away in the recesses of the headquarters building.

One hundred forty miles north of the Southern’s Washington offices, Ed Jordan continued to be pelted with criticism from USRA and even some of his own directors. He was burning out. The spirit and the fight that had spurred him on during Conrail’s creation and start-up had disappeared. His indecisiveness had led to confrontations with USRA’s new chairman, whose staff was growing openly more critical of Conrail’s management. Two of USRA’s directors who headed western railroads had despaired of him totally and were urging his removal.

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Medium 9780253017772

PORTFOLIO ONE: The Farm Security Administration Photos, 1940–1942

Reevy, Tony Indiana University Press PDF



Figure 1.1. Washington, DC. Portrait of

Jack Delano, Office of War Information photographer. September 1942. John Collier.

Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSAOWI Collection, Reproduction Number LC-USF34-014739-E.

In February 1940, Roy Stryker, chief of the FSA Historical Section, wrote to John R. Fischer, director of the Division of Information:

We are going to have to move fast to get a new man on the payroll to replace Arthur Rothstein. As you know, it is not going to be the easiest thing in the world to find a man to take hold of Arthur’s job and get into the swing of production in the manner of Lee, Rothstein, and

Post. . . . We have already found the man, Mr. Jack Delano. . . . We have an outstanding person. He is an artist by training, and has used the camera for several years. He did one of the finest jobs on the story of the coal miners in the anthracite region that I have ever seen. A man that can turn out as excellent a job is not to be lost.1

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Medium 9780253011275

Chapter 1 The Bridge

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad began, fittingly, with a journey across the Mississippi River. The small group of prosperous businessmen was crossing by boat, not bridge. That would come soon enough. For the moment they were focused on a swifter, more modern kind of transportation: a railroad. The year was 1845, and on this sultry June afternoon, they were headed from the Iowa to the Illinois side for a meeting with the wealthiest and most powerful man in the region, Colonel George Davenport.

The first Rock Island bridge, between its April 21, 1856 completion and May 6–when the steamboat Effie Afton struck just right of the draw span, setting the bridge on fire. A contemporary view of the Iowa side shows the draw span, right, and bustling Davenport, left, where Antoine LeClair donated his house and land for Rock Island’s station and yard. Putnam Museum of History and Natural Science, Davenport, Iowa

Davenport beckons from across the Mississippi in this 1858 Rufus Wright lithograph depicting the arrival four years earlier of the first Rock Island train in its namesake city. Steamboats Ben Campbell and Tishomingo stand offshore. By 1856, a bridge will span these waters. Putnam Museum of History and Natural Science, Davenport, Iowa

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Chapter 5 The Road to Ride

Bill Marvel Indiana University Press ePub

The Rock Island was usually not the shortest, nor the fastest, nor the most prosperous railroad between the cities it served. So it had to try harder.

Even in the worst of times, the railroad did its best to field a fleet that gave passengers a run for their money. And when times were flush, the Rock Island often ran ahead of the pack. It was among the first with onboard dining and streamliners. It innovated restlessly, if not always wisely. Its trains might run in the red, especially toward the end, but they ran.

As soon as the track was down and open for business in 1852, two daily trains left Chicago for Joliet. Within months the dozen passenger cars provided by contractors Henry Farnam and Joseph Sheffield could no longer meet demand, and 16 additional cars were ordered. Trains ran full, hauling passengers from Chicago’s passenger house to the end of track, wherever that might be. By 1856 the road was advertised “the Shortest, Quickest and Safest Route” to Kansas and Nebraska—though it had reached neither destination. The roadbed was raw, the crude wooden benches were hard, but tens of thousands of immigrants were already riding Rock Island trains on the first leg of their journeys to the Great American Frontier. Within the decade, they would ship their produce to eastern markets via Rock Island.

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7 - River Steamers: White Swans on the Inland Rivers

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

White Swans on the Inland Rivers

EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS WERE WELL ESTABLISHED ALONG THE Atlantic Coast by the beginning of the eighteenth century. The Allegheny Mountains discouraged migration to the west, except for traders, military men, explorers, and the eccentric. A few forts and trading posts were established by the French, which led to territorial disputes with Britain. A war erupted in 1756 between these European powers. Britain won the conflict and established its claim to most of North America. The British Colonial Office prohibited settlement in these territories as a way to end conflicts with the Native Americans who inhabited these vast lands. The peace was kept only temporarily; however, American independence reopened the settlement issue, and by the late 1780s land-hungry settlers began moving into the Ohio country. The only easy route to get there was the Ohio River, so the pioneers gathered at Pittsburgh and were carried down the river in flatboats piled high with people and their sundry possessions. The Ohio River was the east-west branch of two other major inland rivers: the Mississippi and the Missouri. There were also about fifty tributaries large enough to allow navigation by smaller boats, in some cases for several hundred miles. Nature also provided an excellent regional waterway – the Great Lakes. By 1850 the center of the nation was filling up with people. There were a dozen new states and about ten million residents. Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis were expanding. Most of this growth can be attributed to the rivers.

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Medium 9780253006332

2 Stations

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub




It would be during the “Demonstration Period,” roughly the 1830s and 1840s, that the railroad station evolved. At the dawn of intercity railroads, officials did not fret much about depot design or construction, instead concentrating on tracks, bridges, and other physical aspects of their new lines. Recruiting reliable workers and making plans for operations and expansion also consumed time. An upstart carrier might use or modify an existing structure convenient to its tracks to serve as a depot. When in 1830 the gestating Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) reached Ellicott’s Mills (now Ellicott City), Maryland, 13 miles west of its starting point on Pratt Street in Baltimore, the company decided that passengers should wait in the nearby Patapsco Hotel. When the B&O a year later extended its original stem in Baltimore the short distance to the Inner Harbor, the Three Tuns Tavern served as the depot. Railroad officials believed that travelers could fend for themselves. This had been the experience of stagecoach riders, as operators infrequently owned station facilities; rather, proprietors of hotels, stores, and taverns provided shelter and services. Yet eventually the B&O felt the need to build a structure at Ellicott’s Mills to accommodate and protect shipments of freight. Later the railroad erected a depot designed for passengers, and Baltimore likewise received enhanced passenger facilities.

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Medium 9780253020635

19 Two Empty Limousines

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


Two Empty Limousines


WHILE J. B. HUNT WAS RIDING THE SANTA FE, I WAS CONSULTING a mix of clients and watching the transportation industry enter an era of dramatic change. The intermodal business was taking off. American retailers were importing a growing array of products from Asia, and many other goods were coming into West Coast ports and crossing the continent by train for European-bound container ships. The United States was exporting as well, shipping such raw materials as cotton and scrap metal. The United States had become a major link in the global marketplace, and its intermodal trains were the lynchpin.

One of my assignments, restructuring the corporate communications department of Sea-Land, took me to the burgeoning container port of Rotterdam and then to Hong Kong. There I rode up and down the ramps of an eleven-story warehouse where customers loaded containers for Sea-Land’s east-bound vessels. Goods were coming from inland factories and stacked in bays, where they were packed into containers. It was a graphic, firsthand view of the new market that was reshaping the economies of the world.

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7 Cooking the Books

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

In the late fall of 1968, Jim McClellan and a friend from the Central rode the train together to Washington for interviews at the Federal Railroad Administration. The FRA administrator, who had been a protégé of Alfred Perlman at the Central and the Rio Grande, wanted one of them to come to FRA on a new exchange program that he was setting up. He selected McClellan, who left behind at Penn Central a memo to Perlman. Even if he hadn’t paid much attention to the financials, McClellan was beginning to see with ominous clarity that the chaos and fighting were putting the railroad on a track to disaster. Accordingly, he sent the warning that Penn Central would not make it if nothing were done to change things. Perlman could be surprisingly tolerant of such ideas, but others in the top ranks of Penn Central could not, and immediately it became clear that McClellan’s appointment at FRA was not temporary, because Penn Central was not going to let him come back. It didn’t seem that way at the time, but nothing could have been more to McClellan’s advantage.

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Medium 9781935543060

5 - Extending and Expanding Learning for Every Student

Gayle Gregory Solution Tree Press ePub

Extending and Expanding Learning for Every Student

The mission for a school of the future (or the present?) should be to optimally meet children's learning needs. That carries the implicit recognition that every child's brain is unique. And whereas most brains follow a normal developmental trajectory, each is also idiosyncratic in its strengths and weaknesses for learning particular types of information

—John Geake

This chapter will address some common strategies for modifying tasks and concepts for students who are working below the basic expectations or struggling with learning differences. Included are proven differentiated strategies that should be used at RTI Tier 1 every day. Teachers must also add to their bags of tricks a variety of ways to provide lateral enrichment opportunities for students as they meet the standards and expectations. To provide all students with a level of challenge appropriate for their abilities, teachers must learn how to raise the bar and extend the learning beyond the grade-level standards.

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Medium 9780253005922

6 A Tumultuous Decade

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Early operations of the Rebel streamliner (see Plate 1) proved to be the economic miracle hoped for by GM&N’S management. In 1935 its total cost was 44.4 cents per mile (including a direct operating cost of 31.8 cents), while it produced a surprising income of 59 cents. The excess of 14.6 cents per mile provided needed funds for general operations. But, more fundamentally, this surprising experience began to convince the road’s management that using diesel-electric locomotives for freight could also produce similar savings. It was a lesson they would not forget in the coming years.

An important event in 1936 was the road’s decision to create an independent highway subsidiary, Gulf Transport Co., thus consolidating and formalizing its earlier forays into supplementary highway transportation. The road’s management emphasized that this company would not seek new business but would be a low-cost supporting element of its rail-based operations. Consequently, the bus company was never a large moneymaker, but neither did it produce a drag on net income. However, it did go a long way in convincing shippers in its service area that GM&N valued their business (Oliver).

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22 Girding for Battle

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

By mid-1982, as Stanley Crane continued to inject health into Conrail, his progress was catching the attention of Jim McClellan and John Snow. Until then both men had been diverted by mergers at their own railroads and had given little thought to Conrail. Now they were watching with increasing interest as it grew more alluring.

On November 1, 1980, just as Crane had been preparing for his new job at Conrail and only 16 days after rail deregulation had gone into effect, Snow’s Chessie and the Seaboard Coast Line had merged into a new holding company called CSX Corp. Since it invariably would be caught up in maneuverings involving the government, CSX needed someone with strong lobbying experience to run the corporation’s legal and public affairs, and the company turned to John Snow.

Having been dismissed by Crane, John Sweeney, who had been close to Snow for much of the preceding decade, moved in to run CSX’s labor relations. To both it was growing obvious that the government would soon sell Conrail. CSX enjoyed a growing business of high-yield chemical traffic stretching from the lower Mississippi to Wilmington and lower Michigan, and acquiring part of Conrail would enable them to expand that business by reaching the chemical plants of New Jersey. Conrail’s tracks through New York would give CSX access as well to the container business that the other road was building between the Hudson and Mississippi Rivers.

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Medium 9780253337979

9. Epilogue: The Afterlife

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

One certainty during the LSE’s last several years was that finality was a flexible concept. Nothing seemed to end cleanly or exactly as planned.

All Lake Shore Electric revenue services ceased May 15, 1938 — or May 25, or May 30, depending on one’s preference. But even afterward, genuine LSE trains, with LSE crews, ran for another two years. Unlike many defunct interurban lines, the LSE was not turned over to commercial scrappers. Fred Coen remained very much on the scene, now managing the Lake Shore Coach Company and still responsible for the deceased but still-intact railway. Apparently under no pressure from Toledo Edison to vacate the rights-of-way, Coen decided that his own employees would dismantle the line themselves — thus keeping many of them employed for some time longer. For accounting purposes, all remaining rail employees were transferred to the Toledo Edison payroll on July 1, 1938, but during 1938, 1939, and early 1940 they regularly operated salvage trains with LSE work motors and line cars under Coen’s management.

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Medium 9780253007902

7   The Survivors

Lawrence A. Brough Indiana University Press ePub

A number of cars produced by the Niles Car & Manufacturing Company have survived into the twenty-first century in various conditions, from derelict car bodies to fully functional cars. They are located in trolley museums from coast to coast.

FIGURE 7.1. Seattle Everett Traction Company No. 55, as delivered in 1910, is now preserved in Lynwood, Washington. Niles Historical Society.

FIGURE 7.2. Aurora Elgin & Chicago Railroad No. 20, preserved and operating at the Fox River Trolley Museum in South Elgin, Illinois. Built in 1902, it is believed to be the oldest operating interurban car in the United States. It has been modernized by replacing the original arch windows, a common rebuild practice with these old wood cars. Fox River Trolley Museum.

FIGURE 7.3. Rochester & Eastern Railway No. 157 of 1914, preserved inoperable in Rochester, New York. New York Museum of Transportation.

FIGURE 7.4. A “One Owner” car operating in Washington since it was built in 1909, on the traction line of the original purchaser, Yakima Valley Transportation Company, work car “A.” Author’s collection.

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