258 Chapters
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Medium 9780253347572

3 A Cabal at the Greenbrier

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Jim McClellan was about to participate in his first merger. It was now 1966, and he had been a student back at Wharton when the marriage talks had begun in September 1957. James M. Symes (pronounced “Sims”), president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, had met with Robert R. Young, chairman of the New York Central, at his Waldorf apartment, proposing a merger.

Besides dominating the New York–Washington Corridor, the Pennsylvania ran from Philadelphia west through Pittsburgh to Chicago and St. Louis, crisscrossing the Northeast and Midwest and dominating some of the region’s most important freight markets. The Central stretched from Montreal, New York City, and Boston to Chicago and St. Louis. They were the country’s two biggest railroads, and in Symes’s view their combined strengths and the savings from cutting duplicate jobs, shops, and terminals would liberate them from their problems. Added to that, they would have access to the seemingly endless flow of cash from a Pennsylvania-controlled line that served the rich Pocahontas coal fields, the Norfolk and Western Railway.

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4 The Portly Virginia Gentleman

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

When they met, Alfred Perlman and James Symes agreed once again that New York Central shareholders would get 40 percent of the new company and that the Pennsylvania’s owners would hold 60 percent. The “new” company actually would be the Pennsylvania Railroad, but it would assume a new name, Penn Central Corp.

The shareholders approved the merger, and the Interstate Commerce Commission began more than a year of hearings in 1962. As the sessions were getting under way, McClellan was starting his job at the Southern Railway. Although he paid scant attention to rail mergers, his bosses cared, and from their vantage point just nine blocks from the ICC’s ornate quarters on Independence Avenue, they watched with concern as the Penn Central argued its case. Symes and Perlman both defended the size of the proposed railroad, Symes reminding the commission that the combined system would be moving fewer cars than the Pennsylvania carried without any disruptions in its heyday, a reassurance that would help shake the Penn Central’s credibility later.

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Medium 9780253353832

10 A Diverse Inventor

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

As an inventor, Frank Sprague presents us with a complex character of sometimes seemingly contradictory traits. On the one hand, he provides a textbook example of the “inventor’s shop” model of focused, directed research on a specific set of design problems—working with his colleagues and employees methodically testing and revising designs in a disciplined shop environment. On the other hand, he also displayed characteristics more in accordance with the “lone inventor” stereotype—jotting down ideas and plans as they occurred to him, on nearly any design problem that presented itself during his daily business. Throughout his career, Sprague relied on both spontaneous creativity in recognizing and meeting design challenges, and disciplined, methodical work in refining his ideas. He combined both of these traits with an indomitable sense of purpose and tireless zeal for pursuing and promoting his ideas, as well as asserting his priority to specific inventions or design elements, particularly when he believed himself to be in the right. He must at times have seemed to his “opponents,” and probably to some of his colleagues as well, as something of a gadfly. He did not accept failure easily, and at times persevered against the odds to his cost. We will return to this aspect of Sprague the inventor below.

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Medium 9780253337979

13. Freight Services

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

Passengers were the Lake Shore Electric’s primary business, or so it originally thought. But after a belated start, the company established a substantial and far-flung freight operation which eventually overtook passengers in importance. Indeed, by the early 1930s freight appeared to be the key to whatever future the railway had. Describing it is more difficult, however. Unlike its passenger operations with their myriad timetable publications, the LSE’s freight services are only spottily documented; it was a complex business, some parts of which followed no fixed patterns.

First, some definitions are needed. Actually, “freight” on the LSE (and most other rail carriers) consisted of at least four disparate types of traffic lumped under one loose definition: (1) “express” or “package freight,” (2) less-than-carload freight, universally abbreviated as “LCL” by the rail lines, (3) forwarder or consolidator shipments, and (4) straight carload movements of several different types. To one degree or another each of these varieties involved different handling methods, rate scales, equipment, traffic patterns and economic characteristics. Often, too, their patterns of growth and decline varied from one another.

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Medium 9780253019066

5 Financing Railroads

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

Railroads drew Illinois into a global network of capital and capitalists. Fewer than 50 miles of track existed in the state in 1850; by 1860 the Prairie State’s 2,500 route miles connected it with a world marketplace, thanks primarily to foreign money and the growth of Chicago. The iron for all that track was scarce, and much of it had to come from overseas, primarily Great Britain. Rails told only part of the story: railroads needed rolling stock and buildings, workers and coal, managers and paper, bridges and lumber, land and customers. Finding these required capital, raised in the form of stocks and bonds sold in exchanges far from the state and trading outside of local control.

Railroad financing became increasingly complex as capital needs expanded. The experience of the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad—funded in part by progressive artisans and exuberant farmers—was unusual, as was that of the land-grant sustained Illinois Central. There was no such thing as purely private or purely public funding during the first two decades of railroading, if private excludes support of any kind from government entities. Confident assertions like that of Swedish emigrant Gustav Unonius, who wrote “Neither the state nor the city has spent a single dollar” building railroads, bolstered the prevailing laissez-faire ideology but were patently false. The promoters of America’s earliest railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, created a joint-stock company in which the state of Maryland bought five thousand shares worth $500,000, one-sixth of the initial $3 million offered. The South-Carolina Canal and Rail-Road Company built the first line in the South using state guarantees and municipal monies to stimulate interest and investment in the line between Charleston and Hamburg. And the company destined to be the largest corporation in the world during the nineteenth century, the Pennsylvania Railroad, mixed guarantees that government entities would purchase half of its stock with private investment.1

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Medium 9780253347572

14 A School Band on the Railroad Tracks

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

While McClellan and the others had been creating Amtrak, Judge John P. Fullam, who was presiding over the Penn Central bankruptcy, had named four trustees, three to serve part-time as the equivalent of directors. The fourth was Jervis Langdon Jr., who became the chief trustee and served full-time. A former president of the Baltimore and Ohio, Langdon, 65, had flown the Hump with the Flying Tigers during World War II and continued to pilot his own airplane. He was a tall man with a rocklike face that was softening with age. His looks and demeanor seemed soft, but that was misleading, for his cold, alert eyes told the real story about Langdon, who was well versed in the subtleties of corporate politics.

Langdon was a great-nephew of Mark Twain, who wrote Tom Sawyer in an outbuilding at the family farm—where Langdon himself still lived—outside Elmira, New York. Langdon was the ideal choice because—although no operating man—he knew how to scrutinize operations, and he understood the art of diplomacy and compromise. The latter skills would be mandatory, since working with Washington and the labor unions would be key to Penn Central’s survival. He knew the railroad business from the viewpoint of a strategist.

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Medium 9780253355485

6 The Syndicate Forms

Jr., Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

All this was happening before the South Penn was even fully organized and its financing put in place. And that took some time because Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Gowen, and their allies wanted to keep the project tightly controlled by those with a direct stake in its success without the risk of PRR agents or any other interlopers buying into it.

Typically, major new nineteenth-century railroad projects were initiated by promoters who relied on the public to put up the bulk of the needed funds—often, of course, reserving enough voting stock for themselves to control the enterprise. Typically, too, the initial stock and bond issues were designed to cover something close to the full estimated cost of building the road, so that theoretically the project would be fully funded from its start. Not so the South Penn. Instead, Vanderbilt, Carnegie, and Gowen put together a relatively small, closed investor syndicate of wealthy, like-minded allies. This syndicate was to put up the entire $15 million estimated construction cost and, in return, control the finished railroad. Initially there was to be no outside funding whatsoever, not even from investment banks. (Some syndicate members were banking executives, but they did not directly represent their companies.)

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Medium 9780253019066

16 Postwar Challenges

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

World War II was the last golden age of railroading in the United States. Between 1935 and 1945 in Illinois, freight revenues more than doubled, passenger income increased by over 300 percent, and the network operated as smoothly as could be expected given the emergency conditions prevailing. Things would deteriorate after 1945, but that could not be known at the time and railroad executives exuded optimism following V-J Day. A bright postwar future appeared to beckon as new technological and safety developments promised to retain customers and grow traffic. To capture the festive postwar mood and commemorate a century of Chicago railroading, the Windy City hosted a lakefront Railroad Fair in 1948.

As joyful as the event proved, celebrating could not solve looming problems. Increased competition from other modes, deteriorating labor relations, and falling revenue posed massive challenges. Unlike the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition, which generated new traffic for and excitement about railroads, the majority of Railroad Fair attendees arrived by car. Passenger numbers declined as people drove locally and, increasingly, flew long-distance. The automobile returned with a vengeance after World War II, when gas and rubber rationing ended and creeping prosperity released pent-up demand. Factories shifted from producing tanks to making cars, suburban living encouraged auto ownership, and optimism in the future was reflected in a desire to take to the open road.1 In the meantime, Illinois railroad passenger revenue plummeted by 36.7 percent in the ten years between 1945 and 1955, pointing to a grim future.

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Medium 9780253011817

1 Slow, Difficult, and Dangerous Travel

H. Roger Grant Indiana University Press ePub


Before the Railway Age Americans faced limited travel options. Nearly always they were slow, difficult, and potentially dangerous. There was little need to question the sardonic judgment made more than a century ago by Henry Adams. This historian and man of letters wrote that persons “struggling with the untamed continent in 1800 seemed hardly more competent to their task [of road improvements] than the beavers and buffalo which had for countless generations made bridges and roads of their own.”1

Although poor land transportation knew no geographical bounds, residents in interior sections of the Old South and the Old Northwest2 experienced severe challenges when they made overland treks by foot, on horseback, or in an animal-powered vehicle. No wonder, then, that from the earliest settlements through the antebellum decades the promotion of internal betterments, including roads, became a popular focus. Improvements to land transport seemed imperative for progress; people wanted to move more rapidly, reliably, and securely. “To persons who have reflected upon the subject of internal improvement, there is no maxim of political economy better understood than that agriculture and commerce will improve, and civilization and happiness spread in promotion as the facility of conveyance increases,” wrote a thoughtful Robert Mills, architect, civil engineer, and member of the South Carolina Board of Public Works, in 1821. “Where men are kept asunder by forests, morasses or inaccessible mountains, their knowledge must be circumscribed and their conveniences few. In proportion as the difficulty of communication is removed, the spirit of enterprise increases.” Yet in antebellum America the federal government did little to coordinate, design, fund, or construct domestic transportation improvements, although discussions and debates repeatedly occurred in Congress, state legislatures, courthouses, and elsewhere.3

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Medium 9780253019066

13 Progressive Regulation

Simon Cordery Indiana University Press ePub

The perceived excesses symbolized by the Reid-Moore syndicate’s bleeding of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway contributed to a political and social climate conducive to further regulation. Behind this renewed regulatory fervor was a fear of dependence on enormous economic entities. Corporations appeared to be getting too big, too powerful, and too likely to control an entire industry. Democratic republics were not supposed to give rise to monopolies dominating entire sectors of the economy, but that is precisely what seemed to be happening. When Minnesota-based railroader James J. Hill and Wall Street banker J. P. Morgan merged the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy into a holding company already containing the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern Railroads, the government called foul. President Theodore Roosevelt, spurning Morgan’s gentlemanly offer to “send your man to see my man and tell him to fix it up,” instead mobilized the might of the federal government and established a precedent for future trust busting.

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Medium 9780253020635

18 J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


J. B. Hunt Takes a Ride on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe


WHILE A FEW PEOPLE LIKE SWEENEY AND BILL JOHNSON wanted out of the business, other railroaders were struggling to decrypt the mysteries of the free market. Most still did not understand the key to the industry’s future—the intermodal business—and some did not want to. Many men like CSX’s Jim Hagen had always recognized its potential, if it could be priced high enough to bring in a reasonable profit.

Although intermodal traffic, especially trips combining transportation modes like boats and trains, had been in existence since the infancy of the railroads, mixing rail service with trucking was a late bloomer. Tractor-trailers, or semis, had been traveling America’s highways since the 1920s, and some, delivering new cars to dealers, had been operating since the invention of the automobile, two decades before that. Railroads had experimented with piggyback, or intermodal, as early as the 1930s. Yet, it was not until 1955 that the first batch of highway trailers was placed on regularly scheduled intermodal trains. The Pennsylvania Railroad opened the service with dedicated trains, one each way, each day, between New York and Chicago. The business grew, and other railroads expanded their own services.

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Medium 9781574412383

“Walter Henry Burton’s Ride—Bell County to Juarez, Mexico in 1888”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF


COUNTY TO JUAREZ, MEXICO IN 1888 by James Burton Kelly

Walter Henry Burton was the first of seven sons born to John

Henry Martin Burton Jr. and Cynthia Priscilla Pass Burton. He was my maternal grandfather. He stood about 5′ 7″ tall and probably weighed 150 pounds—boots, hat, longjohns and all. But to me, he was a giant of a man, from my first recollection of him until the day he was buried in the Cleburne cemetery following a fatal automobile accident at age 76.

I could and hopefully will write a lot more about his life and the stories he told me when I was a young boy and spent all of my summers and holidays on the family farm and ranch six miles southwest of Cleburne in Johnson County, Texas. This story is about his two trips horseback from Bell County, Texas, to Juarez,

Mexico, to visit and work for his maternal grandfather Lafayette

Pass in 1888.

Walter Burton’s children called him “Dad” and his grandchildren called him Daddy Burton. When I was very young, Daddy

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Medium 9780253220738

3 Down at the Depot

Edited by Don L Hofsommer and H Roger Indiana University Press ePub

Before the widespread presence of internal combustion motor vehicles rails bound together state and nation. At every official railroad station Iowans gained formal access through the depot building to the iron horse or perhaps to an electric interurban car. For decades the gateway to the community, each “deeepo” (a popular pronunciation) meant much to residents.

The depot was usually placed in a central location, although because of line routing, the structure might appear in an outlying area. The selection of a more remote site may have been the result of the local topography or because the railroad arrived after the town site had been established and it was discovered that the expense of a more suitable place was unacceptable. A. B. Stickney, founder and longtime head of the Chicago Great Western Railway (CGW), told fellow executives that “the depot should be built in as close to the business center of the city as possible . . . That way the public will remember you.” It is understandable, then, that when his company constructed its Omaha Extension between Fort Dodge and Council Bluffs in 1902–1903, the depot in Carroll stood only a few steps from the main commercial establishments and just a block from the courthouse.

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Medium 9780253018663

• Epilogue

Howard H. Lewis Indiana University Press ePub


They’re all dead now, mostly. The three judges of the Special Court; Joe Castle, after typically ignoring his doctor’s order not to visit his daughter in Denver because of the altitude; Lock Fogg and Bill Hesse in the fullness of their years, fully vindicated as to the value of their railroad. Grant and Tom—Grant from too much alcohol over a long period of time, Tom from a surplus of cigarettes. Bill Dimeling and Jim Sox, way too young. Of the list of the fallen, two deaths affected me the most.

The first was Henry Friendly’s. When I read of his suicide in March of 1986, I found myself sobbing uncontrollably, which was totally inexplicable since I never really knew him at all, not even to exchange as little as a civil greeting: “Good morning, Mr. Lewis.” “Good morning, Your Honor.” Our “relationship” consisted of my attempts to answer his unending stream of highly intelligent and provocative questions and make as clear and convincing as possible our arguments for the valuation of what I now felt to be my railroad, in view of my contribution to a legal proceeding he created, structured, and managed in order to solve one of the most complicated and novel legal problems ever to exist in American jurisprudence. In the course of the five years we were together (longer than many marriages), I became persuaded that he epitomized the best of my profession: extraordinary intelligence; a determination to work harder than anyone should; a willingness, indeed eagerness, to explore all the issues in the case; an ability to control the litigation so that it moved at an extraordinary pace without giving anyone cause to complain that they had not been heard; and of course, total honesty and integrity. The most vivid memory I have of him now is posthumous. Several years after Friendly’s death and several years before his own, I entertained John Wisdom following a talk he gave at my request at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, when he told me the following story in private: On the night he took the suicidal overdose of pills, Friendly wrote a number of letters. The one he wrote to Wisdom went something like this:

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Medium 9781934009628

Appendix D: Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix D

Reproducibles for Lesson on Three-Dimensional Figures

Who Am I?

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Cooperative Grouping Guide Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Vocabulary Organizer

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures Cards

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

Three-Dimensional Geometric Figures

Making Math Accessible to ELLs (K–2) © 2010 r4 Educated Solutions • solution-tree.com Visit go.solution-tree.com/ELL to download this page.

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