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Medium 9780253020635

11 The Merger That Worked

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub


The Merger That Worked


THE PENN CENTRAL CRASH WAS SO DEVASTATING MANY railroaders and some journalists, including this one, were wondering whether any railroad as large as Penn Central would ever work. But when the Northern Pacific, Great Northern, and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy roads all came together, creating Burlington Northern, the merger did.

I was on my way home from Chicago one afternoon in early spring of 1972 and stopped by United Air Lines to see Eddie Carlson, who had asked me to visit him next time I was in town. When it came time for my flight, Eddie offered to drop me off on his way home, and as we neared O’Hare, I mentioned I was searching for another story, preferably one on transportation. “I met a very interesting man named Lou Menk the other day,” said Eddie. “He’s president of Burlington Northern, and he’s put together a successful merger. You ought to meet him.”

A few weeks later I was at BN’s headquarters in St. Paul talking to Louis W. Menk, and what I was finding confirmed that the merger was indeed working. The company’s 1971 ordinary earnings had totaled $35 million, a healthy 34 percent increase over 1970, the year in which the roads had merged. They were saving $4.4 million a year by combining local freight trains and another $7 million by laying off duplicate office workers.

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Medium 9781855209510

Chapter 9 - The Rolling Chassis

Gordon Lund Brooklands Books ePub


The body will be away for some time so take this opportunity to make good use of the space available. This will be the dirtiest part of the whole job, so on with the overalls and get weaving. This is the part of the restoration that can be therapeutic but also exasperating. Parts that have been screwed together for a long time sometimes do not wish to become undone. You have probably come across this already taking the body off. Clean off as much of the accumulated filth as possible. Just an observation, but have you ever stopped to wonder why the maintenance books you have read always show pictures of the strip down of perfectly clean assemblies. Of course they are stage-managed, but in some cases the cars they pull apart are fairly new anyway. You do not have this luxury.

My Elan +2’s early rolling chassis. This is an early Lotus replacement ungalvanised example

Plusgas penetrating fluid is as good as anything. Liberally soak every nut and bolt with it and leave for at least 24 hours. Now find something else to do.

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Medium 9780253337979

1. Genesis: 1901–1903

Jr.Herbert H. Harwood Indiana University Press ePub

The year was 1901, the first year of the twentieth century. Ohio’s own William McKinley was in the White House and Victoria was Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and monarch of Britain’s other dominions beyond the seas — including Canada. Neither would survive the year — McKinley felled by an assassin’s bullet and Victoria of the more natural effects of age. She was 82, had reigned for 64 years, and had defined an entire age.

And in Ohio, reigning over a wholly different empire — which also included Canada — were Henry A. Everett and Edward W. Moore, two Cleveland entrepreneurs who were rapidly moving to exploit the latest and most promising technological development — the electric railway. By the dawn of the new century steam railroads overwhelmingly dominated American intercity transportation; virtually all overland travel and freight movement was by rail. To get anywhere beyond a few miles, there was no other way.

But a different kind of railroading had suddenly evolved during the decade just past. Electricity was applied to urban street railways beginning in 1888, radically changing their form and potential. Now no longer limited by the speed and stamina of horses, these street railways were built outwards from the cities over increasingly longer distances. By the mid-1890s some were beginning to link towns and cities and distinguishing themselves from ordinary streetcar lines with a new name — interurbans. By the turn of the century the development of high-voltage three-phase alternating current transmission made long-distance electrified lines practical, and proved the key to interurban expansion.

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Medium 9780253347572

17 Merging Railroads over Bourbon

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Claude Brinegar had been wasting no time. Just a few months after the 45-Day Report, knowing that the new bill would require an even more detailed study of the problem by DOT, he had put to work a team of analysts, Jim McClellan among them. Viewing his brief March report to Congress as merely the forerunner of more advice and counsel, Brinegar wanted a document that would outline the kind of rail system that the region between the Mississippi and the Mid-Atlantic and New England needed. The secretary intended that it become a blueprint for resolving the crisis, and that is what the new law was to require of him. “Brinegar had us solving a problem,” said the Federal Railway Administration’s Bill Loftus. “We were searching for the solution, but Brinegar wanted a nongovernment solution.”

The network that would result had to be solvent and strong enough to provide dependable service to the region’s shippers. Early in their study the FRA staff agreed that they must look at all the railroads in the region, healthy as well as sick. Unquestionably, a lot of blood would flow. For instance, a line that wound past the estates of northern Baltimore and through the Amish farms of southern Pennsylvania had carried for decades the Pennsy’s sleepers and express trains bound from Washington to Harrisburg, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and points west. Now it bore not one passenger train and barely any freight. Just to the west lay the tracks of the Western Maryland Railway, which paralleled the Pennsylvania almost all the way to York and carried at least five times the tonnage that moved over the Pennsy line.

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Medium 9780253005922

1 Antebellum Beginnings

J. Parker Lamb Indiana University Press ePub

Development of permanent communities in most of the Gulf states began with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, signed in 1830 at the end of the War of 1812. This agreement ceded to the U.S. government lands previously controlled by indigenous tribes of Choctaws, Chickasaws, and others. Credit for establishing Meridian’s predecessor, a settlement known as Sowashee, belongs to Richard McLemore of Virginia, who purchased several thousand acres and began recruiting new settlers. The village was named for a nearby stream that flooded the area regularly. Thus, the Choctaws had given it the name “Angry Water.”

Eventually, McLemore sold large plots around the village to two ambitious businessmen, Lewis Ragsdale and John Ball, who soon began to lead in the development of a larger town. By late 1833 much of McLemore’s original tract had been incorporated into Lauderdale County, which by 1850 included five villages, with Marion as the county seat.

The initial line to reach east-central Mississippi began in the port of Mobile, Alabama. Always considered a poorer cousin to its western neighbor near the mouth of the Mississippi River, Mobile found its shipping tonnage in a declining position in the mid-1840s after its ranking among U.S. ports dropped from third (behind only New Orleans and New York City) to sixth position in a scant six years. Much of this was due to the rapid expansion of railroad building along the Eastern Seaboard during this period, as the complementary roles of railroads and waterborne transportation began to evolve. Such activity had been largely absent along the Gulf, as the major cotton states (Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi) contained a total of only 165 miles of trackage in 1848.

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Medium 9780253005915

3 On the North Edge of Africa

William D. Middleton Indiana University Press ePub

On the North Edge of Africa. A 72 mph electric passes through the bountiful Mamora cork forests around Rabat. Westbound Rapide No. 2 was on its way to Casablanca.



MOROCCO AND ITS CHEMINS DE FER DU MAROC, or Railways of Morocco (CFM), turned out to have a surprisingly modern railroad early in 1951. A substantial part of the railroad – the busiest part of its line – had already been converted to electric power, and the balance of the line haul had been converted to diesel power since the end of World War II. Steam power, mostly secondhand and elderly power – some dated to the Civil War period – was confined to switching service, and this, too, would be gone within the next few years. The CFM even offered premier trains between Casablanca and Algeria (the CA or AC trains, depending on direction of travel) that carried such amenities as Wagons-Lits sleeping and dining cars, while the Casablanca-Tangier express train carried passengers from the Maroc Express, which ran by train through Spain, followed by a steamer across the Gibraltar Straits between Algeciras and Tangier.

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Medium 9780253356963

3 - The Omnibus: Travel for All Citizens

John H.Jr. White Indiana University Press ePub

Travel for All Citizens

INNOVATIONS IN THE PRACTICAL FIELD OF TRANSPORTATION IS normally accomplished by mechanics or businessmen, and yet the introduction of the omnibus is credited to a French philosopher and scientist, Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). Late in life this learned man, best known for his work in calculus and fluids, decided to establish public transit in Paris. He advocated horse-drawn carriages that would run over a fixed route to carry ordinary folks around town at low fares. Five routes were established and service began during his final year. However, Pascal's democratic notions that the service would be open to all citizens was thwarted by a government charter prescribing that only “people of merit” might ride in such coaches and excluded soldiers, pages, servants, and laborers. Uniformed drivers and conductors were provided, but the vehicles were slow and the fares high. This pioneer operation expired by about 1675. The concept was reintroduced in 1823 by the operator of a hot bath in Nantes, a suburb of the French capital, who sought an inexpensive way of carrying patrons to his establishment from Paris. The bus proved so successful that service was expanded to other routes, and within five years more omnibus lines were organized. By mid-century thirteen hundred buses were running in Paris. The system, consolidated by royal decree in 1855, was carrying 40 million passengers. That number rose to 120 million by 1867. By this time Paris was a large metropolitan area, having overflowed its ancient walls in the seventeenth century and spread well into the countryside. Great boulevards and broad avenues replaced the crooked medieval streets in the 1850s and 1860s. The population had grown to more than one million by 1850 and would more than double over the next half century. The old “walking city” was obsolete, and Parisians were unwilling to trek for miles from one destination to the next. While the buses were not much faster than a walk, they allowed travelers to rest as the horses plodded along.

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Medium 9780253347572

8 “That Telephone Man”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

Stuart Saunders’s lobbying of the board was paying off, and he soon had the votes he needed to oust Alfred Perlman. Unwittingly Perlman had helped by insisting that the road’s Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania, shops build more new cars, and with dollars growing increasingly scarce, this and the constant rise in costs were making the directors additionally skeptical of Perlman’s judgment. So Saunders stepped up his still highly secret search for a new president.

After several months, Saunders heard of a possible candidate through one of David Bevan’s friends. Although Bevan was not directly involved in the search, he obviously knew—probably through an ally of Mellon—what was going on. For Bevan, Saunders’s quiet quest was an opportunity to gain more power for himself and possibly unseat Saunders, too, so he slipped his own chess piece onto the board.

Saunders was about to set off on one of his periodic trips to Europe in late June 1969 when Bevan told him he was quitting and presented him with the letter of resignation. Saunders realized this could perturb Mellon and create a boardroom confrontation. He also knew the timing was awful, because he needed Bevan’s banking connections to keep Penn Central supplied with capital. He therefore tried to placate Bevan with a salary increase, urging him to hold off and telling him of his plan to get rid of Perlman. At one point Bevan said he couldn’t take the pressure anymore and had to get out, that he needed a good night’s sleep for a change, and Saunders quickly quipped back, suggesting he take sleeping pills. Saunders’s humor annoyed Bevan, but finally he did agree to hold off quitting, and to make Bevan feel involved in the overthrow of Perlman, Saunders asked him to give advice on presidential candidates. And he promised that, once Perlman was kicked upstairs, Bevan would regain his old seat on the board.

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Medium 9781855209701

Chapter 6: Brakes

Greg Hudock Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781742207407

St Petersburg

Lonely Planet Lonely Planet ePub

Beautiful, complex and imperious, with a hedonistic, creative temperament, St Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) is the ultimate Russian diva. From its early days as an uninhabited swamp, the 300-year-old city has been nurtured by a succession of rulers, enduring practically everything that history and nature’s harsh elements could throw at her. Constantly in need of repair but with a carefree party attitude, Petersburg still seduces all who gaze upon her grand facades, glittering spires and gilded domes.

Even if you don’t plan to start or end your train journey in St Petersburg, it would be a shame not to visit the city. The long summer days of the White Nights season are particularly special – the fountains flow and parks and gardens burst into colour. The icy depths of winter have their own magic, and are the perfect time for warming body and soul in all those museums and palaces.

AMid-May–mid-Jul The White Nights, when the sun never sets, is the most popular time to visit.

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Medium 9780253347572

26 “I Think We Want to Be Seen as Somewhat Crazy”

RushJr. Loving Indiana University Press ePub

David LeVan did not resemble a railroad chieftain. Looking a decade younger than his 50 years, LeVan sported a great bushy mustache that underlay his brown eyes and glasses. The only sign of age was his receding black hair. He had come to Conrail from one of the large accounting firms and was known in the company as a cost-fixated bean counter who harbored an incredible knowledge of finance.

His personal life was also a stark contrast to those of other railroad chief executives. Married to a young, attractive ski instructor, LeVan lived in a converted fire station in downtown Philadelphia. He and wife Jennifer spent much of their time skiing and riding some of the Harley-Davidson motorcycles that LeVan had collected and parked in the fire house.

During his first decade at Conrail, LeVan moved slowly through several modest posts in middle management, but then his understanding of finance, his smooth articulation, and his ability to think on his feet marked him as a comer. Each year since 1988 LeVan had been promoted—and in the process he had moved around the company’s upper sphere learning the art of running Conrail. Although inexperienced in railroad operations, LeVan had an instinct for people and understood the importance of personal contact and leadership in such a company. Said Conrail’s vice president for corporate communications, Craig MacQueen, “LeVan would go out in the middle of the night at a crew change and talk to the men. That’s what was different. It was leadership by example.”

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Medium 9781574414646

4. Labor Struggles

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 4

Labor Struggles


n April 24, 1903, a dramatic scene took place on Main

Street in Los Angeles when more than thirty Mexican women

(primarily the wives of strikers) confronted several dozen esquiroles (scabs) imported from El Paso by the Pacific Electric Railway

Company (pe). Owned by Henry Huntington, the pe attempted to replace striking “cholo” laborers represented by a new Mexican union, La Union Federal Mexicana (ufm). Huntington arranged for police to arrest any picketing Mexicans. The mexicanas harangued the esquiroles to join the strike and marched boldly onto the grade site and wrestled shovels, picks and tamping irons away from the hands of the strikebreakers.1 The Los Angeles Times referred to the mexicanas as “Amazons” from various parts of “Sonoratown,” the principal Mexican settlement.2 Onlookers, mostly Mexicans and

Anglos, stepped over and around railroad ties, rails, wheelbarrows and mounds of dirt as they strained to watch the commotion. Within moments some esquiroles joined the strikers and others fled while a few others argued with the women and the striking traqueros and futilely tried to defend their actions.

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Medium 9781934009628

Appendix B: English/Spanish Cognates in Math

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub

Appendix B

English/Spanish Cognates in Math











appropriate unit

unidad apropiada





bar graph

gráfica de barras













concrete model

modelo concreto



construct (v.)










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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 6: Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub


Adapting a Traditional Textbook Lesson

A small part of even the most reluctant student wants to learn.


Traditional textbook lessons present several concerns. The lesson format generally lends itself to teacher-centered instruction instead of student-centered instruction. The content of standard textbook lessons rarely includes examples and problems with the cognitive rigor necessary to prepare students for success—whether success is measured by standardized tests or readiness for post–high school education. Such lessons seldom include strategies for building common background, developing vocabulary, providing comprehensibility, and solving authentic problems in an atmosphere ripe for interaction. Therefore, teachers are often faced with the challenge of adapting traditional lessons to meet the needs of English language learners.


Tell me and I’ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I’ll understand.

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Medium 9781934009628

Chapter 2: Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

r4Educated Solutions Solution Tree Press ePub


Providing Affective Supports for English Language Learners

There are hundreds of languages in the world, but a smile speaks them all.


Reflection 2.1

Imagine you are going to be an exchange student in a country where you do not know the language. What positive classroom aspects could motivate you to learn the language relatively quickly? Compare your answers to those on page 133.

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has articulated the importance of a positive classroom climate in learning mathematics. The classroom environment communicates subtle messages about what is valued in learning and doing mathematics and encourages students to participate in the learning and doing of mathematics. The English language learner’s first impression of the classroom and the teacher sets the tone for learning and success. Putting yourself in the place of the student and envisioning what would make you feel welcome will put you on the right path toward creating a positive classroom climate that meets the needs of English language learners in learning mathematics.

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