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2 Gunpowder Technology, 1490–1800

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

Edward Gibbon was to claim that gunpowder “effected a new revolution in the art of war and the history of mankind,”1 a view that was common in the eighteenth century and indeed both earlier and later.2 More recently, the widely repeated thesis of the early modern Military Revolution3 has focused renewed attention on the issue of gunpowder technology. Improved firepower and changing fortification design, it is argued, greatly influenced developments across much of the world and, more specifically, the West’s relationship with the rest of the world. In other work, I have questioned the thesis,4 but here, first, I want to draw attention to the changes that stemmed from the use of gunpowder.

Gunpowder weaponry developed first in China. We cannot be sure when it was invented, but a formula for the manufacture of gunpowder was possibly discovered in the ninth century, and effective metal-barreled weapons were produced in the twelfth century. Guns were differentiated into cannon and handguns by the fourteenth.

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4: Desmanthus, a Tropical and Subtropical Forage Legume: Developing Germplasm Resources for More Subtropical and High Altitude Environments

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF


Desmanthus, a Tropical and Subtropical

Forage Legume: Developing Germplasm

Resources for More Subtropical and High

Altitude Environments

R.L. Burt† and J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


The 24 species of the genus Desmanthus are widely distributed because they occur in environments ranging from tropical to temperate. Little collected or studied before the Belize-UWI research project, accessions of a number of species from the Yucatan and Belize showed considerable promise as forage plants. A review of Desmanthus species is presented that highlights their potential for and current success in a range of environments, particularly tropical and subtropical heavy clay soils. Further collection and research is recommended for a number of species with forage characteristics.

4.1  Introduction

Particular interest was stimulated in examining the potential of the genus Desmanthus because of the collections made by the IDRC/UWI forage programme in the Yucatan and Belize in the

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25: IPM Case Studies: Sorghum

van Emden, H.F.; Harrington, R. CABI PDF


IPM Case Studies: Sorghum

J.P. Michaud*

Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Agricultural Research

Center – Hays, Hays, KS, USA


Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (Fig. 25.1), is a c­ ultivated grass species also known as great millet,

Guinea corn, Kafir corn and milo. Native to North

Africa, it is cultivated throughout tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions. There are generally two types of sorghum, forage varieties and grain varieties. Both are grown mostly for animal feed and, more recently, for biofuel. In developing countries, grain varieties are grown for human consumption. Worldwide, 45.6 million ha of sorghum were harvested in 2014 (FAOSTAT,


There are four aphid species that commonly attack sorghum: Schizaphis graminum (greenbug),

Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid), Melanaphis sacchari (sugarcane aphid) and Sipha flava (yellow sugarcane aphid) (Fig. 25.2). Beginning in the late

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4: Recording Trees and Expressing Change

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


Recording Trees and Expressing


Since 1944, recording has developed as a relay. Foresters from Oxford University initiated recording and kept it going until 1960. The baton was passed to the Nature Conservancy between 1971 and 1987, by which time others had been involved intermittently. Since 1992, recording has been maintained by ecologists working independently, but with the cooperation of the successor bodies of the Nature

Conservancy and the Coleford office of the Forestry

Commission (FC), now Forest Enterprise (FE).


Oxford University

The project was started by Dr Eustace Jones

(Fig. 4.1: see p. 36), a lecturer in the forestry department of Oxford University. A keen bryologist, he had searched out mosses and liverworts in the Wye

Valley and had organised forestry field courses in

Highmeadow Woods during the 1930s. There, and in the New Forest, Hampshire, he had taught survey techniques to forestry students based on long transects through representative stands. Several crossed

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1 Introduction

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF



Carmelo Rapisarda* and Giuseppe E. Massimino Cocuzza

Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente,

Università degli Studi, Catania, Italy

1.1  Tropics and Subtropics

The Tropics, geographically limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer (to the north) and the Tropic of Capricorn (to the south), are characterized by limited seasonal differences, with a mean warm to high temperature and a high humidity level almost all year round, at most with difference between a dry and a rainy season (McGregor and

Nieuwolt, 1998). Plant diversity and biology are influenced by these peculiar ­climatic conditions and herbivores may develop almost continuously throughout the year in these regions, showing homodynamic cycles and high biodiversity, whatever their trophic habits.

Slightly similar features are shown by the Subtropics, which extend from the

Tropics to the temperate regions (to about

40° latitude) and are characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters, thus with a well-defined seasonality but with almost rare frost (Rohli and Vega,

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