1222 Chapters
Medium 9781780646282

5: A Numerical Analysis of Variation Patterns in the Genus Desmanthus: An Exploratory Study

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

5 

A Numerical Analysis of Variation

Patterns in the Genus Desmanthus:

An Exploratory Study

R.L. Burt† and J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

Desmanthus is the genus with most potential for having productive, persistent genotypes for development as forages for clay soils. An exploratory pattern analysis of the morphological and agronomic characteristics of

35 accessions in a collection of Desmanthus species from a wide range of latitudes was undertaken. The resulting groupings seemed to correspond to species or groups within species. The results were discussed with relation to variation within and between species, geography and the environments in which the collections were made. Recommendations are made as to the species of potential requiring further collection and development

(e.g. D. leptophyllus, D. tatuhyensis, D. virgatus among others), and the approach to be used.

5.1  Introduction

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Medium 9781789240733

1 Introduction

Nuthall, P.L. CABI PDF

1

Introduction

General Overview

Most production economists refer to the production factors as land, labour and capital. While ‘labour’ might embody the managerial decision-making input as well as physical labour, it is clearer to separate management as a fourth factor of production. The decisions on how to use the production inputs and resources, and the implementation of the plans, are the responsibility of this fourth factor – management. In that the quality of the decisions gives rise to the success of the operation, this managerial skill is clearly absolutely critical to efficiency and profit. However, no texts and courses include the management factor in any depth. This book sets this situation to rights.

Texts on production economics cover the optimal allocation of resources.

However, they largely assume that man is a rational being with near-perfect information. The reality is quite different. Managers are human. This means they react in an emotion-determined way. People observe the world around them and come to a conclusion about the current situation. Their mind, perhaps with the aid of calculations, comes to a decision over what actions should be taken. Thus, cues are observed that trigger action, or possibly inaction in some situations. This observation–decision–action process is something that varies with different individuals, and needs to be understood if a farm manager is to improve the decisions aimed at achieving the farm’s objectives.

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Medium 9781902375212

Criteria for project control

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 5

Operational Monitoring and Control

Project Progress Control

A project is dynamic and must respond to changing conditions if it is to be completed successfully. There is a continual need for reassessment and reappraisal of the project plan. Factors affecting an existing plan will include:

     Changes in the technical specification.

     Changes in the required dates.

     Changes in relative priorities.

     Revision of activity duration estimates.

     Reassessment of resource requirements for individual activities.

     Changes in resource availabilities.

     Inaccuracies in planned sequences.

     Technical difficulties.

     Failure of deliveries.

     Unexpected weather conditions.

It is therefore necessary to have a monitoring system which generates feedback that enables corrective action to be taken. There are usually some deviations that do not allow the project to proceed in accordance with the plan. It is therefore necessary to review operations periodically and to update or replan when a change is revealed. Close or detailed control of resources is not always considered. Close control is where resources are fully considered during the initial stages of the project and the timing of every activity is fixed, so as to obtain optimum use of resources. Flexible or overall control is often exercised during the initial scheduling of the project. Flexible control only considers resources to avoid peaks in key resources or those resources that are in limited supply. The frequency of review will depend on the overall duration of the project and the timescale on which the activities are measured. In general a weekly programme should be reviewed weekly and a daily programme daily.

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Medium 9781780648002

10 Integrated Pest Management in Tropical Vegetable Crops

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF

10 

Integrated Pest Management in Tropical

Vegetable Crops

Luko Hilje1,*, Edison R. Sujii2 and Urbano Nava-Camberos3

1Tropical

2Empresa

Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center, Turrialba, Costa Rica;

Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Brasilia, Brazil; 3Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, México

10.1 Introduction

New World tropics do not exactly coincide with the neotropics, as the latter correspond to one of the seven biogeographical regions of the Earth, and include portions of Mexico and South America located outside the boundaries delimited by the latitudinal imaginary lines of Cancer (23.5°N) and Capricorn (23.5°S). Concerning climatic conditions, in the actual tropics, temperature, rainfall and air humidity are normally much higher than in subtropical or temperate areas, whereas photoperiod varies only slightly throughout the year, all of which have a strong influence on the biology and ecology of organisms.

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Medium 9781780645742

5: Attitudes to Risky Consequences

J.B. Hardaker; R.B.M Huirne; J.R. Anderson CAB International PDF

5

Attitudes to Risky

Consequences

Introduction

In Chapter 2 we have shown how a simple risky decision problem, such as that faced by the dairy farmer thinking about insuring against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), can be solved. The key step was to transform the risky consequences of an event fork into the DM’s certainty equivalents (CEs). However, the assessment of CEs can become very tedious if there are many such risky event forks. Moreover, the introspective capacity needed to decide on CEs rises with the number of branches emerging from the fork.

As explained in Chapter 2, the central notion in decision analysis is to break this assessment of consequences into separate assessments of beliefs about the uncertainty to be faced, and of relative preferences for consequences. In Chapters 3 and 4 we dealt with the former of these assessments. Now it is time to look in more detail at how preferences for consequences can be assessed and how those preferences can be encoded.

In Chapter 2 we laid the theoretical foundation for this chapter on utility theory via the presentation of the axioms of the subjective expected utility hypothesis. Readers might find it useful to review the

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