1652 Slices
Medium 9781780644851

2: Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems

Gordon, A.M.; Newman, S.M.; Coleman, B.R.W. CABI PDF

2

Agroforestry in Canada and its Role in Farming Systems1

N.V. Thevathasan,2* B. Coleman,2 L. Zabek,3 T. Ward4 and

A.M. Gordon2

2

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario,

Canada; 3Ministry of Agriculture, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada;

4

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Indian Head, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

History and background

With an area of more than nine million square

­kilometres, Canada stretches west to east from the

Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, and is bordered to the south by the USA and north by the Arctic Ocean.

Although substantial agricultural production and tree growth occur in all regions south of Canada’s northern territories, a large proportion of Canada’s southern land area is home to temperate climates and fertile soils, which contributes to significantly higher rates of plant productivity. Following European settlement in the late 1700s, large tracts of native forest were removed to make way for intensive agricultural production, which continues to dominate a large portion of southern Canada to this day.

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Medium 9781601323286

Efficient and Effective Training in New Languages to Developers

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

306

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

Efficient and Effective Training in New Languages to

Developers

M. Barjaktarovic

Department of Computer Science, Hawai’i Pacific University, Honolulu, Hawai’i, U.S.A.

Abstract - Learning to program is similar to learning a foreign language. There are many programs for “fast learning” of various foreign languages. How can such an efficient outcome be accomplished in programming? In industry, workers are expected to learn new languages, systems, and environments. In college, students often arrive with less than desirable level of skills in mathematics, reading comprehension, and a structured approach to studying and solving problems, in general. In this paper we describe a beginners’ class in programming that efficiently and effectively trains learners to design and implement correct, documented, and tested code. After about 10 hours of in-class training, students can look up and use math API functions and solve quadratic equations. After about 15 hours of in-class training, students can look up and use random number function API and design, implement and test a simple game such as “heads or tails” or “paper, rock, scissors.”

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Medium 9781786391216

12: Starch Biosynthesis in Maize Endosperm

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF

12 

Starch Biosynthesis in Maize Endosperm

L. Curtis Hannah* and Susan Boehlein

Program in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology and Horticultural Sciences,

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

12.1 Introduction

12.2  Maize Endosperm Starch

Starch constitutes approximately 70% of the maize kernel and provides energy for the germinating seed, allowing embryo growth and development until the seedling is photosynthetically active. Starch provides approximately 50% of calories for humans and other animals and is used to manufacture many products, including biofuels. With incipient climate change and adverse environmental conditions, plant scientists are challenged to find ways to enhance starch synthesis in order to meet the needs of a growing human population.

Because of the importance of starch and the availability of seminal mutants affecting its biosynthesis, our knowledge of this process is robust. Here we describe our current understanding of this process in maize endosperm, the primary storage site for starch in the kernel. Our understanding of this process is incomplete, and questions are identified that serve as a guide for those interested in investigating starch synthesis.

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Medium 9781938549533

Chapter 2: Finite Element Method—A Summary

M. TABATABAIAN Mercury Learning and Information PDF

CHAPTER

2

FINITE ELEMENT

METHOD—A SUMMARY

OVERVIEW

F

inite element method (FEM) is the dominant computational method in engineering and applied science fields. Other methods including finite-volume, finite-difference, boundary element, and collocation are also used in practice. To provide general readers with a background for applications of FEM, either directly or with application of a software tool, we discuss the FEM principles in summary in this chapter. We also refer readers who are interested in further reading on this subject to a selection of available textbooks and references.

As discussed in Chapter 1, modeling has an ancient history. However, since the mid-twentieth century a new definition of modeling has gradually emerged (see References 2.1 and 2.2). This definition is a direct consequence of the development of advanced computational methods as well as huge advances in digital computers in terms of their CPUs and graphics processing power. As a result, computer modeling is synonymous to

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Medium 9781780645681

13 Extending Conservation Agriculture Benefits Through Innovation Platforms

Kassam, A.H. CABI PDF

13 

Extending Conservation

Agriculture Benefits Through

Innovation Platforms

Michael Misiko*

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT),

Nairobi, Kenya

13.1  Introduction

African smallholder farmers engage in many attempts to overcome poverty through individual and collective processes that depend on natural resources management (NRM) for agricultural production and livelihood. NRM for land-use development is often seen as a collective process (IFAD, 2006; Di

Gregorio et al., 2012; also see World Bank, 2008; Oweis and Hachum, 2009;

Pathak et al., 2009; Rockström et al., 2010). Such collective action is common over forest or water resources management (Altieri and Toledo, 2005).

However, protected areas known for providing environmental services (forests and communal water resources) continue to deteriorate or disappear; populations are rapidly urbanizing, turning more virgin areas into irrigated lands and into individual farms or seeking alternatives away from NRMrelated livelihoods. NRM initiatives in smallholder contexts are therefore increasingly difficult to organize or sustain due to these complex target landscape changes. With decreasing scope for communal action and because of the increasing focus on household farm-level enterprises, there is a need for expanding the scope of NRM in land use and rural development (McCarthy et al., 2004). Smallholder household actions largely comprise agricultural practices, which often form part of the problem, including low investments in erosion control (Muchena et al., 2005). Smallholder agriculture, therefore, must play a multifunctional role beyond food production and fibre. Its functions need to include ‘renewable natural resources management, landscape and biodiversity conservation and contribution to the socio-economic viability of rural areas’ (Renting et al., 2009, p. 112). To support NRM among smallholders, a clear understanding of their agricultural contexts is needed

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