996 Chapters
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1 Pesticides in the Early Part of the 20th Century

Matthews, G.A. CABI PDF


Pesticides in the Early Part of the 20th Century

After the many different attempts to develop pesticides during the 19th century, efforts over the early decades of the 20th century concentrated on two main areas – the use of extracts from plants, notably pyrethrum and tobacco, and certain inorganic chemicals, mostly containing arsenic, sulfur or copper. Then, from the 1940s onwards, chemists started to

­develop organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides as well as new herbicides and fungicides. A brief overview of the pesticides used from

1900–1960 is given in this chapter.

Botanical Insecticides

In grasslands and forests, plants are able to survive, as they contain chemicals that enable them to combat attacks from insects and diseases. The main plants that man has selected over the centuries as food plants generally have very low levels of toxins. The earliest insecticides were essentially dried leaves of some plants, and, ultimately, modern science has played an important role in identifying these botanical insecticides and subsequently developing similar chemicals that are more effective, photostable and economical to market to farmers. One important food crop,

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Medium 9781780648651

11: Minor Trees and Shrubs

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF


Minor Trees and Shrubs

These subordinate tree species form a mixed bunch.

Several can grow into the canopy, but they never achieve the stature of oak and other canopy dominants. Mostly, they remain in the underwood, where they influence the growth of the canopy dominants by restricting space for regeneration. The evergreens – holly and yew – can dominate underwood, but they and the other species are generally found as a thin scatter. In Lady Park, the performance of each is distinctive enough to encourage the idea that tree species have their own personalities – that each contributes something unique to the woodland community.



All the individuals in Lady Park are common hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna, a ubiquitous species, common in many kinds of woodland, which fruits abundantly, employs birds to distribute these fruits widely and thereby becomes one of the characteristic colonists of secondary scrub and a characteristic underwood in secondary woodlands on former arable. Populations thin out on base-poor soils, but hawthorn seems well suited to most other soil types.

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Medium 9781780646282

14: Single Plant Trials of Potential Forage Legumes for Belizean Pastures on Clay Soils of the Upper Belize River and the Lowland Pine Ridge

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

14 Single Plant Trials of Potential Forage

Legumes for Belizean Pastures on Clay

Soils of the Upper Belize River and the

Lowland Pine Ridge

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


Fertilized replicated single plant trials were established on two major soil types in wet tropical conditions in

­central Belize, a heavy cracking clay and a waterlogged kaolinitic clay. Thirty-five accessions (32 species and

20 genera) were harvested by clipping at 6-week intervals. Survival was better on the wetter site, but yields were lower. Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Indigofera hirsute, Pueraria phaseoloides and Desmodium cinerium were the most productive on the cracking clay, while P. phaseoloides, Vigna caracalla, Desmodium ovalifolium, Stylosanthes guianensis and Siratro performed best on the kaolinitic clay. D. cinerium and D. ovalifolium in particular appeared to be worthy of further study for these soils.

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Medium 9781780648507

1 Tree Fruit Production Automation

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Tree Fruit Production


Qin Zhang*

Washington State University, Prosser, Washington, USA

1.1 Introduction

One solution for producing high-quality, high-yield fruit, with minimal dependence on seasonal human labor, is to create a means for automatous mechanized precision production in orchards. This involves three key technologies: agricultural automation; mechanization; and precision farming. Among them, mechanization and precision farming are at the core of a comprehensive system using automation technologies.

As one of the top-ranked engineering accomplishments of the 20th century, agricultural mechanization has made revolutionary changes in field crop production technology and made it possible to achieve high yields using minimal human labor to meet continuously growing needs for food, feed, fiber and fuel. To make machines operate efficiently, one feature of mechanized production is the uniformity of operation in a field.

Even though tree fruit production is quite different from field crop production, many of the fundamental mechanization technologies for field crop production can be used directly or modified for use in tree fruit production. The uniformity of mechanized production increases efficiency at the expense of being able to respond to crop growth variabilities often caused by inter- or intra-field soil type, fertility and moisture variance.

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Medium 9781780648002

14 Integrated Pest Management in Oil Palm Plantations in Malaysia

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF


Integrated Pest Management in

Oil Palm Plantations in Malaysia

Norman Kamarudin*, Siti Ramlah A. Ali, Ramle Moslim,

Zulkefli Masijan and Mohd Basri Wahid

Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Biological Research Division, Selangor, Malaysia

14.1 Introduction

Palm oil is the main commodity for Malaysia, highly contributing to the National GDP and providing huge economic gains. The land bank for oil palm plantation in Malaysia in 2015 was more than 5.23 million ha.

Being a monocrop, oil palm is intermittently plagued with the attack of insect pests; some of them are primarily pests of other crops but have adapted to attack oil palm. Some of the common insect pests will be treated in this chapter, i.e. bagworms

(Lepidoptera: Psychidae), rhinoceros beetle

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), nettle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), termites

(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and bunch moth

(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Each of these insect pests attacks different parts of the oil palm: fronds and leaflets (infested by bagworms and nettle caterpillars), spear/shoot

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