996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780643304

3 Potential Risks of Algae Bioenergy Feedstocks

Quinn, L.D., Editor CAB International PDF


Potential Risks of Algae Bioenergy


Siew-Moi Phang1* and Wan-Loy Chu2


of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala

Lumpur, Malaysia; 2International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur,



Algal biofuels are an attractive alternative to fossil fuels due to their high productivity and the possible integration of their production systems with wastewater treatment and bioremediation of CO2. However, there has been increasing concern over the risks associated with the use of algae for biofuel production, particularly the potential for algae to escape and invade surrounding ecosystems. Within this context, there are specific concerns about growing genetically modified (GM) algae, especially those conferred with traits of enhanced competitiveness in monoculture systems, efficient nutrient utilization, and other traits that could cause unknown impacts in surrounding ecosystems. If feral populations of GM algae establish and proliferate within the environment, they may harm ecosystem structure and function, and may lead to harmful algae blooms. There is also a non-negligible risk of lateral transfer of genes from GM algae to other organisms within invaded ecosystems. To date, these risks have not been adequately assessed. We recommend that more empirical work must be completed (i.e., mesocosm experiments) as well as modeling simulations to effectively assess the risks of biofuel algae prior to large-scale production.

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Medium 9781780641836

2 Fruits and Frugivory

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF


Fruits and Frugivory

Pedro Jordano*

Integrative Ecology Group, Estación Biológica de Doñana,

CSIC-EBD, Sevilla, Spain


The pulp of fleshy fruits, with the soft, edible, nutritive tissues surrounding the seeds, is a primary food resource for many frugivorous animals, notably mammals and birds, but also reptiles and fish, which are able to obtain energy and nutrients from it

(Howe, 1986). These animals either regurgitate, defecate, spit out or otherwise drop undamaged seeds away from the parent plants; they are the seed dispersers that establish a dynamic link between the fruiting plant and the seed/seedling bank in natural communities. Therefore, frugivory is a central process in plant populations where natural regeneration is strongly dependent upon animal-mediated seed dispersal.

Early conceptual contributions to the study of frugivory emphasized dichotomies in frugivory patterns and fruit characteristics that presumably had been originated by co-evolved interactions (Snow, 1971;

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Medium 9781780648156

2: Evolution of Bhoochetana

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Evolution of Bhoochetana


Suhas P. Wani*

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

2.1  Introduction

Long-term experiments at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) campus since 1976 as well as a number of studies in different countries (Rockström et al., 2007; Wani et al., 2008) clearly showed that current farmers’ field yields were lower than their potential yields by two- to fivefold. These studies also demonstrated that there exists a large potential to increase farmers’ crop yields by adopting available technologies. However, large yield gaps are largely due to lack of knowledge about the improved management practices for increasing productivity for the farmers and not due to lack of technologies (Wani et al., 2008). If we can bridge the knowledge gap and make the necessary inputs needed for implementing improved management practices (seeds, fertilizers, credit, etc.) on farmers’ fields, productivity can be substantially increased by bridging the yield gaps. With this knowledge and pilot studies in Adarsha Watershed, Kothapally, India, as well as other watersheds in different parts of the country, it was demonstrated that yields from farmers’ fields can be substantially increased by up to 240%, providing farmers have the right information and inputs at the right time at the right price. By adopting a holistic approach, yield gaps even on small farmers’ fields were successfully bridged and farmers benefited with increased productivity and profitability with the help

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Medium 9781780647753

3: Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program Design in Conflict Regions for Youth Development: Best Practices and Lessons Learned

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF


Agri-entrepreneurship Enabling Program

Design in Conflict Regions for Youth

Development: Best Practices and

Lessons Learned

Kathleen Liang1* and Tina S. Lee2

North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North

Carolina, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, Hawaii


3.1  Introduction

Recent happenings have revealed significantly growing concerns of economic and social instabilities around the world. Refugees, many children among them, take risks to travel across land and sea to seek new economic opportunities. Most of the information shared by press releases or social media only tells a fraction of stories about issues in conflict regions. The World Development Report 2011 discussed several issues with respect to unstable state-of-conflict regions (World Bank,

2011). For example, approximately 1.5 billion people live in conflict regions where countries experience repeated cycles of political and criminal violence. Civilians who live in the conflict regions often experience famine and brutal attacks of political crossfire. Youth are particularly vulnerable due to lack of support from a steady system and safe environment to obtain education and training to achieve economic mobility.

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Medium 9781845938291

3. Exotic Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in the USA: Potential and Current Invaders

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF


Exotic Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in the USA: Potential and Current Invaders

Robert A. Haack1 and Robert J. Rabaglia2

USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1407 S Harrison Road,

East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA; 2USDA Forest Service, Forest Health

Protection, 1601 N Kent Street, RPC–7, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA


3.1  Introduction

Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera:

Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are among the most important insects affecting trees and forests worldwide. There are approximately 6000 scolytine species worldwide, with species found on all continents except Antarctica (Table 3.1) (Wood and Bright, 1992; Bright and Skidmore, 1997,

2002; Wood, 2007). The majority of species are found in the tropics, but many also occur in boreal forests. Undoubtedly, there are hundreds of additional species that have not yet been described.

Many authorities now consider the bark and ambrosia beetles a subfamily (Scolytinae) of the weevil family (Curculionidae) (AlonsoZarazaga and Lyal, 2009), while others continue to treat them as a distinct family (Wood, 2007).

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Medium 9781786391445

16 Biosafety and Regulatory Aspects of Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF


Biosafety and Regulatory

Aspects of Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food

Akansha Jain,1* Harikesh B. Singh2 and Sampa Das1

Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute Centenary Campus, Kolkata,

India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras Hindu

University, Varanasi, India


16.1 Introduction

Nanotechnologies have opened the door of innovation and promises for the development of new products in almost all industrial, agricultural and food-based sectors. They have increased the efficacy of agrochemicals, enhanced nutrient availability, created efficient machinery for drug delivery, improvised food processing and product storage. They have unique properties due to their high surface-to-mass ratio, which results in a higher reactivity for interactions, ion delivery or contact. However, due to such small dimensions, characteristics such as shape, composition, charge and solubility can change their physicochemical behaviour in an unpredictable way. Therefore, they may pose a risk to human health and the environment due to widespread and irrational use, either directly, or via exposure to animals or residues in soil by the virtue of their enhanced delivery potential (Amenta et al., 2015; Mishra et al., 2017).

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Medium 9781780648156

5: Digital Technologies for Agricultural Extension

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Digital Technologies for

Agricultural Extension


Mukund D. Patil,* K.H. Anantha and

Suhas P. Wani

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

(ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

5.1  Introduction

Ensuring global food security for the 9 billion people by 2050 and improving livelihoods sustainably with scarce and finite land and water is a challenging task (UNDP, 2009). The quantity of neither available water nor land has increased but water and land availability per capita has declined significantly due to the increase in human population. Eighty per cent of the world’s cultivable area which contributes to feeding 60% of the total world population is rainfed. In developing countries in general, and India in particular, the growing population and shrinking landholding has increased pressure on natural resources to produce more. Although agriculture contributes a major share to the gross domestic product (GDP), the growth rate of the agricultural sector has reduced over recent years for various reasons. As per the latest estimates released by the Central Statistical Office of India the share of agriculture and allied sectors in GDP of India was 51.9% in 1950/51 and has declined to 13.7% in 2012/13 (GoI, 2013). At the same time, productivity has been stagnant or less than the potential (Singh et al.,

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Medium 9781786395177

15 The International Treaty – Current Concerns

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF


The International Treaty – Current


The International Treaty on Plant Genetic

­Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) is a legally binding instrument, adopted by the

FAO Conference in 2001. It came into force on

29 June 2004 and at present has 134 contracting parties. Member states are obliged to

­conserve their plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to ensure their sustainable use and to share benefits arising from their use. The treaty recognizes ‘farmers’ rights’, the traditional rights of farmers as  ­producers, maintainers and developers of


Planning workshops for strengthening national capacities to implement the ITPGRFA was essential to promote participation of countries in the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing and to identify means to improve access to plant genetic resources. For the effective implementation of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing at country level, there were a number of core requirements to be fulfilled according to the needs of each country. The time has come to move beyond just raising awareness about the ITPGRFA and to develop a road map for its fast and effective implementation.

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Medium 9781786391445

17 Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

Singh, H.B.; Mishra, S.; Fraceto, L.F. CABI PDF


Implication of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Water and Air Pollution

R.K. Chaturvedi*

Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical

Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, China

17.1 Introduction

Due to the revolution in the development of science and technology at the nanoscale, there has been an increase in the ability to fabricate and manipulate the nanosized materials; by which we mean particles smaller than 100 nm. Interest in these nanomaterials has increased tremendously because they produce many opportunities to improve the performance of material. Metal-based nanoparticles, consisting of Cu, Au, Ag, etc., have been generally used as industrial electrode, magnetic materials, chemicals, catalysts and optical media. In agriculture, the use of nanoparticles has just started, but is increasing its dimensions. With the help of nanosciences, plant growth has been enhanced by using a wide range of applications of nanotechnology (Nair et al., 2010).

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Medium 9781780645742

5: Attitudes to Risky Consequences

J.B. Hardaker; R.B.M Huirne; J.R. Anderson CAB International PDF


Attitudes to Risky



In Chapter 2 we have shown how a simple risky decision problem, such as that faced by the dairy farmer thinking about insuring against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), can be solved. The key step was to transform the risky consequences of an event fork into the DM’s certainty equivalents (CEs). However, the assessment of CEs can become very tedious if there are many such risky event forks. Moreover, the introspective capacity needed to decide on CEs rises with the number of branches emerging from the fork.

As explained in Chapter 2, the central notion in decision analysis is to break this assessment of consequences into separate assessments of beliefs about the uncertainty to be faced, and of relative preferences for consequences. In Chapters 3 and 4 we dealt with the former of these assessments. Now it is time to look in more detail at how preferences for consequences can be assessed and how those preferences can be encoded.

In Chapter 2 we laid the theoretical foundation for this chapter on utility theory via the presentation of the axioms of the subjective expected utility hypothesis. Readers might find it useful to review the

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Medium 9781845939946

19: The Family Tuckerellidae Baker et Pritchard

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

19  The Family Tuckerellidae Baker et Pritchard

Morphological Characteristics,

Systematics and Bio-ecology

The Tuckerellidae are usually referred to as ‘peacock mites’.

They are bright red in colour and have evident white setae, with the caudal setae long and plumose. The body consists of the propodosoma and hysterosoma. The dorsal surface shows the prodorsum, corresponding to the anterodorsal part of the propodosoma, and the opisthosoma, formed from the hysterosoma excluding legs III and IV. The prodorsum has four pairs of setae: the vertical internal (vi), vertical external (ve), scapular internal (sci) and scapular external (sce) setae (Fig. 19.1). The opisthosoma has 36 pairs of dorsal palmate setae and five or six pairs of flagelliform caudal setae set on four distinct dorsal plates (C, D, EF, H). The first plate (C) has two pores and a setal row (c1–c7), the second plate (D) has two pores and a setal row (d1–d5), the third plate (EF) has four pores and two setal rows (e1–e4) and (f1–-f2) and the last plate (H) has two pores and a caudal row of setae (h1–h5 + h7 or h1–h8). Setal rows c, d and e form an ‘L’ pattern, whereas rows f and h form a transverse pattern (Quirós-Gonzalez and Baker, 1984). Tuckerella revelata

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Medium 9781780642826

6: India: Economic Growth and Income Distribution in Rural and Urban Areas

Brouwer, F.; Joshi, P.K. CABI PDF


India: Economic Growth and Income

Distribution in Rural and Urban Areas

G. Mythili*

Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India


India has registered an impressive gross

­domestic product (GDP) growth of 7–8% after launching economic liberalization in 1991.

Reforms were initiated in the public sector, financial sector and investment and trade regimes and this helped in better integration with the global economy. However, its crucial sector, agriculture, which is the source of livelihood for nearly two-thirds of the population, has lost its momentum. The sector is lagging behind at less than 3% growth and its share in GDP is falling sharply over the years. Moreover, the economy has witnessed a significant structural transformation in both agricultural production and consumption in the past decade or so.

The performance of the economy over the years has been marked by higher rates of savings, investments, and improvements in many other macroeconomic indicators. The investment to GDP ratio went up to 34% in

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Medium 9781780645308

Part V: Avian and Human Health – Interactions, Opportunities and Threats



Avian and Human Health –

Interactions, Opportunities and Threats

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Food Safety: Prevention is Better than

Crisis Management

Patrick Wall* and Zhongyi Yu

University College Dublin, Ireland


Poultry meat and eggs are affordable sources of valuable protein and will be a large part of the solution to meeting the needs of the growing world population.

In addition, as human nutritionists increasingly address the requirements of people at different life stages, and different levels of activity, both poultry and eggs are bioavailable sources of high quality protein. Therefore the commercial opportunities for the sector are many, and the future is looking good, provided adverse publicity can be avoided associated with: (i) food safety; (ii) animal welfare; (iii) health and nutrition; and (iv) environmental impact. Public perception is often informed by sensational news coverage and items are placed higher on the agendas of policy makers as a result of the intensity of the media coverage of an issue. Policy makers and regulators are not consistent in how they address risk along the food chain, or in society at large, and often their response is in proportion to the media coverage rather than the risk to public health. At times the regulatory response can be disproportionate to the risk. In most instances there are several solutions to a crisis and the focus should be on delivering the optimum level of consumer health protection whilst doing the minimum damage to both commercial interests and consumer confidence. Sadly this is rarely the case, emphasizing the importance of focusing on prevention rather than crisis management.

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Medium 9781780644370

3 Insect Resistance to Bt Toxins in Brazil and Latin America

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF


Insect Resistance to Bt toxins in

Brazil and Latin America

Rose Monnerat,1* Erica Martins,2 Paulo Queiroz,2

Lilian Praça,1 Carlos Marcelo Soares2


Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN),

Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil; 2Instituto Mato-Grossense do

Algodão, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil


Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis

(Bt) and transgenic plants expressing its toxins have been widely used to control insects in Latin America. In Brazil, during the season of 2013/14, 4 million ha were treated with Bt biopesticides, and the area of transgenic crops under cultivation reached

40.3 million ha. Countries such as Honduras,

Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Brazil reported cases of resistance of Plutella xylostella to Bt biopesticides. Insect resistance to toxins expressed in Bt crops was reported in Puerto Rico and Brazil, and reports of low efficacy were also communicated from several regions of Brazil and

Argentina. Faced to this scenario, it is important that companies providing technologies, extension services, farmers and the scientific community and governments of countries either using Bt as bioinsecticides or as Bt crops unite in their efforts to establish guidelines that will enable greater durability of Bt technology.

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Medium 9781780644837

3: Intersubgenomic Heterosis: Brassica napus as an Example




Intersubgenomic Heterosis: Brassica napus as an Example

Donghui Fu1* and Meili Xiao2

Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of

Education, Agronomy College, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang;


Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Rapeseed, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China


There are six predominant Brassica species.

These include three primary diploids, B. rapa

(AA, 2n=20), B. oleracea (CC, 2n=18), B. nigra

(BB, 2n=16) and three amphidiploids, B. napus

(AACC, 2n=38), B. juncea (AABB, 2n=36) and

B. carinata (BBCC, 2n=34). Each pair of diploid species hybridized during evolution has undergone chromosome doubling to generate amphidiploids. Of the three amphiploids,

B. napus is now a major oilseed crop of the world. Both open-pollinated (OP) varieties and hybrids are cultivated. Hybrids are now more popular as these provide 30% higher yields than OP varieties and also exhibit superior stress tolerance and adaptability.

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