996 Chapters
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Medium 9780253014993

9. Ideology, It’s in the Game: Selective Simulation in EA Sports’ NCAA Football

Thomas P Oates Indiana University Press ePub

Meredith M. Bagley and Ian Summers

ON JULY 9, 2013, THE LEADING SPORTS STORY IN TUSCALOOSA, Alabama, a college town obsessed with its university’s football team, was not predictions for a third straight national championship, not news of yet another five-star recruit, nor updates on injuries and summer training sessions. Instead, inch-high headlines announced “GAME ON: EA Sports Releases NCAA Football 14.”1 Above the text, a color screen shot from the game featured an offensive player in the familiar crimson-and-white jersey breaking tackles on the way to a presumed touchdown. The would-be tacklers happened to be in white and maroon, the colors of Texas A&M, the only team to hand Alabama a loss in its 2012 national championship season. Though completely digital, fabricated, and based on advanced computational formulas, the video game redemption offered by the photo perfectly illustrates the power of simulation-based digital games such as EA Sports’ NCAA Football.

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Medium 9781845939212

6 Agricultural Productivity Paths in Central and Eastern European Countries and the Former Soviet Union: The Role of Reforms, Initial Conditions and Induced Technological Change

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF

6

Agricultural Productivity Paths in Central and Eastern European

Countries and the Former Soviet Union:

The Role of Reforms, Initial Conditions and Induced Technological Change

Johann Swinnen, Kristine Van Herck and Liesbet Vranken

Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance (LICOS),

KU Leuven, Belgium

6.1

Introduction

Economic and institutional reforms have dramatically affected agricultural organization, output and production efficiency in

Central and Eastern Europe and the former

Soviet republics. Not only did farm output fall dramatically in the transition countries of Europe and the former Soviet Union, some studies find that efficiency decreased as well during the transition. In a review of the evidence, Rozelle and Swinnen (2004) conclude that productivity started increasing early on during the transition in Central

Europe and parts of the Balkan and the

Baltic States, but continued to decline much longer in other parts of the former Soviet

Union. Initial declines in productivity were associated with initial disruptions resulting from land reforms and farm restructuring in

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Medium 9781780642789

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus Linn.)

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annuus Linn.)

NITROGEN (N) DEFICIENCY

Symptoms

Plate 480. Entire plant appearing light green.

(Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar.)

1. Nitrogen-deficient sunflower shows very poor plant growth.

Leaves are smaller in size with thin and spindly stems. Nitrogen deficiency decreases root hydraulic conductivity by about half. As a result, nitrogen-deficient leaves are unable to maintain adequate turgor for growth especially during the daytime, when transpiration further affects leaf turgor. Overall inhibition of leaf growth may be up to 75%.

2. Deficient plants mature more slowly than healthy plants.

Deficient plants develop small heads with very poor seed setting, resulting in a drastic reduction in crop yields.

3. Deficiency symptoms develop first and more severely on the old leaves because nitrogen is readily transferred from older to younger leaves under deficient conditions. The younger leaves usually remain green and apparently healthy (Plate 479).

4. The older leaves turn pale green and later pale yellow (Plates

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Medium 9781845939946

18: The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

18  The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Morphological Characteristics,

Systematics and Bio-ecology

The morphological characteristics of the family Dipti­ lomiopidae are similar to those of the Eriophyidae. The pro­ dorsal shield has two or no setae, the scapular setae (sc) are present or absent, and the unpaired setae vi and ve are largely absent. The gnathosoma is sharply bent towards the base, with cheliceral stylets folded in the same way and long oral stylets. The opisthosoma frequently lacks the setae c1; the re­ maining setae are present, or sometimes any one of the setae c2 or d or setae h1 are absent. The chaetotaxy of the coxal plate is complete, plate I is sometimes without the setae 1b and rarely with the setae 1a. The leg chetotaxy is complete but may be missing the basiventral femoral setae I and II, the antaxial genual seta of genu II, the paraxial tibial seta of tibia

I and both the paraxial and fastigial tarsal setae (ft ¢) or the paraxial and unguinal tarsal setae (u¢) of legs I and II; the tibia I lacks a solenidion; the tarsal empodium may be thick and is commonly divided. The genital coverflap sometimes has one or two rows of ridges and spots or semilunar granules.

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Medium 9781789240733

10 Methods of Improving Managerial Ability

Nuthall, P.L. CABI PDF

10

Methods of Improving

Managerial Ability

Introduction

The main reason for studying managerial ability is to consider ways of ­improving the farmer’s managerial skill, though an understanding can also be useful when considering the impact of agricultural policy initiatives. The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to consider the techniques that will improve a manager’s skill no matter at what level they start.

As every manager currently exhibits a particular level of ability, a set of methods that can initiate improvement in all situations is required, and is highly desirable. Some farmers will improve more than others both due to their starting point and inherent ability. Each starts with a certain potential as defined by their genotype, and their early environment and experiences.

While the genotype is fixed, additional training of various kinds can change and improve the impact of their experiences. Fortunate farmers will have an appropriate genotype (intelligence, personality, etc.), and appropriate early experiences in the form of family life, education, challenging situations, encouragement and training courses. These all lead to skill, curiosity, confidence and self-esteem. Farmers without these advantages must work at compensating their situation with the support of all the facilities that are available.

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Medium 9781780648002

11 Integrated Pest Management and Good Agricultural Practice Recommendations in Greenhouse Crops

Rapisarda, C.; Cocuzza, G.E.M. CABI PDF

11 

Integrated Pest Management and Good

Agricultural Practice Recommendations in Greenhouse Crops

Abdelhaq Hanafi1,* and Carmelo Rapisarda2

1International

Fund for Agricultural Development, Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di

Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente, Università degli Studi, Catania, Italy

11.1 Introduction

In many tropical and subtropical regions, and parallel to the development of economic activities in these countries and of the international trade of their agricultural products, greenhouses are increasingly used for vegetable production as well as for cultivation of ornamental plants, due to their ability to allow a qualitative and quantitative control of production through a direct management of the growing environment. Especially in these areas of the world, where seasonal excursions of temperature are almost negligible and no need exists for artificially heating protected crops, greenhouses may

­ be realized with relatively simple means, which allow obtaining higher yields with comparatively modest investments.

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Medium 9781780644325

22 Feed-based Approaches in Enteric Methane Amelioration

Malik, P.K CABI PDF

22

Feed-based Approaches in

Enteric Methane Amelioration

P.K. Malik,* R. Bhatta, N.M. Soren, V. Sejian, A.

Mech, K.S. Prasad and C.S. Prasad

National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore,

India

Abstract

22.1 Introduction

Mitigation of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants is necessary not only from the global warming point of view but also for saving dietary energy. Livestock being the significant contributors to the anthropogenic

CH4 pool have remained the prime target of global research for the past two decades, in order to find suitable, sustainable and economical possibilities of reducing enteric

CH4 emission. The adoption of a particular strategy by the stakeholders depends on the input cost, economic status, toxicity to host/ inhabiting microbes, mitigation potential and persistency in long run. Among all the available options, feed-based intervention seems remarkable, and can be tried anywhere by making little alterations to the available feed resources and prevailing feeding practices. This chapter deliberates the pros and cons of various nutritional interventions, along with their future prospects to reduce enteric CH4 emission. Issues like necessity of methanogenesis in the rumen, the feasibility of reducing livestock numbers and cutting down emissions, and the expected reimbursements that arise from this practically feasible reduction, are well debated in the chapter.

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Medium 9781786391216

8: Embryo–Endosperm–Sporophyte Interactions in Maize Seeds

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF

8 Embryo–Endosperm–Sporophyte

Interactions in Maize Seeds

Thomas Widiez1,*, Gwyneth C. Ingram1 and José F. Gutiérrez-Marcos2

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, Université de Lyon,

ENS de Lyon, France; 2School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

1

8.1 Introduction

Maize seeds, like those of all other angiosperms, are highly complex biological systems. This complexity is a consequence of the fact that the angiosperm seed is composed of tissues that evolved from three genetically distinct organisms: the mother plant

(maternal sporophyte—specifically the nucellus, integuments, and in the case of maize and other cereals, other floral organs that fuse with the integuments to form the pericarp); the developing embryo (zygotic sporophyte); and the endosperm (arising through fertilization-­ dependent proliferation of a

­second fertilization competent cell of the female gametophyte). These tissues are organized one inside the other like Russian dolls.

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Medium 9781780645742

13: Risk Considerations in AgriculturalPolicy Making

J.B. Hardaker; R.B.M Huirne; J.R. Anderson CAB International PDF

Risk Considerations in

­Agricultural Policy Making

13 

Introduction

Our illustrations in earlier chapters demonstrate that the type and severity of risks confronting f­armers vary greatly with the farming system and with the climatic, policy and institutional setting. This is the case in both more developed countries (MDCs) and less developed countries (LDCs). Nevertheless, agricultural risks are prevalent throughout the world and, arguably, have increased over time, as is suggested by the food, fuel and finance crises that have beset the world since 2007. Moreover, climate change appears to be creating more risk for agriculture in many locations. These prevalent and prospective agricultural risks have naturally attracted the attention of many governments – groups of DMs who have so far received little focus in our discussion. In this chapter we address analysis of risk management from this rather different point of view.

In our treatment we deal first with government interventions that have risk implications. Governments should realize that they are an important source of risk, as explained in earlier chapters, in particular when interventions negatively affect the asset base of farms. Potentially successful interventions are not those that merely reduce variance or volatility, but those that increase risk efficiency and resilience (to shocks, such as occasions of severely reduced access to food in LDCs, or extreme weather conditions). In many cases, this means increasing the expected value rather than decreasing the variance. In regard to specific instruments whereby farmers can share risk with others, we argue below that only in the case of market failure is there any reason for government involvement. Market failure is most severe in the case of so-called ‘in-between risks’ or catastrophic risks. As explained later, in-between risks are risks that, by their nature, cannot be insured or hedged. Catastrophic risks are risks with low probabilities of occurrence but severe consequences. In this chapter we address issues in developing policies to manage these difficult risks as well as the management of some emerging risks, such as extreme weather, food-price spikes, food safety, epidemic pests and animal diseases, and environmental risks.

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Medium 9781780641409

Appendix 1: Biocybernetic Principles of System Design

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

Appendix 1: Biocybernetic Principles of System Design

The eight basic biocybernetic rules for system design as defined by Vester (1980) can be adapted and applied to planning and management in forestry as follows:

Rule 1

In a complex of feedback loops the number of linkages with negative signs must exceed those with positive signs (Figs 2.3 and 11.1).

Rule 2

Function must be independent of quantitative growth: the forest stand and the estate can continue to be ecologically and economically robust, viable and serviceable even if, for example, the market does not expand or the increment of timber does not increase.

Rule 3

Design for broad functionality by means of production and product diversity: production schedules should produce a variety of timbers and other products in a mixed forest instead of maximum rates of a single product in a monoculture; the maximising of biomass or timber according to yield table models in densely grown, uniform, single-species stands is a classic example of a non-biocybernetic concept.

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Medium 9781780646862

12: Water Sources for Agriculture

Finley, S. CABI PDF

12

Water Sources for Agriculture

Especially in dryland environments, the fundamental prerequisite for irrigation

­development is a good and reliable source of water. When assessing a water source for use in agriculture, it is relevant to consider both the quantity and quality that will be accessible over time. If one of these factors proves to be insufficient, the harm caused by an irrigation project could outweigh its benefit in the long term.

This chapter addresses the character and quality of water sources commonly used to supply irrigation projects. It also introduces some water contaminants of special concern, and provides a brief overview of water-lifting devices traditionally employed on small farms.

Water Quantity

The quantity of water readily available from a blue water source is difficult to assess with accuracy, since water levels, stream size and groundwater flows fluctuate significantly over time. Climate, rainfall, and the activities of upstream users all have a strong influence on the quantity of water that will be accessible from a blue water source at a given point in time.

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Medium 9781780644998

5: Pest Management in Organic Apple, Pear and Stone Fruit

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF

5 

Pest Management in Organic Apple,

Pear and Stone Fruit

Claudia Daniel,* Silvia Matray, Sibylle Stoeckli and Urs Niggli

Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland

Introduction

Holistic approaches to pest management that aim at maximizing self-regulation and resilience of orchards are a key goal in organic farming (see Chapter 2, this volume). Pest management starts even before planting an orchard by site selection, orchard layout, planting systems (tree densities and pruning system), choice of cultivar and rootstock as well as cultivation techniques. Cultivation techniques and measures applied for disease control can also influence the dynamics of pest insects within orchards and need to be included in a holistic system view. In addition, the use of flowering strips to enhance natural enemies is a field of intense research. Direct control methods using biocontrol organisms or bioinsecticides are available for many pest insects. However, these methods can have side effects on beneficial arthropods and thus destabilize the self-regulating system. Therefore, selective methods combined with specific prevention strategies should be preferred and use of non-selective biopesticides should be limited to a minimum. This chapter describes currently applied and possible future strategies and methods for pest control

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Medium 9780253009845

2 Gunpowder Technology, 1490–1800

Jeremy Black Indiana University Press ePub

Edward Gibbon was to claim that gunpowder “effected a new revolution in the art of war and the history of mankind,”1 a view that was common in the eighteenth century and indeed both earlier and later.2 More recently, the widely repeated thesis of the early modern Military Revolution3 has focused renewed attention on the issue of gunpowder technology. Improved firepower and changing fortification design, it is argued, greatly influenced developments across much of the world and, more specifically, the West’s relationship with the rest of the world. In other work, I have questioned the thesis,4 but here, first, I want to draw attention to the changes that stemmed from the use of gunpowder.

Gunpowder weaponry developed first in China. We cannot be sure when it was invented, but a formula for the manufacture of gunpowder was possibly discovered in the ninth century, and effective metal-barreled weapons were produced in the twelfth century. Guns were differentiated into cannon and handguns by the fourteenth.

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Medium 9781780646862

10: Irrigation

Finley, S. CABI PDF

10

 Irrigation

Irrigation Decisions

There are many ways to apply irrigation water. Several factors must be considered when choosing if, how, and how much to irrigate. The choice of irrigation system will depend on:

• The type of blue water source(s) accessible – How close is the blue water source to the field, and how will it be moved? Is it groundwater, surface water, captured rainwater, or another source? What quantity is available for sustainable use? Make no assumptions about the abundance of a water source: it is important to thoroughly assess the supply and consult with other users in the watershed before installing an irrigation scheme.

• Quality of the water source(s) – What water quality is available? Low-quality or sediment-rich water will clog pipes and pumps, so it is not suitable for certain irrigation systems. Saline water needs to be managed using specific techniques. Water quality is discussed further in Chapter 12.

• The energy source that will be used to move water – If there is a sufficient difference in elevation between the water source and the field, irrigation can be powered by gravity. Otherwise, some form of energy input will be required to move water from the source to the field, and to distribute it over the cultivated area. This could be human or animal power, or energy from fuel combustion in the case of mechanical pumps.

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Medium 9781786393647

15 India: Rural Roots of Naxalite–Maoist Insurgency

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF

15 

India: Rural Roots of

Naxalite–Maoist Insurgency

Archana Prasad*

Centre for Informal Sector and Labour Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University,

New Delhi, India

Agrarian Capitalism and Conflicts

This chapter explores the relationship between the classical and contemporary agrarian questions and the rise of Naxalite–Maoist insurgency in rural India. It situates the origins and the character of such insurgency within the debates on the nature of agrarian capitalism in India and the evolving resistance to it. In this sense this chapter will be located in the contemporary history of agrarian transformations in constitutionally designated ‘tribal areas’ of central India, which are popularly known as the Red Corridor or the areas of operation of the Maoists. In this chapter, the term ‘Maoists’ is used for political activists who are associated with or identify themselves with the Communist Party of India

(Maoist). It is not used for local Adivasi people, who may participate in struggles but do not form the cadre of the Communist Party of India

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