1222 Chapters
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Medium 9781845938291

10. Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

Pena, J.E., Editor CAB International PDF

10 

Host Range of the Nettle Caterpillar

Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera:

Limacodidae) in Hawai’i

Arnold H. Hara,1 Christopher M. Kishimoto2 and Ruth Y. Niino-Duponte1

1

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, Komohana

Research and Extension Center, University of Hawai’i at Manoa,

875 Komohana Street, Hilo, Hawai’i 96720, USA;

2

Honolulu, Hawai’i 96819, USA

10.1  Introduction

The stinging nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta

(Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), was first discovered on the Island of Hawai’i in September 2001

(Pana’ewa 119° 39 min 13 s N / 155° 3 min 32 s W), and probably arrived from Taiwan on a shipment of rhapis palm seedlings (Conant et al., 2002). The native range of D. pallivitta is China, Taiwan,

Thailand, Java and Indonesia (Godfray et al., 1987), where it is regarded as a minor pest mainly on palms and grasses, including maize. D. pallivitta quickly became established, and caused extensive feeding damage on numerous agricultural and nursery crops, and on landscape plants. Moreover,

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Medium 9781855206786

Chapter 1: E30 - The Models

Andrew Everett Brooklands Books ePub

This is, in E30 terms, the bottom of the barrel although it’s a good car in its own right. Powered by the good old M10 engine, production started in January 1983 and ran right up to September 1988 with the last year’s production being the facelift plastic bumper model. Available in two- and four-door versions, you might even find a rare Baur Cabriolet but they are not worth that much.

Advantages? Many! For a start, they are now very cheap. Fuel economy is pretty fair (you should get 25mpg) and when the carburettor is playing the game, performance is surprisingly good with crisp throttle response and good torque. It is also pretty reliable and mechanically unbreakable. The M10, given an oil change every 6000 miles, just goes on forever. The timing chain will begin to rattle at anything over 100,000 miles, but the simple expedient of fitting a stronger spring in the tensioner will keep that quiet for a bit longer. With only 90bhp available, the mechanical components are very under-stressed.

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Medium 9781902375212

Elements

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

APPENDIX

Master Lists for Classification of Programme Activities

Elements

Classified as CI/SfB Project Manual (RIBA) Table 2 by two digits

|| 1 || - ||

SUBSTRUCTURE

| 1 | 0 |

Site substructure

| 1 | 1 |

Ground excavation, earth shapes

| 1 | 2 |

Free

| 1 | 3 |

Floor beds

| 1 | 4 |

Free

| 1 | 5 |

Free

| 1 | 6 |

Foundations

| 1 | 7 |

Pile foundations

| 1 | 8 |

Reserved for other substructure elements

| 1 | 9 |

Summary

|| 2 || - ||

SUPERSTRUCTURE

| 2 | 0 |

Site superstructure, primary elements

| 2 | 1 |

External walls

| 2 | 2 |

Internal walls, partitions

| 2 | 3 |

Floors, galleries

| 2 | 4 |

Stairs, ramps

| 2 | 5 |

Free

| 2 | 6 |

Free

| 2 | 7 |

Roofs

| 2 | 8 |

Frame

| 2 | 9 |

Summary

|| 3 || - ||

SUPERSTRUCTURE, SECONDARY ELEMENTS

| 3 | 0 |

Site superstructure, secondary elements

| 3 | 1 |

Windows, external doors (secondary elements in external walls)

| 3 | 2 |

Internal doors, hatches (secondary elements in internal walls)

| 3 | 3 |

Access floors, traps, stages (secondary elements in floors)

| 3 | 4 |

Balustrades (secondary elements in stairs, ramps)

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Medium 9781855209718

Chapter 3 - Manual Transmission (Gearbox)

PR Pub PR Pub Brooklands Books ePub
Medium 9781845938116

2 Linking Disturbance Regimes, Vegetation Dynamics, and Plant Strategies Across Complex Landscapes to Mitigate and Manage Plant Invasions

Monaco, T.A., Editor CAB International PDF

2

Linking Disturbance Regimes,

Vegetation Dynamics, and Plant

Strategies Across Complex

Landscapes to Mitigate and

Manage Plant Invasions

Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Brady W. Allred, R. Dwayne

Elmore, and David M. Engle

Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State

University, USA

Introduction

Composition and structure of ecosystems have long been described as dynamic, but a recent focus on invasive species has revitalized discussion of assembly rules and dynamics of species composition. For rangelands, our understanding of species invasions focused first on the effects of woody plant encroachment on livestock production. Recent research emphasizes intentional and accidental introduction of exotic species that are capable of dramatic changes to ecosystem structure and function. Increased attention to invasive species, including woody plants, has altered our understanding and methods of describing rangeland dynamics. In early

20th-century descriptions of rangeland dynamics, grazing was seen as the primary driver that produced dynamics with predictable, linear, and reversible patterns.

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Medium 9781780645308

Part IX: Poster Abstracts

CABI PDF

PART IX

Poster Abstracts

This page intentionally left blank

POSTER 1

The Effect of Protected Aromatic

Compounds on the Performance of

Broilers Challenged with Salmonella

Enteritidis and on Ileal Lactic Acid

Microflora

F. Goodarzi Boroojeni,1* M. Shahbaz Yousaf,2

S. Keller,3 H.M. Hafez,4 K. Männer,1 W. Vahjen,1

H. Ur-Rehman2 and J. Zentek1

1Institute

of Animal Nutrition, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie

Universität Berlin; 2University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore,

Pakistan; 3Novus Deutschland GmbH, Gudensberg, Germany; 4Institute of Poultry Diseases, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität

Berlin

INTRODUCTION

Understanding animal nutritional requirements, together with a proper farm management and adequate feeding programme, is vital to efficient and sustainable poultry meat production. The gastrointestinal tract with its complex microflora plays a key role in growth performance and profitability of modern poultry operations and can significantly be influenced by the diet composition. An innovative, scientifically tested nutritional solution, based on a blend of protected aromatic compounds (BPAC) including benzoic acid (AVIMATRIX®, Novus

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Medium 9781780645322

18 Valuation Approaches for Soil Carbon

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF

18 

Valuation Approaches for Soil Carbon

David J. Abson*, Unai Pascual and Mette Termansen

Abstract

Valuation of soil carbon can be understood as the process for assigning ‘weights’ to soil carbon when these are inadequately represented in decision making processes. There are different types of weights or ‘values’ that can be assigned to soil carbon. One approach is to assign monetary weights to such resources using economic valuation models. The total set of such monetized weights is referred to as total economic value (TEV). The different components of the value of soil carbon differ both conceptually and with respect to how they can be measured or manifested. There are various methods for quantifying soil carbon values that differ with respect to the types of values they are suitable or able to assess. This chapter reviews the various valuation approaches that can be applied to estimate different components of the TEV of soil carbon. In this respect, it discusses how soil carbon values can be estimated through both stated and reveal preferences methods, and places particular emphasis on the production function approach. In addition other approaches are presented, including the preventive or mitigation expenditure (marginal abatement costs) approach and the social cost of carbon approach. Lastly, the chapter addresses the question of how economic values can be included in economic decision making processes.

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Medium 9781780643373

21: The Development of Forest Conservation in Europe

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

21 

The Development of Forest

Conservation in Europe

James Latham*

Bryn Ffynnon, Llanddona, Anglesey, UK

21.1  Introduction

Much of the forest cover of Europe is ‘protected’ for a variety of interests and purposes, and hence nature may also be conserved in some way, but protection and conservation do not always go hand in hand. Forests may be protected for practical reasons, such as to ensure timber supplies or for the physical protection of villages in mountainous regions, or for aesthetic, cultural or political reasons. Nature conservation interests may sometimes be damaged by management for these other interests.

Equally, the designation of areas as important for nature conservation may mean that some other services such as wood production or grazing are curtailed; and if the special conservation interest is a non-woodland habitat or species, then trees and woods may be cleared for conservation reasons.

Protection and conservation are often viewed largely as passive processes – the prevention of damaging activities. However, some kind of intervention may be needed to achieve the desired goals, not least because of the cultural nature of much of the European landscape. The management of woodland for conservation and the integration of this with other forestry management objectives has

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Medium 9781780647753

5: Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

5 

Measuring Youth Entrepreneurship

Attributes: The Case of an Out-of-school Youth

Training Program in Mindanao, Philippines

Cynthia Lai,1* Catherine Chan,2 Domenico Dentoni3 and Elma Neyra4

University of Hawai‘i at Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of Hawai‘i at

Maˉnoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands;

4

Southern Christian College, Midsayap, North Cotabato, Philippines

1

5.1  Introduction

The implementation of youth entrepreneurship training programs is motivated by the realization that fostering entrepreneurship, defined in this chapter as starting a new business (­Kelley et al., 2012), can help in addressing youth unemployment when no other alternatives exist

(Rosa, 2006; Geldhof et al., 2014; UNCDF, 2014).

The Millennium Development Goals, established in the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, promoted entrepreneurship as one of the major platforms to support sustainable social and economic development for youth (UNDP,

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Medium 9781780645087

1. Introduction, the nature of natural: What does domestication involve?: Peanuts, Rye, Tomato

Warren, J. CABI PDF

1

Introduction, the nature of natural

The entire raison d'être of this book is to try and ascertain why we eat so few of the plant species that are available to us on Earth. In attempting this feat the first chapter tries to establish whether our impoverished diet is a new phenomenon. The evidence suggests that our ancestral diets differed greatly between cultures and although some of these may have been more diverse than our own, many others would have been more monotonous. Throughout this book different elements of the problem are tackled by exploring crop biographies as case studies. In this first chapter this approach reveals that over the history of crop domestication, humans have successfully and repeatedly solved one of the most significant problems involved in transforming wild plants into crops, which is how to avoid being poisoned. This was achieved by a number of methods: by selecting plants that contain lower levels of toxic chemicals, by adapting our own biology to be better able to digest these new foods stuffs and finally by inventing methods of processing plant materials which make them safer to eat. These issues will re-emerge and are covered in greater depth in subsequent chapters.

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Medium 9781786393647

16 Agrarian Transition, Adaptation and Contained Conflict in Cambodia and Vietnam since the 1990s

Zurayk, R.; Woertz, E.; Bahn, R. CABI PDF

16 

Agrarian Transition, Adaptation and Contained Conflict in Cambodia and Vietnam since the 1990s

Christophe Gironde*

IHEID, Geneva, Switzerland

Introduction†

Cambodia between 1967 and the late 1990s, and Vietnam from 1945 to the mid-1980s, suffered decades of mass destruction, economic stagnation and downturn caused by wars and agrarian collectivism, which culminated with atrocities and dramatic starvation under the

Khmer-Rouge regime. Although the two countries were a battlefield of the Cold War, these events undeniably had deep-rooted causes in long-­ standing agricultural stagnation and peasants’ struggle for land.1

Since then, both countries have witnessed rapid agrarian change, driven by an average 4% annual growth rate in crop output (World Bank,

2015) and economic diversification. The process has had a positive outcome when measured using economic growth and living standard indicators, which partly explains why rural areas in both countries have not recorded any major troubles or episodes of what historian Milton

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Medium 9781789240542

3 Does Transgenic Food Production Affect World Food Prices?

Brankov, T.; Lovre, K. CABI PDF

3

Does Transgenic Food Production

Affect World Food Prices?

Food prices are of special concern to poor countries and poor people. As previously stated, the second food regime mechanism failed to solve world hunger, leading the

FAO to call a World Food Summit in 1974 to examine global food production and consumption. To be sure, this was not the first attempt to solve hunger, since the Great

­Depression in the 1930s with its disastrous effects on ‘consumer purchasing power and on the incomes of primary producers, underlined the need for some form of intergovernmental arrangement for staple food-stuffs . . .

In the early 1930s, Yugoslavia proposed that in view of the importance of food for health, the Health Division of the League of Nations should disseminate information about the food position in representative countries of the world. Its report was the first introduction of the world food problem into the international political arena’ (Shaw, 2007, p. 6).

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Medium 9780874214321

3 : The Dawn’S Early Light

Raye Ringholz Utah State University Press ePub

FIRST CAME A BLAST OF HEAT and then the light, blinding, like a battery of flashbulbs exploding in the pre-dawn darkness. Shock waves followed in quick succession with a force that witnesses in a control building 8.9 miles to the south likened to firing a 16-inch coast-defense gun. As the immense fireball ascended it took on a rosy hue and was transformed into a long-stemmed mushroom tinged with luminous purple. Like an opening parachute, the plume climbed up to 43,000 feet while its slate-colored cloud hovered over the 123-square-mile dry lake bed of Frenchman Flat, reducing visibility to a mere 100 feet.

The 22-kiloton Fox, detonated on February 6, 1951, was the grande finale of the Ranger Series of atomic blasts at the Nevada Test Site, 75 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The massive flash was seen as far away as Los Angeles. In Indian Springs, 25 miles from ground zero, doors were blown out of their casements, windows were broken and roofs damaged. In one home, bathroom plumbing fixtures were knocked loose and left hanging from their pipes.

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Medium 9781786394873

2 Application of Pesticides

Matthews, G.A. CABI PDF

2

Application of Pesticides

‘In crop protection, the chemical weapon must be used as a stiletto, not as a scythe’ (Brown, 1951) – a very sensible statement; yet attention to pesticide application has been limited compared with the huge investments seeking new chemicals. In the earliest attempts to apply a pesticide, the spray liquid was simply allowed to flow by gravity from a knapsack tank through a hose to a ‘sprinkler’ held above the crop. As pointed out earlier, once Bordeaux mixture had been developed, there was a lot of activity building knapsack sprayers with a manually operated pump. Soon larger equipment, consisting essentially of a large barrel fitted with a manually operated piston pump, was made and mounted on horse-drawn carts, some with an elevated platform for tree crops. A number of hydraulic nozzles were designed by manufacturers in France and the USA.

In 1858, the ‘fantail’ was introduced (Fig. 2.1a), projecting a solid stream on a flat surface, later developed as a ‘diffuser’ nozzle, such as the Vigoureux nozzle, which ultimately evolved into a ‘deflector’ nozzle. Another early nozzle, made in 1875, was known as a ‘graduating spray’ nozzle, which could vary from a solid stream to a fine spray. The ‘gem’ nozzle (Fig. 2.1b) was therefore the first variable cone nozzle and became widely used on knapsack sprayers over 100 years later. Another version had a wire gauze instead of a flat plate. This was followed by the ‘boss’ nozzle, which incorporated a stopcock that enabled the user to adjust the opening and the flow rate.

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Medium 9781780648507

9 Precise Crop Load Management

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF

9

Precise Crop Load Management

Caixi Zhang1* and Du Chen2

Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 2China Agricultural

University, Beijing, China

1

9.1 Introduction

The development of fruit size and quality depends on many factors, such as the leaf–fruit ratio, genetic and climatic factors, position in the canopy, tree age, water and nutrient supply, source–sink relationship and crop load (Dennis, 2003). The management of crop load is one of the most important areas of orchard management that growers face each year, because most fruit species often set more fruit than necessary if growing conditions are optimal (Westwood, 1993). An excess of fruits with respect to vegetative growth may lead to low fruit size and to irregular or alternate bearing in many perennial crops, particularly in apple, pear, plum, olive, and citrus (Monselise and Goldschmidt, 1982). For most tree fruit species, the alternation of large and small crops is caused by competition between the current season’s crop and the coming season’s flower buds.

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