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Medium 9780596008680

Voice over Data: Many Conversations, One Network

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Chapter

2 2

CHAPTER

Voice over Data: Many

Conversations, One Network

Conversations are the basis of human communication. Conversations can be spoken, written, or gestured. Conversations can even be one directional, such as a coach bawling out his star quarterback after an uncharacteristic interception. Conversations may be “one-to-many” (such as a political candidate giving a stump speech) or

“many-to-one” (such as a constituency lobbying that candidate after she’s in office).

Conversations are more than just an analogy for networks—they literally are modern networking.

The underpinnings of enterprise networks are also conversations. IP data networks run on protocols that use a conversational approach to data exchange. The most common protocols for web browsing (HTTP) and email (SMTP) use a two-way

“data conversation” in order to communicate. The process is simple: a client host sends an inquiry to a server host or a peer host, and then the server or peer sends a response back to the client.

Conversations between hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network are similar to those between people, except that instead of using words, the messages are communicated across the networks using units called datagrams. A datagram is like a letter in an envelope. Once it has the proper markings, namely the recipient’s address and return address, and a stamp, the entire letter can be delivered by the postal service. A datagram’s markings are called headers, and they contain delivery information, like postal letters: instead of postal addresses, datagrams use something called host addresses. Different networking technologies have different names for datagrams, including cells, frames, and packets. Having a good understanding of IP networks is crucial to your success with Voice over IP. An excellent reference on the subject is

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Medium 9781845939212

14 South African Agricultural Production and Investment Patterns

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF

14

South African Agricultural Production and Investment Patterns*

Frikkie Liebenberg

University of Pretoria

14.1

Introduction

Since the establishment of the Union of

South Africa in 1910,1 its agricultural sector has seen significant shifts in structure that have been accompanied by ongoing institutional reorientation in its agricultural technical support services. Starting with the

Land Act of 1913, followed by other legislation, such as the Cooperative Act of 1920, the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1937, and subsequent Apartheid-era legislation and policies, ethnically based disparities in access to land, markets, credit, technical support services and so on were entrenched.

These policy measures established a dualistic structure of South African agriculture.

Although the number of black farmers dropped from 1.04 million in 1921 to 437,807 in

1951, the number of white-owned farms increased from 81,432 to 118,186 over the same period (Bureau of Census and Statistics,

1960). Today the sector is dominated by large white-owned ‘commercial agriculture’ that is highly mechanized and dependent on hired labour, alongside communal or

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Medium 9781780644837

5: Seed Quality Modifications in Oilseed Brassicas

CABI PDF

5 

Seed Quality Modifications in Oilseed

Brassicas

Abha Agnihotri*

Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Microbial Technology,

Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India

Introduction

Brassica is a large genus belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It contain 37 species (Kumar and Tsunoda, 1980), which include important crop plants such as oilseed rape (canola), mustard, cabbage, turnip rape, cauliflower and broccoli. Nutritionally, brassicas are rich in vitamins A and C and are the source of various bioactive agents. They are an important source of edible oils; their seeds are ­extensively used as condiments and spices. Among oil-­ bearing Brassica species, commonly known as rapeseed-mustard, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) occupies the maximum hectarage followed by Brassica rapa and Brassica napus

(Anonymous, 2005). Rapeseed-­mustard provides one of the healthiest edible oils, being commonly consumed in India; however, the biochemical composition of presently

­cultivated Indian rapeseed-mustard varieties does not match the internationally accepted standards. Therefore, the enhancement of oil quality is aimed at making Indian mustard at par with international standards and competitive in Indian and international markets.

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Medium 9781780647753

12: Understanding Conservation Agriculture Adopter’s Information Network to Promote Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill Region of Nepal

Chan, C.; Sipes, B.; Lee, T.S. CABI PDF

12 

Understanding Conservation Agriculture

Adopter’s Information Network to Promote

Innovation and Agricultural Entrepreneurship:

The Case of Tribal Farmers in the Hill

Region of Nepal

Bikash Paudel,1* Katherine A. Wilson,2 Catherine Chan2 and Bir Bahadur Tamang1

1

Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD),

Pokhara, Nepal; 2University of Hawai‘i at Ma¯noa, Honolulu, Hawaii

12.1  Introduction

Small-scale rural entrepreneurships are crucial for improving livelihood and reducing poverty in the developing world (Barrett, 2008; Tieguhong et al., 2012). Agricultural or forest-based small enterprises help reduce poverty by building local wealth and creating local job opportunities while also promoting the utilization of local stewardship for local natural resources

(Kaaria et al., 2008; Koirala et al., 2013). Small and medium-sized enterprises are important for economic growth worldwide. About 92.1% of firms in European countries are small to medium-sized enterprises which collectively contribute to 29% of jobs in the industrial sector and share about 21.1% of value added business (Gagliardi et al., 2013). There are great differences in the types and scales of small enterprises in developing countries as different nations define them differently. For the majority of the developing world, small-scale rural enterprises include very simple changes in farming systems such as: growing fresh vegetables and linking them to markets; marketing

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Medium 9788131805244

Ch_6

Abhishek Yadav and Poonam Yadav Laxmi Publications PDF

C

6

H

A

P

T

E

R

IMAGE COMPRESSION

6.1

INTRODUCTION

The data transmission and storage is very expensive. Generally, as we know that for presentation of digital data, we use encoding. By the encoding process also, we have very large amount of data (in comparison to original data). Thus, the overall consideration is :

1. To save the transmission bandwidth for transmission of data (In our case image).

2. To save the space for storage of image/data.

For that purpose, we use compression techniques. “By compression, we mean to compress the data for easy transmission and easy storage of data. By decompression means, again converting the compressed data into original data again”.

Now we will start the specific discussion in respect to image processing.

6.2

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

The term ‘data compression’ refers to the process of reducing the amount of data required to represent a given quantity of information.

“A data that is not relevant to represent any information is called data redundancy”.

Data redundancy is the center issue in digital image compression.

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Medium 9781902375212

Evaluating alternative methods of production

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 2

Decision Making
Methodology for
Methods of Production

Introduction

The aims of this methodology for decision making are to identify production opportunities and problems and also to develop strategies for the production of complex contracts. Decisions will be both of a ‘policy’ and a ‘hard’ decision in nature. Decisions will need to be made upon:

     Level, type, balancing of mechanisation to manpower resources.

     Extent and type of temporary works.

     Specific safety and protection measures.

     Storage facilities.

     Sequencing and timing of activities.

     Direction of working and access requirements.

     Whether or not the production method is economical and achieves the performance and quality requirements of binding.

The decision making process is not linear and requires constant reappraisal; be prepared to choose solutions, test them and make changes.

Methodology

Information

Consider what information you require to make a decision. On most large contracts, the information provided may well be substantial. You will need to sort out what is relevant, assess its quality and identify whether there are any information gaps.

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Medium 9789381159422

2.10. Meaning of Decision

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF

42

PRINCIPLES

OF

MANAGEMENT

In the top-down approach, the total organization is directed through corporate objective provided by the top level of management. In the bottom-up approach, the top-level management needs to have information from lower level in the form of objectives.

DECISION-MAKING

2.10. MEANING OF DECISION

A decision is a choice between two or more alternatives. This implies three things:

When managers make decisions they are choosing right one from alternatives,

They are deciding what to do on the basis of some conscious, and

Deliberate logic or judgment.

A decision may be defined, in terms of commitment of resources—raw materials, machines, finance, time, efforts etc. in a particular channel of thinking and action.

For example, a decision to advertise the product, involves the time, effort, finance of the marketing department in preparation of advertisement programme, its implementation and reviewing its progress.

Whenever a manager takes a decision, his thinking and actions are involved in a particular direction. Whenever the decision is implemented, it implies commitment of precious organizational resources in that particular direction.

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Medium 9781780647784

3 Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

Woo, P.T.K.; Cipriano, R.C. CABI PDF

3

Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

Virus

John S. Lumsden*

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph,

Guelph, Ontario, Canada and Adjunct Professor, Department of Pathobiology,

St. George’s University, True Blue, Grenada

3.1  Introduction

Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), the aetiological agent of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) is a member of the family Rhabdoviridae within the order Mononegavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, negative-sense (nega) RNA genomes with enveloped bullet- or cone-shaped nucleocapsids. The economically most important pathogenic rhabdoviruses are VHSV, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV; both in the genus Novirhabdovirus) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV; new name Carp sprivivirus, genus Sprivivirus). Please refer to the International

Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses for details

(ICTV, 2015). VHSV and IHNV share the same six genes that read from the 3′ end to the 5′ end of the genome as N (nucleocapsid protein), P (phosphoprotein), M (matrix protein), G (glycoprotein), NV

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Medium 9781780647326

16 The Appropriation of Space through ‘Communist Swarms’: A Socio-spatial Examination of Urban Apiculture in Washington, DC

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

16 

The Appropriation of Space through

‘Communist Swarms’: A Socio-spatial

Examination of Urban Apiculture in

Washington, DC

Lauren Dryburgh*

American University, Washington, DC, USA

When I started researching . . . urban

­beekeeping, to be honest, I was a bit intimidated.

Urban apiaries remain the domain of the hardcore – the tattooed hipsters in Bushwick or other outer-borough neighborhoods

[in New York City] and their communist swarms.

(Levin, 2010, p. 1)

16.1  Introduction

About a month after Eliza De La Portilla and her family moved into their urban South Florida home, their neighbours came over to thank them. De La Portilla and her family had brought something into the community that was then unusual – h

­ oneybees. The long-time residents in the house next door were overjoyed to find that there were again bees in a space where buzzing had not been heard for quite some time

(De La Portilla, 2013). The family of urban apiculturists was not surprised to hear that their bees were fi

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Medium 9781845938178

7: The Laboratory Evaluation of Rodenticides

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

7 

The Laboratory Evaluation of Rodenticides

C.V. Prescott and R.A. Johnson

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK

Introduction

Rodenticides are chemical substances used for killing rodent pests (generally through ingestion). The most important features of a rodenticide that contribute to its performance are its toxicity and palatability, both of which are largely assessed in the laboratory.

Much of the considerable effort involving the laboratory evaluation of rodenticides is aimed at meeting the increasing demands of various regulatory bodies. The cornerstone of rodenticide regulation is registration, and the basic data requirements needed to achieve registration (i.e. specifications, efficacy and toxicology) are now largely standardized. Rodenticide registration in any particular country varies in complexity depending on the facilities and expertise available. In most developed countries, comprehensive registration schemes are enforced and this is reflected in the availability of appropriate documentation. In the

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Medium 9781780641836

9 Effects of Climate Change on Regeneration by Seeds

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF

9

Effects of Climate Change on Regeneration by Seeds

Rui Zhang1* and Kristen L. Granger2

Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts, USA;

2

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania

State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

1

Introduction

Climate change has been shown to influence many aspects of species’ life histories

(Pounds et al., 1999; Hughes, 2000; Walther et al., 2002). Compared to the well-studied literature of how climate change affects performance of adult plants, relatively few studies have focused on the responses of seeds and seedlings, the shifts in their abundance and distributions, and changes in population dynamics and regenerations that are connected by these early life stages.

As iterated in other chapters of this book, seeds play a critical role in plant regeneration. Furthermore, early life stages are expected to be more sensitive to climate change than adult stages (Lloret et al., 2004;

Walck et al., 2011), and therefore impacts of climate change on regeneration are likely to have consequences at the population and community levels. In this chapter, we review both lab and field investigations on seed and seedling responses to climate change. There is a rich literature on how environmental factors regulate seed biology

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Medium 9780253353597

Five Navies, Sea Power, and Two or More Wars

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER FIVE

NAVIES, SEA POWER, AND TWO OR MORE WARS

OVER THE YEARS the story of the war at sea during the Second World War with reference to Germany and Italy has been told mainly in terms of the defeat of the U-boat campaign against shipping. Certainly two, perhaps three, themes have been at the basis of British accounts of the defeat of the German campaign against Allied and neutral shipping. The first has been the British claim for the credit of that defeat, and the second was the abysmally poor showing of the U.S. Navy in the first six months after the American entry into the war. A third point is the assertion of the singular importance of May 1943 in the German defeat.

Most certainly the very bad performance of the U.S. Navy in the first six months of 1942 cannot be gainsaid, not least because of the utter inadequacy of provisions despite the United States’ having had some seventeen months’ notice of the coming of war to the western North Atlantic. There is no disputing the significance of events in the course of May 1943, but the argument that this was the month of the U-boats’ defeat is entirely fatuous. The U-boats were defeated in April–May 1945. The victory that was won in May 1943 had to be secured repeatedly over the following two years, and while the events of May 1943 possess special significance, it is as part of a process of mounting losses that really began in February 1943. Moreover, the events of May 1943 must also be seen in association with those of July–August and October–November 1943, when the U-boats, reorganized, re-equipped and committed afresh to the campaign in the North Atlantic following their previous reverses, incurred defeats that were no less significant than that of May 1943. And while May 1943 was significant in terms of U-boat losses, which were more than double the worst previous month of the war and were the second-heaviest single-month losses in the entire war, August 1943 had special significance, and for a reason that seems to have eluded most historians: it was the first month in the war when the number of U-boats lost exceeded the number of merchantmen sunk by the U-boats.

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Medium 9781902375205

(b)  ACE

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 5

How has the Act changed the Standard Forms?

1.     Introduction

2.     Building Contracts-JCT 80 Amendment 18

3.     Professional Appointments

(a)     RIBA

(b)     ACE

4.     Sub-Contracts-DOM/1 Conditions

5.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The updating of the various standard form contracts and professional appointments has been a haphazard process, for example, the DOM/1 Conditions had not been amended since 1990 not withstanding that during that period JCT 80, to which DOM/1 is intended to be compatible, had been amended several times. The amendment of professional appointments was also an ad hoc process often related to the introduction of new legislation, for example, the CDM Regulations119. The implementation of the Construction Act on 1 May 1998 was of such significance to the industry that virtually all publishers of standard forms have had to reconsider their conditions to make them Construction Act compliant.

There has also been a substantial amount of revision of bespoke agreements to ensure the adherence to the mandatory provisions of the Act. Some publishers such as the JCT have taken the opportunity to introduce not only Construction Act compliant rules but also various other recommendations of the Latham Report that did not find their way into the Act. This has not, however, applied to all standard forms as some publishers have taken a much more restrictive view and suggested limited amendments to make the forms Construction Act compliant, for example, the ICE. Whilst it is not practical to review all of the standard forms, examples of the changes that have been made to building contracts, professional appointments and sub-contracts are set out in this chapter.

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Medium 9781786395146

1 Understanding the Business of Controlling Pests

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

1

Understanding the Business of Controlling Pests

1.1 Introduction

Urban pests are common all over the world. These include cockroaches, flies, mosquitoes, bed bugs, ticks, fleas, ants, termites, rodents and a few more.

These pests thrive in dark, warm and moist conditions in structures, particularly in places where there is food, warmth and places to hide. Moreover, a number of human activities and habits such as living in homes with insufficient ventilation, creating clutter, poor lighting, temperature control, poor recycling of rubbish, improper composting methods, poor water storage and use of wood in construction attract pests. Also, community and public areas in cities such as parks, recreation centres, wastelands, rivers, canals, sewer drains, stormwater drains, dump sites, flea markets and recycling plants often serve as ideal breeding grounds and habitats for pests.

●● A city is never free of pests, and urban pests are among the prime sources of damage and many human illnesses and injuries.

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Medium 9781780647050

9: Indigenous Soil Enrichment for Food Security and Climate Change in Africa and Asia: A Review

Sillitoe, P. CABI PDF

9 

Indigenous Soil Enrichment for Food Security and Climate Change in Africa and Asia: A Review

James Fairhead,* James Fraser, Kojo Amanor, Dawit Solomon,

Johannes Lehmann and Melissa Leach

Studies of indigenous soil knowledge or ‘ethnopedology’ identify how farmers differentiate and understand their soils and reveal their sophisticated appreciation of the biophysical characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit

(Barrera-Bassols and Zinck, 2003). Local ethnopedological frameworks share differences and similarities to scientific systems of categorization.

Farmers often categorize soils according to colour, texture (i.e. sand/clay/ stone/silt content), geographical or topographical position, potential, and wider ecological interactions. Such knowledge informs soil fertility management practices (Adewole Osunade, 1995; Krogh and

Paarup-Laursen, 1997; Birmingham, 2003;

Gray and Morant, 2003; Niemeijer and Mazzucato, 2003; Osbahr and Allan, 2003; Ngailo and

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