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Medium 9781780642789

Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub)

Kumar, P. CAB International PDF

CLUSTER BEAN (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub)



Plate 308. Entire plant appearing light green. (Photo by Dr Prakash Kumar and Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma.)

1. Nitrogen deficiency is usually found during the initial stages of crop growth when root symbiotic nitrogen fixation nodules are yet to develop.

2. Nitrogen deficiency may also occur during later stages of crop growth when the symbiotic nitrogen-supplying mechanism is disturbed for some reason such as nodule infestation, nodule pathogenic disease or physiological causes.

3. Nitrogen is mobile in plants and under short supply conditions it is easily mobilized from older to younger leaves. The deficiency symptoms appear first and more severely on old leaves (Plate 307).

4. In mild deficiency conditions or when deficiency occurs in the young stage, the entire plant appears uniformly light green in colour (Plates 308 and 309).

5. If deficiency persists and becomes more severe, the older leaves show uniform pale green to pale yellow chlorosis (Plate 307).

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Medium 9781845939625

6. Making the Surface of Fleshy Fruit: Biosynthesis, Assembly and Role of the Cuticular Layer

P Nath CAB International PDF


Making the Surface of Fleshy Fruit:

Biosynthesis, Assembly and Role of the

Cuticular Layer

Justin Lashbrooke,1,2,3 Fabrizio Costa2 and Asaph Aharoni1*

1Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science,

Rehovot, Israel; 2Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund

Mach, TN, Italy; 3Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Stellenbosch

University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

6.1 Introduction to the Plant Cuticle

The primary barrier between the atmosphere and the aerial parts of higher plants is the cuticular membrane or the cuticle.

The constituents of this hydrophobic extracellular membrane, typically comprised of soluble waxes and polymerized lipids, are produced and secreted by the plant’s epidermal cells (Kunst and

Samuels, 2003; Pollard et al., 2008).

Lipids consisting mostly of C16 to C20 fatty acids are polymerized to form a matrix known as cutin (Schreiber, 2010).

The cutin matrix is both embedded with waxes (intracuticular) and covered with a thin layer of surface (epicuticular) waxes

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Medium 9781780645681

12 Conservation Agriculture in South Africa: Lessons from Case Studies

Kassam, A.H. CABI PDF


Conservation Agriculture in South

Africa: Lessons from Case Studies

Hendrik J. Smith,1* Erna Kruger,2 Jaap Knot3 and James N.


Grain SA, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Mahlathini Organics, Pietermaritzburg,

South Africa; 3KEL Growing Nations Trust, Ladybrand, South Africa;


University of Pretoria, South Africa


12.1  Introduction

Mainstreaming sustainable agriculture systems in South Africa has become imperative. Severe environmental degradation, low farm profitability and poverty associated with current conventional production systems have brought the agricultural sector to a crossroads. If farmers in South Africa are offered a better chance to survive on the farm and if sustainable and economically viable agriculture is to be achieved, then the paradigms of agricultural production and management must be changed.

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is an approach to managing agroecosystems for improved and sustained productivity, increased profits and food security while preserving and enhancing the resource base and the environment. CA is characterized by three linked principles (FAO, 2001; Lal, 2010), namely: (i) continuous no or minimum mechanical soil disturbance; (ii) permanent organic soil cover; and (iii) diversification of crop species grown in sequences and/or associations, including the use of cover crops.

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Medium 9788131806135


Mahesh M. Rathore Laxmi Publications PDF


Steady State Conduction Without

Heat Generation

3.1. Plane Wall. 3.2. Electrical Analogy of Heat Transfer Rate Through a Plane Wall. 3.3. Multilayer Plane Wall—Plane slabs in series—Heat conduction through parallel slabs—Composite wall in series and parallel—Overall heat transfer coefficient.

3.4. Thermal Contact Resistance. 3.5. Long Hollow Cylinder—Electrical analogy for hollow cylinder—Multilayer hollow cylinders—

Overall heat transfer coefficient—Log mean area. 3.6. Critical Thickness of Insulation on Cylinders—Effect of thermal resistances.

3.7. Hollow Sphere—Electrical analogy for hollow sphere—Multilayer hollow sphere—Overall heat transfer coefficient—Critical radius of insulation on sphere. 3.8. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.

Objective of this chapter is to:

• obtain steady state temperature distribution without heat generation in slab, hollow cylinders and spheres.

• obtain heat conduction rate from differential heat conduction equation without heat generation in solids.

• study concept of thermal resistance in series and parallel.

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Medium 9781845939212

13 Agricultural Productivity and Policy Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF


Agricultural Productivity and Policy Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa

Alejandro Nin-Pratt and Bingxin Yu

International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC



In recent years, ‘an improvement in economic indicators throughout Africa led some observers to argue that the region had finally solved its economic conundrums and could now expect sustained economic growth’ (van de Walle, 2001). That optimism was fuelled by the end of several civil wars, a wave of democratization in several countries (which made possible the creation of the New Partnership for Africa’s

Development, or NEPAD, and a new agenda for development), the acceleration of economic growth, and significant improvements in the performance of the agricultural sector across Africa during the 1980s and

1990s. Output growth in sub-Saharan Africa

(SSA) from 1964 to 1983 was on average

1.8%, with the worst performance occurring between 1972 and 1983, when output growth was less than 1%, below the rate of increase in the use of inputs in agriculture

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Medium 9781601323286

ExpTool: a Tool to Conduct, Package and Replicate Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


ExpTool: a Tool to Conduct, Package and Replicate

Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering

Joao Pucci Neto, Lilian Passos Scatalon,

Rogerio Eduardo Garcia, Ronaldo Celso Messias Correia, Celso Olivete Junior

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

Faculty of Science and Technology

University State Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho”

Street Roberto Simonsen, 305 - CEP 19060-900 Presidente Prudente - SP, Brazil

E-mail: puccineto,lilian.scatalon@gmail.com, rogerio,ronaldo,olivete@fct.unesp.br

Abstract—Running multiples experiments in Software Engineering introduces the need of recording data as well as transferring knowledge across them, especially considering that several researchers are involved on replicating experiments. For that, experimental evaluations generate knowledge that must be registered into a so-called lab package. Researches have reported difficulties on sharing lab packages due to lack of standardization.

In this paper we present a tool to support experimenters to conduct controlled experiments, packaging experimental data.

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Medium 9781780642703

2 Concepts and Mechanisms



Concepts and Mechanisms

The concept of botanically derived insecticides has gained favour in recent years, due in part to the perception that, because they originate from plant material, they are safer or ‘natural’.

These pesticides are often used for growing crops organically, according to guidelines set by certification programmes. However, it is important to be aware that they are pesticides, and that they fall under the same state and federal regulations as synthetic pesticides. In fact, plant-based insecticides have advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantages are that:

(i) they degrade rapidly and therefore are less persistent in the environment with reduced risks to non-target organisms, and may be applied shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues; (ii) their action is rapid

(i.e. they may stop feeding by insects quickly or may cause paralysis); (iii) they have low mammalian toxicity; (iv) they are selective; and

(v) they are less phytotoxic than synthetic pesticides. However, there are disadvantages too, such as rapid degradation; possible toxicity in some cases for the user; cost and availability; and lack of toxicological data that are necessary for long-­term use and establishment of tolerances.

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Medium 9788170088530


Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF






Whereas surveying is the process of producing a plan or map of a particular area, setting out begins with the plan and ends with some particular engineering structure correctly positioned in the area. Most of the techniques and equipment used in surveying are also used in setting out.

It is important to realise that setting out is simply one application of surveying. In many cases, insufficient importance is attached to the process of setting out, and it tends to be rushed to save time. This attitude may result in errors, causing delays which leave construction machinery and plant idle, resulting in additional costs.

There are two aims when undertaking setting out operations:

1. The structure to be constructed must be set out correctly in all three dimensions—both relatively and absolutely, so that it is of correct size, in the correct plan position and at correct level.

2. The setting out process, once begun, must proceed quickly, without causing any delay in construction programme.

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Medium 9788170088837


Dr. B.C. Punmia ; Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Jain Laxmi Publications PDF






Topographic surveying is the process of determining the positions, both on plan and elevation, of the natural and artificial features of a locality for the purpose of delineating them by means of conventional signs upon a topographic map. By topography is meant the shape or configuration of the earth’s surface. The basic purpose of the topographic map is to indicate the three dimensional relationships for the terrain of any given area of land. Thus, on a topographic map, the relative positions of points are represented both horizontally as well as vertically. The representation of the difference in elevation is called the relief. On a plan, the relative altitudes of the points can be represented by shading hachures, form lines or contour lines. In addition to the relief, the topographic map depicts natural features such as streams, rivers, lakes, trees etc. as well as artificial features such as highways, railroads, canals, towns, houses, fences and property lines. The topographic maps are very essential for the planning and designing of the most engineering projects such as location of railways, highways, design of irrigation and drainage systems, the development of water power, layout of industrial plants and city planning. Topographic maps are also very useful in directing military operations during a war.

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Medium 9781780645322

20 Climate Change and Soil Carbon Impacts

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF


Climate Change and Soil

Carbon Impacts

Pete Smith*, Pia Gottschalk and Jo Smith


Soils contain vast reserves (~1500 Pg) of carbon (C), about twice that found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Historically, soils in managed ecosystems have lost a portion of this C (40–90 Pg) through land-use change, some of which has remained in the atmosphere. In terms of climate change, most projections suggest soil C changes driven by future climate change will range from small losses to moderate gains, but these global trends show considerable regional variation. The response of soil

C in future will be determined by a delicate balance between the impacts of increased temperature and decreased soil moisture on decomposition rates, and the balance between changes in C losses from decomposition and C gains through increased productivity. In terms of using soils to mitigate climate change, soil C sequestration globally has a large, cost-competitive mitigation potential. Nevertheless, limitations of soil C sequestration include time limitation, non-permanence, displacement and difficulties in verification. Despite these limitations, soil C sequestration can be useful to meet short- to medium-term targets, and confers a number of co-benefits on soils, making it a viable option for reducing the short-term atmospheric CO2 concentration, thus buying time to develop longer-term emission reduction solutions across all sectors of the economy.

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Medium 9781601323286

Game-Based Learning Development Process: an exploratory analysis of game development companies in Brazil

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF


Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

Game-Based Learning Development Process: an exploratory analysis of game development companies in


João Coelho Neto12, Sheila Reinehr1, and Andreia Malucelli1

¹ Polytechnic School, Graduate Program in Computer Science - PPGIa, Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná

State (PUCPR), Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.


Center of Human Sciences and Education, Mathematic Department, Northern Paraná Public University

(UENP), Cornélio Procópio, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract— The development industry of the electronic games has a considerable comprisement, in both productivity and in the possibility to work with interdisciplinary matters in the process of cognitive and computational development.

Considering the educational factors that the electronic games can provide, this paper has as the aim to identify how the educational electronic games are being developed by companies of Brazilian games development and if there is some specific process for the educational area. The aim of this study was to identify which development process used by these companies are, and if there is some specific development process for the educational area to the light of cognitive abilities. The methodological approach used was a qualitative research classified as an exploratory research.

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Medium 9781780644370

11 The Lessons that Caenorhabditis elegans Has Taught Us About the Mechanism of Action of Crystal Proteins

Soberon, M. CABI PDF


The Lessons that

Caenorhabditis elegans Has

Taught Us About the Mechanism of Action of Crystal Proteins

Anand Sitaram and Raffi V. Aroian*

Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts

Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA


Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to three domain crystal proteins similar to those that intoxicate insects. Investigations of this organism have several important strengths, for example, ease of forward genetic screens, range of molecular genetic tools available and ease of carrying out RNAi (RNA interference) studies. These have been exploited to study cellular responses known as cellular non-immune defences (CNIDs) to the crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and pore-forming toxins in general. We will discuss what we have learned through genetics and RNAi

(including genome-wide RNAi) to elucidate the pathways that allow cells to respond productively to crystal protein attack. In addition, key results will be discussed from investigations with mammalian poreforming proteins to highlight the conservation of cellular responses to crystal proteins with cellular responses to poreforming proteins in general.

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Medium 9788131805381


Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF





It is the science of using information to understand biology. It is conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and applying informatics techniques (computer science, applied mathematics and statistics) to organize the information associated with these molecules. Bioinformatics and data mining are two latest areas of research involving computer-assisted management of data generated for biotechnology applications. The information generated in genomics is enormous and its interpretation requires the use of powerful computers and specific softwares.

Computer Network

The internet is a global network of computer networks that link government, academic and business institutions. Computer within the network are referred to as nodes and these communicate with each other by transferring data packets. Each computer or network mode has a unique address (IP address) by which it can be identified and can communicate with other nodes.

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Medium 9789381159118


Rajesh Mehra; Vikrant Vij Laxmi Publications PDF



Then a new event editor window will open as shown in Fig. 12.2. In the window configure event action as �Display summary� when start tag changes its value from 0 to 1.

Fig. 12.2 Event editor

Using the Accept and Discard Buttons

When you enter information in the editor, the previous and next buttons change to accept and discard. Click Accept to save information. Click Discard to discard information.

Events Creation

An event is made up of an expression and an action. When the expression changes from false on the previous evaluation to true on the current evaluation, the action is triggered. The following illustration shows an event file.

1. In the Action field, type an RSView32 command, a macro, or a symbol that will run when the expression goes from false to true.

2. To disable the event, clear the Enabled check box. When the event file runs, this disabled event will not be evaluated.

3. In the Description field, type a brief description to document the event�s function.

4. In the Expression area, create an expression to specify the conditions that will trigger the action.

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Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF





In This Chapter









Public Perception of Biotechnology

Patenting (Intellectual Property Rights�IPR)


International Patent Laws

Patenting in Biotechnology

Varietal Protection

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology�Agriculture and Health Care


Science and Society


ur perceptions or attitudes toward things are not always rational and are often culturally influenced. They are a combination of thoughts or the cognitive dimension, feelings, or the affective dimension, and the way we react—the behavioral dimension. The cognitive dimension consists of things we know, the affective dimension comprises of things we feel, and the behavioral dimension is how we will act on the attitudes we build. Attitudes help us to become socially acceptable; belonging to a group is very important, and it gives meaning to things we experience.

Advancements in science and technology have made our life very simple and fast. At the same time some of this advancement has caused great concern regarding the long-term impacts on environment and life. In 1985, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), also known as Brundtland Commission appointed by United Nations (UN), recommended sustainable development preserving the environment without any degradation. The Commission defined sustainable development as ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without

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