996 Chapters
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Medium 9781780644707

1:Describing Soil Structures, Rooting and Biological Activity and Recognizing Tillage Effects, Damage and Recovery in Clayey and Sandy Soils


1  Describing Soil Structures, Rooting

and Biological Activity and Recognizing

Tillage Effects, Damage and Recovery in Clayey and Sandy Soils

Anne Weill1* and Lars J. Munkholm2

Center of Expertise and Technology Transfer in Organic Agriculture and

Local Food Systems (Centre d’expertise et de transfert en agriculture biologique et de proximité – CETAB+), Cégep de Victoriaville, Québec,

Canada; 2Department of Agroecology – Soil Physics and Hydropedology,

Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark


Soil compaction and erosion have emerged as major threats to global agriculture as they negatively affect plant production and have detrimental impacts on the environment. Soil compaction is responsible for decreased crop yield and quality, emissions of greenhouse gases and increased water runoff (Hamza and Anderson, 2005; Ball et al., 2008). Unless severe, it is often unrecognized because plant growth can appear normal, especially when mineral fertilizers are used liberally. The major cropping factors affecting soil compaction are the weight of machinery, poor timing of field operations with respect to soil water content and intensification of crop production. Soil erosion is responsible for losses of soil particles, nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in decreased soil fertility as well as eutrophication of rivers and lakes (Rasouli et al., 2014). Site characteristics (rainfall quantity and intensity, slope and soil texture) have strong effects on soil erosion; in addition, important cropping factors related to soil erosion are crop rotation, percentage soil cover and management practices affecting soil structure and compaction (Pimentel

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Medium 9781780640884

2 Drivers and Challenges for Food Security

Boelee, E. CABI PDF


Drivers and Challenges for Food Security

Jennie Barron,1* Rebecca E. Tharme2† and Mario Herrero3

1Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, UK and Stockholm Resilience

Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2The Nature Conservancy (TNC),

Buxton, UK; 3Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO),

St Lucia, Queensland, Australia


At the global scale, humanity is increasingly facing rapid changes, and sometimes shocks, that are affecting the security of our food systems and the agroecosystems that are the ultimate sources of food. To plan and prepare for resilient food production and food security in a sustainable and efficient way, we are challenged to better understand the conditions and likely responses of these diverse agroecosystems under various drivers of change and scenarios of future trends. Among the many direct drivers and indirect pressures that exist or are emerging, the discussion in this chapter focuses on the main themes of drivers of demographic changes, globalization of economic and governance systems (including markets), and climate change. The current state of health of water and land resources, and of ecosystems and their services, are considered alongside these drivers, as these are critical determinants of the pathways with sufficient potential to move food-producing systems towards more sustainable production.

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Medium 9781780648507

11 Opportunity of Robotics in Precision Horticulture

Zhang, Q. CABI PDF


Opportunity of Robotics in Precision Horticulture

Thomas Burks1*, Duke Bulanon2 and Siddhartha Mehta1

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA; 2Northwest Nazarene

University, Nampa, Idaho, USA


11.1 Introduction

The motivation towards adoption of mechanization and automation technologies for fruit production has been associated primarily with labor productivity, labor cost and availability, as well as other factors such as cultivar/varietal improvements, fruit quality and safety, disease and pest pressures, environmental concerns and regulations, and global market pressures. Although the vast majority of progress has been realized during the past 50 years, there seems to be an accelerated effort in developed countries in the past decade as two major factors come to bear. The first is rapidly escalating labor cost along with a shrinking labor force, while the second is a significant acceleration in agricultural automation technological development enabled by aerospace, defense and industrial efforts. The concept of appropriate automation becomes crucial, since global market pressures limit the cost of automation to competitive levels.

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Medium 9781780645308

Part I: Creating a Resilient Industry



Creating a Resilient Industry

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Making a Resilient Poultry Industry in


Anne-Marie Neeteson-van Nieuwenhoven,1*

Michael C. Appleby2 and George Hogarth1


Group, Newbridge, Midlothian, UK; 2World Animal Protection,

London, UK


This chapter is the first of a series on the subject of ‘Sustainable poultry production in Europe’ written after the UK World Poultry Science Association conference on the same topic. Its aim is to give an overview of the factors that can contribute to a resilient poultry industry, and which factors may be a threat. Subsequent chapters will highlight some of these in more detail. This chapter discusses the factors that may contribute to a resilient poultry industry in Europe taking into account the global scale, and which factors may be a threat. From

2011 to 2050 available land resources will decline from 0.7 to 0.5 ha/person.

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Medium 9781780647906

7: Integrating Feeding Programmes into Organic Production Systems

Blair, R. CABI PDF


Integrating Feeding Programmes into Organic Production Systems

The main differences between organic and conventional pig production relate to housing system, genotype, range of feedstuffs available for dietary use and disease prevention measures. These differences need to be recognized in devising appropriate feeding programmes for organic pig units.

Housing System

Organic production requires that the animals be provided with outdoor access. Outdoor production is often perceived as being a more sustainable, traditional and family-based farming system. It is also often perceived to be more environmentally friendly, generating less smell and pollution than slurry-based intensive units. Thus organic products have more appeal for the consumer.

Edwards (2005) described the various outdoor pig production systems in Europe, conventional and organic. In conventional units the animals are typically housed indoors after weaning, sometimes in buildings with outdoor runs and more often in fully enclosed buildings. The finishing pigs in conventional production are almost always housed, either in deep-litter systems or in conventional controlled-environment housing. In contrast, the farms producing organic pigs must follow

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Medium 9781780647050

12: The Indigenous Knowledge of Crop Diversity and Evolution

Sillitoe, P. CABI PDF


The Indigenous Knowledge of Crop

Diversity and Evolution

Stephen B. Brush*

The numerous colours, shapes, sizes and tastes within crop species are a window into cultures and knowledge systems. This chapter relates indigenous knowledge to crop diversity and evolution by focusing on two regions of crop domestication: Mesoamerica and the Andes. While indigenous knowledge systems encompass many domains relevant to agriculture (e.g. hydrology, soils, climate, pests and pathogens), the knowledge of crop diversity is better studied than other domains.

One goal here is to show how studying indigenous knowledge of crop diversity is useful to understanding the broader topic of crop evolution.

­Ultimately, that understanding must depend on fuller understanding and integration of the many domains of indigenous knowledge employed in producing food.

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) originated in the Andes and maize (Zea mays) in Mesoamerica. Greater diversity in these crops exists there than elsewhere; the crops have extraordinary cultural salience; and the relationship between crop diversity, evolution and indigenous knowledge is readily observable. Factors that affect this are the length of crop evolution, the presence of wild crop ancestors, and the relative cultural and nutritional importance of local domesticates.

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Medium 9781786391216

9: Aneuploidy and Ploidy in the Endosperm: Dosage, Imprinting, and Maternal Effects on Development

Larkins, B.A. CABI PDF


Aneuploidy and Ploidy in the Endosperm:

Dosage, Imprinting, and Maternal Effects on


James A. Birchler* and Adam F. Johnson

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

9.1 Introduction

For nearly 100 years it has been recognized that changes in the dosage of parts of plant genomes (aneuploidy) impact their development, stature, and vigor, even more than changes in copies of the entire genome

(polyploidy). The first studies of aneuploidy and polyploidy, using Datura stramonium, were conducted by Blakeslee and colleagues

(Blakeslee et al., 1920; Blakeslee, 1934), who made an extensive set of changes in each chromosome as well as a dosage series of various ploidies. The effects of aneuploidy were manifested in all aspects of the life cycle. The question we address in this chapter is how these effects, which appear to be manifested somewhat differently, apply to endosperm development. We propose that the stoichiometry of regulatory complexes for carrying out the maternally contributed program for endosperm development and the primary endosperm nucleus dosage contributions affect endosperm development at a critical early stage.

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Medium 9781780642826

7: Food Safety Standards for Domestic and International Markets: The Case of Dairy

Brouwer, F.; Joshi, P.K. CABI PDF


Food Safety Standards for Domestic and

International Markets: The Case of Dairy

Anneleen Vandeplas*1,2 and Mara P. Squicciarini2

European Commission, Brussels, Belgium; 2LICOS, Center for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven, Belgium



Several chapters in this volume address the question of how demand and supply for key food commodities will evolve in India over the next 20 years, and in particular, whether

India will become deficit or surplus in these commodities by 2030. This is a question of high policy relevance to Indian policy makers, who have historically attached major importance to the issue of food self-sufficiency; in other words, of being able to produce all food commodities it needs by itself.1 However, over the next decades, quantitative considerations of food supply may need to be complemented by qualitative considerations as concerns for food safety and quality2 are becoming increasingly important.

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Medium 9781780641836

1 Overview of Seed Development, Anatomy and Morphology

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF


Overview of Seed Development,

Anatomy and Morphology

Elwira Sliwinska1* and J. Derek Bewley2

Department of Plant Genetics, Physiology and Biotechnology, University of

Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada



The spermatophytes, comprised of the gymnosperms and angiosperms, are plants that produce seeds that contain the next generation as the embryo. Seeds can be produced sexually or asexually; the former mode guarantees genetic diversity of a population, whereas the latter (apomictic or vegetative reproduction) results in clones of genetic uniformity. Sexually produced seeds are the result of fertilization, and the embryo develops containing, or is surrounded by, a food store and a protective cover (Black et al., 2006). Asexual reproduction is probably important for the establishment of colonizing plants in new regions.

Seeds of different species have evolved to vary enormously in their structural and anatomical complexity and size (the weight of a seed varies from 0.003 mg for orchids to over 20 kg for the double coconut palm

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Medium 9781780648651

12: Habitats

Peterken, G.; Mountford, E. CABI PDF



Woods contain a host of habitats that enable particular species to thrive within their bounds.

Within Lady Park, we have, for example, tracks, rock faces and tufa-forming seepages, but not streams, save for the not inconsiderable bulk of the Wye at its foot. This chapter gives more detail on the habitats most directly related to stand dynamics, dead wood and open spaces.


Dead Wood

If there was one feature that foresters sought to minimise, it was dead wood. Managers who grow utilisable timber see dead wood as waste, timber defects, a source of disease and, in some forest types, an invitation to fire. And yet, in natural forests, dead wood is not just inevitable but an important habitat, and a state through which the nutrients are recycled into new growth. Moreover, just as bald heads and gammy legs are part of the human condition, so dead branches and hollow trunks form a natural stage in the life of trees.

In Lady Park Wood, dead wood takes many forms. Stumps of trees felled in 1942 are still prominent (see Fig. 7.19). Coppice stools remain, some completely dead, most the foundation of living trees

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Medium 9781780646282

15: Forage Legume Adaptation Strip Trials in Belize

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

15 Forage Legume Adaptation

Strip Trials in Belize

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


Twenty-one plantings of 24 accessions of 18 promising forage species belonging to 13 genera were established as strips under two fertilizer levels in 15 native and improved pastures and plots in contrasting environments

(vertisols, planosols and podzols) under wet tropical conditions in central Belize to obtain an initial assessment of their potential under regular cutting and grazing. Observational methods were used to obtain data. At the seven upper Belize River Valley sites, Leucaena leucocephala and Codariocalyx gyroides had the best performance, followed by Calopogonium caeruleum, Centrosema plumieri and C. pubescens. At the four Low Pine Ridge sites the plants most consistently successful across the sites and fertilizer levels were the S. guianensis accessions and C. gyroides. However, C. caeruleum, C. pubescens and D. intortum, under the high fertilizer rate generally persisted and performed very well. On the Mountain Pine Ridge soils, performance at the three sites was poor without the application of marl. The most productive legumes were C. gyroides, D. intortum, P. phaseoloides and S. guianensis cv. Endeavour.

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Medium 9781845939212

15 Measures of Fixed Capital in Agriculture

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF




Measures of Fixed Capital in Agriculture*

Rita Butzer,1 Yair Mundlak2 and Donald F. Larson3

University of Chicago; 2Hebrew University of Jerusalem;


Development Research Group, World Bank


Data on sectoral investment and capital stocks are essential for empirical research in sectoral productivity, yet cross-country panels are rare for countries outside of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Crego et al. (1998) introduce a database on the capital stock in the agricultural and manufacturing sectors for 57 developed and developing countries for the years 1967–1992. We have updated the agricultural component of this database to the year 2000 for a subset of 30 countries.

We construct three capital sub-components series: treestock, livestock and fixed capital in agriculture. We modify a commonly used methodology for integrating investment to obtain the fixed capital stock. This methodology can also be used to compute comparable fixed capital stocks for other sectors and for the economy as a whole, in order to facilitate comparative analyses. An analysis of capital stocks in manufacturing and agriculture,

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Medium 9781780644325

20 Immunization and Tannins in Livestock Enteric Methane Amelioration



Immunization and Tannins in

Livestock Enteric Methane


Yutaka Uyeno*

Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan


The complexity of the rumen microbial ecosystem supports the efficient conversion of various carbohydrates to volatile fatty acids for fulfilling host energy requirement via stepwise disposal of hydrogen (H2) through the reduction of carbon dioxide

(CO2) to methane (CH4). Although, this mechanism is indispensable for rumen homeostasis, CH4 production in ruminants has attracted a great deal of attention due to its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect and global warming. Various strategies have therefore been considered for its mitigation.

Rumen methanogen targeting vaccination is a promising means of reducing CH4 emissions by decreasing the number or activity of rumen methanogens. However, trials of this strategy have provided inconsistent results, and need for further consideration of the composition, function and microbial interactions within the ecosystem. Alternatively, to establish a more efficient way for the mitigation of CH4 emission, systematic intervention in rumen microbial populations by a combination of vaccination and other chemical means may also be feasible. Although some of the CH4 abatement strategies have shown efficacy in vivo, more research is needed to make any of these approaches applicable to animal production systems. This chapter provides the background to the diversity and plasticity of functions of the rumen bacterial

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Medium 9781780645681

9 Climate-smart Push–Pull: A Conservation Agriculture Technology for Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Africa

Kassam, A.H.; Mkomwa, S.; Friedrich, T. CABI PDF


Climate-smart Push–Pull:

A Conservation Agriculture

Technology for Food Security and

Environmental Sustainability in Africa

Zeyaur R. Khan,1* Charles A.O. Midega,1 Jimmy O.

Pittchar,1 Alice Murage2 and John Pickett3

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi,

Kenya; 2Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Naivasha;


Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK


9.1  Introduction

Developing adaptable and productive agricultural systems that are resilient in the face of the risks and shocks associated with long-term climate variability is essential to maintaining food production into the future (Pretty et al., 2011; Khan et al.,

2014), but resilience is not enough. Climate-smart agricultural systems also need to protect and enhance natural resources and ecosystem services in ways that mitigate future climate change effects (Tittonel and Giller, 2012). The International

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Medium 9781780645322

20 Climate Change and Soil Carbon Impacts

Banwart, S.A., Noellemeyer, E., Milne, E. CABI PDF


Climate Change and Soil

Carbon Impacts

Pete Smith*, Pia Gottschalk and Jo Smith


Soils contain vast reserves (~1500 Pg) of carbon (C), about twice that found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Historically, soils in managed ecosystems have lost a portion of this C (40–90 Pg) through land-use change, some of which has remained in the atmosphere. In terms of climate change, most projections suggest soil C changes driven by future climate change will range from small losses to moderate gains, but these global trends show considerable regional variation. The response of soil

C in future will be determined by a delicate balance between the impacts of increased temperature and decreased soil moisture on decomposition rates, and the balance between changes in C losses from decomposition and C gains through increased productivity. In terms of using soils to mitigate climate change, soil C sequestration globally has a large, cost-competitive mitigation potential. Nevertheless, limitations of soil C sequestration include time limitation, non-permanence, displacement and difficulties in verification. Despite these limitations, soil C sequestration can be useful to meet short- to medium-term targets, and confers a number of co-benefits on soils, making it a viable option for reducing the short-term atmospheric CO2 concentration, thus buying time to develop longer-term emission reduction solutions across all sectors of the economy.

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