996 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781780648200

6: Biology, Ecology and Management of Pollen Beetle Brassicogethes viridescens (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Reddy, G.V.P. CABI PDF

6

Biology, Ecology and Management of Pollen Beetle Brassicogethes viridescens (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Christine Noronha1* and Peter G. Mason2

1

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island,

Canada; 2Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

6.1  Introduction

Audisio et al. (2009) reviewed the status of species in the subfamily Meligethinae (Coleoptera:

Nitidulidae) using morphological and molecular data. Thirty-eight species of Meligethes, whose larval development is strictly associated with flowers of

Brassicaceae, were re-assigned to the new genus

Brassicogethes. Among the North American species are Brassicogethes aeneus (Fabricius), designated as the type species for the genus, B. cleominis (Easton),

B. simplipes (Easton) and B. viridescens (Fabricius), which Hoebeke and Wheeler (1996) documented as being adventive. There is some doubt that the

B. aeneus in North America is the same species as the

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780641409

6: Naturalistic Close-to-Nature Forestry Management in Tropical Rainforests

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

6

Naturalistic Close-to-Nature Forestry

Management in Tropical Rainforests

6.1  Origin, Goals, Targets and

­Principles of Close-to-Nature Forestry

Two centuries ago, Professor Pfeil (1783–1859)

(the first Director of the Academy of Forestry in Eberswalde, University Berlin, 1836–1856), inspired by A. von Humboldt’s work in the

Amazonas–Orinoko basin, aptly expressed the essence of the “close-to-nature forestry”

(CNF) doctrine: “Fragt die Bäume wie sie erzogen sein wollen, sie werden Euch besser darüber belehren, als die Bücher es thun”

(“Ask the trees how they want to be tended and trained, they will teach you better than books do”, translated from an autographed handwritten note below an engraved picture of Professor Pfeil in my study). It means that foresters or forest owners should go out to the forest, look at the trees and the ground they stand on, observe and judge the trees in relation to their neighbours and their habitat (soil and terrain type, and including the ground vegetation) as indicators of vigour and health of the soil and vegetation biology. But you must ask the trees or forest concerned – go to the trees and into the forest. Books and tables are no substitutes, as Pfeil said, neither are the Weiserflächen (monitoring plots), fashionable in the 1930s, nor the Referenzflächen (reference plots) now fashionable and politically correct. The Weiserfläche was

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648590

4 UV-B-induced Changes in Secondary Plant Metabolites

Jordan, B.R. CABI PDF

4 

UV-B-induced Changes in Secondary

Plant Metabolites

Monika Schreiner*, Melanie Wiesner-Reinhold, Susanne Baldermann,

Franziska S. Hanschen and Susanne Neugart

Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops,

Großbeeren, Germany

Introduction – The New View on

Secondary Plant Metabolites

In the current scientific literature, secondary plant metabolites are discussed in two key respects: (i) their relevance for the plant’s fitness as regards its interactions with the environment, and (ii) their protective role for human health via plant-based nutrition. In this regard, several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between vegetable consumption and the incidence of chronic diseases such as different types of cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, secondary plant metabolites have been demonstrated to be the bioactive compounds accountable for this observed protective effect in several cellular and biochemical in vitro investigations as well as in in vivo experiments and human intervention studies

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253353597

Seven With Friends like These

H. P. Willmott Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER SEVEN

WITH FRIENDS LIKE THESE

ANGLO-AMERICAN HISTORIOGRAPHY of the Second World War and the war at sea invariably traces the course and outcome of the two conflicts that together made up the Second World War in terms of the defeat of the German submarine offensive against shipping and the American advance across the southwest and central Pacific to the Japanese home islands. In the European conflict the focus of most historical attention has been on the British Navy, and specifically its escort forces, and the German U-boat service, and in the Pacific upon American carrier and amphibious formations. In a very obvious sense it is right and proper that this should be the case: at sea the European war was largely synonymous with the “Battle of the Atlantic,” whatever that phrase might mean, and in the Pacific the war was decided by fleet actions that ran in tandem with landing operations; the Imperial Japanese Navy and even the American submarine offensive against Japanese shipping have never been afforded consideration and recognition commensurate with that afforded American carrier operations.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644707

7: Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Ball, B.C. CABI PDF

7 

Evaluating Land Quality for Carbon

Storage, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nutrient Leaching

Joanna M. Cloy,1* Bruce C. Ball1 and T. Graham Shepherd2

1

SRUC, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK; 2BioAgriNomics Ltd,

Palmerston North, New Zealand

7.1  Introduction

Recently the importance of good soil structure in mitigating climate change and environmental contamination has been recognized because soil structure influences the storage of carbon (C) sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and cycling of nutrients, which are key soil system processes. This is because the maintenance of soil structure by aggregation, particle transport and formation of soil habitats operates across many spatial scales to regulate water drainage, water retention, air transfer to roots for favourable gas exchange and mineralization of nutrients for release to crop roots (Kibblewhite et al.,

2008; Ball et al., 2013a). For the functions being considered, the most important aspect of soil structure is the soil pore network, which determines the movement of gases, liquids and associated solutes, as well as particulates and organisms, through the soil matrix (Haygarth and Ritz, 2009;

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646282

6: Searching for Pasture Legumes for Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

Lazier, J.R.; Ahmad, N. CABI PDF

6 

Searching for Pasture Legumes for

Heavy Clay Soils in the Australian Dry

Tropics and Subtropics: I. Initial Literature

Reviews, Data Analysis and Choice of Material for Test

R.L. Burt† and J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa

Abstract

As a preliminary step in the selection of germplasm for heavy clay soils in the Australian tropics and subtropics a review was undertaken of known genera and species of leguminous plants with known and suspected potential.

Groupings were made of the genera based on the percentage of species occurring on clay soils. Assessments were then undertaken of their interest based on the environments in which they occur and their general forage characteristics. The report concludes with brief comments about the adequacy of genetic resource collections of the genera and species that have proven to be of value.

6.1  Introduction

Almost all Australian pasture legume cultivars are plants that have been introduced from elsewhere, and all crop varieties are ‘aliens’, with the sole exception of the Macadamia nut, which is native to Queensland but was developed for commercial use in the USA. This is not altogether surprising because Australian flora is unique since it has been long isolated from those regions in which the seed-bearing plants developed, and thus has relied on the evolution of endemic plants to cope with the ever-changing climate and decreasing levels of soil fertility. The dry areas of Australia illustrate the adaptations that have been necessary (White, 1994). There the soils are poor and sclerophyll–xerophyte grasslands

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643755

3: Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol Agents of Phytonematodes

Askary, T.H., Editor CAB International PDF

3 

Nematophagous Fungi as Biocontrol

Agents of Phytonematodes

Tarique Hassan Askary*

Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural

Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

3.1  Introduction

Plant parasitic nematodes are recognized a serious threat to crop production throughout the world. They cause significant damage to field crops (Luc et al., 2005), fruit and horticultural trees (Askary et al., 2000; Askary and

Haider, 2010). All crop plants are susceptible to at least one nematode species and it is considered that the damage potential of nematodes exists in all climates on any crop (Bridge and

Starr, 2007). Globally, agricultural losses due to plant parasitic nematodes have been estimated at US$358 billion annually (see Abd-Elgawad and Askary, Chapter 1, this volume). Plants infected with nematodes are often overlooked and mis-­diagnosed as the symptoms shown by the plants are not clear and are very much similar to fungal diseases or nutritional disorders. In some cases crop yield suppression occurs prior to the expression of explicit disease symptoms. The extent of damage caused to plants by these tiny creatures varies with the genera and species (Askary et al., 2012).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780648156

2: Evolution of Bhoochetana

Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P.; Raju, K.V.; Wani, S.P. CABI PDF

Evolution of Bhoochetana

2

Suhas P. Wani*

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid

Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, India

2.1  Introduction

Long-term experiments at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) campus since 1976 as well as a number of studies in different countries (Rockström et al., 2007; Wani et al., 2008) clearly showed that current farmers’ field yields were lower than their potential yields by two- to fivefold. These studies also demonstrated that there exists a large potential to increase farmers’ crop yields by adopting available technologies. However, large yield gaps are largely due to lack of knowledge about the improved management practices for increasing productivity for the farmers and not due to lack of technologies (Wani et al., 2008). If we can bridge the knowledge gap and make the necessary inputs needed for implementing improved management practices (seeds, fertilizers, credit, etc.) on farmers’ fields, productivity can be substantially increased by bridging the yield gaps. With this knowledge and pilot studies in Adarsha Watershed, Kothapally, India, as well as other watersheds in different parts of the country, it was demonstrated that yields from farmers’ fields can be substantially increased by up to 240%, providing farmers have the right information and inputs at the right time at the right price. By adopting a holistic approach, yield gaps even on small farmers’ fields were successfully bridged and farmers benefited with increased productivity and profitability with the help

See All Chapters
Medium 9781845938178

11: Rodent Control in Practice: Protection of Humans and Animal Health

Buckle, A.P.; Smith, R.H. CABI PDF

11  Rodent Control in Practice: Protection of Humans and Animal Health

1

A.N. Meyer1 and D.E. Kaukeinen2

Acheta, Chieveley, UK; 2Wilmington, Delaware, USA

Introduction

The term ‘commensal’, when applied to a rodent pest, suggests that the animal is living

‘off man’s table’. The implication is that these commensal species thrive best when living closely with humans or in ­environments that are made by humans, with these environments potentially providing the food, the water and the physical environment that the rodents require to survive. The problems and the conflicts caused by the development of rodent infestations have been covered in earlier chapters of this book (Chapters 2–4). The severity of these conflicts will vary greatly but, as a general rule, the conflicts will be most severe where there are most rodents and where maximum rodent numbers coincide with maximum human and livestock density.

The problems caused by rodents are wide ranging. Attempts to quantify damage and losses inevitably fail to do anything but confirm the variability of the problem and the difficulty of measuring losses caused by mobile species in dynamic environments (Chapter 10).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786395177

21 Increasing Water-use Efficiency

Paroda, R.S. CABI PDF

21

Increasing Water-use Efficiency

Introduction

The population in most of the tropical developing countries is increasing by leaps and bounds.

According to the FAO, over 800 million people currently lack adequate food, and by 2025 the food requirements of an additional 3 billion people will need to be met. Hidden hunger, such as protein and micro-nutrient deficiencies, is expected to become increasingly serious, particularly for women and children. Therefore, food and nutritional security continue to be a priority for the nations across the globe. India has made rapid strides in agriculture, achieving selfsufficiency in food requirement by recording a five-fold increase in production from the base line of 1950–51 through the Green Revolution.

Efforts have also resulted in achieving an increase of 11 times in horticulture production, six times in milk, 25 times in egg and nine times in production of fish, from the base line of 1950–51. The cultivated area has remained static at around 142 million ha for the last 40 years, but production has increased many-fold, not only of cereals but also of all other agricultural commodities. This has been possible due to proper policy support and scientific advancements in developing high-yielding cultivars and farmer-friendly production technologies as well as through the efforts of farmers. It is also a fact that India, with

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647326

8 Hunger for Justice: Building Sustainable and Equitable Communities in Massachusetts

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

8 

Hunger for Justice: Building

Sustainable and Equitable Communities in Massachusetts

Timothy F. LeDoux* and Brian W. Conz

Westfield State University, Westfield, Massachusetts, USA

8.1  Introduction

Over the past few decades, the role of urban agriculture in ameliorating social and environmental inequities in the global agri-food system has received growing attention from academics, food activists, practitioners, local government officials, non-governmental organizations and planners. Urban agriculture has been celebrated for its abilities to alleviate food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition, improve food accessibility and sovereignty, strengthen communities and promote economic development, and fashion greener, healthier and more resilient cities. More importantly, it has been seen as an important step in recombining food production and consumption with social relationships that have been eroded by the global agri-food system. Ironically, despite its global reach, research on urban agriculture often has been partitioned into initiatives occurring in the Global South and practices arising in the Global North.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781845939212

8 Agricultural Productivity in China: National and Regional Growth Patterns, 1993–2005

Fuglie, K.O., Ball, V.E., Wang, S.L. CABI PDF

8

Agricultural Productivity in China:

National and Regional Growth

Patterns, 1993–2005

1

Haizhi Tong,1 Lilyan E. Fulginiti1 and Juan P. Sesmero2

University of Nebraska, Lincoln; 2Purdue University, Lafayette

8.1

Introduction

Since the economic reforms of 1978, the performance of China’s agricultural sector has been impressive. According to China’s

Statistical Yearbook, by 2005 output from farming, forestry, the animal industry and fisheries had increased by more than four times since the reforms were initiated.

China has 9% of the world’s total arable land and 20% of the world’s population with 70% living in rural areas.

Many studies have examined Chinese agricultural growth. Those studies point towards a rapid expansion of agricultural output and productivity during the 1980s and a slowdown during the 1990s, raising questions about the sustainability of these growth rates. Few studies cover the

2000s and most estimate productivity at the national rather than the provincial level.

The objective of this study is to examine regional agricultural productivity growth in China 20 years after the introduction of reforms in the sector. Because China is a country with diverse ecosystems, it is relevant to identify how productivity growth patterns differ across regions. We focus on the 1993–2005 period, which includes the year 1998 in which some of the reforms of the 1970s were due to expire, in particular

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780643373

24: Reflections

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

24 Reflections

1

Charles Watkins1* and Keith J. Kirby2

School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK;

2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

24.1  Introduction

We are more aware than ever before of the variety of forms that landscapes with trees, woods and forests can take across Europe, thanks to easier travel and the way that images, data and opinions can be easily found across the Web.

This spatial heterogeneity is matched by temporal variety. People have valued and used trees and woods in different ways in different places, and at different times in the same place.

Indeed, Europe’s woods and forests have been providing ecosystem goods and services by different names throughout the last 10,000 years.

The wide range of potential benefits provided by woodland, including the production of timber, firewood and a range of non-timber forest products, as well as carbon sequestration, landscape and culture, wildlife and game conservation, public access and shelter make it a complex land use to understand and manage.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647326

14 Regreening Kibera: How Urban Agriculture Changed the Physical and Social Environment of a Large Slum in Kenya

WinklerPrins, A.M.G.A. CABI PDF

14 

Regreening Kibera:

How Urban Agriculture Changed the Physical and Social Environment of a Large Slum in Kenya

Courtney M. Gallaher*

Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA

14.1  Introduction

Our world is becoming a ‘Planet of Slums’ (term coined by Davis, 2006) as a result of rapid population growth and unplanned urbanization. Globally, more than a billion people now live in slums. In sub-Saharan Africa, slums are growing faster than its cities, with the majority of population growth occurring in densely packed, informal settlements that are associated with a host of social, economic and environmental problems (Davis, 2006). The inhabitants of these slums must contend on a daily basis with a range of significant environmental justice issues, including inadequate housing, sanitation services and access to water, and exposure to a range of pollutants. Additionally, due to the density of the slums, residents have little exposure to nature (e.g. trees, patches of grass, wild birds or animals) in the way that residents of other areas of these cities do. Particularly for residents who have migrated to the city from rural areas, this represents a significant rift from the ways they are accustomed to interacting with their environments.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780644837

10: Plant Disease Resistance Genes: Insights and Concepts for Durable Disease Resistance

CABI PDF

10 

Plant Disease Resistance Genes: Insights and Concepts for Durable Disease Resistance

Lisong Ma and M. Hossein Borhan*

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Introduction

understanding the innate resistance mechanisms in plants is central to genetic improvePlants are continuously exposed to biotic and ment of plant disease resistance (McDowell abiotic stress. Plant pathogenic fungi, oomy- and Woffenden, 2003).

Plants rely mainly on the innate defence cetes, bacteria, viruses and nematodes affect various crops and contribute to major yield mechanism to resist pathogen infection. This loss. Aside from their economic importance, innate defence is orchestrated by a multilayered plant pathogens of staple crops could have innate immune system (Segonzac and Zipfel, great social impact. The best example is the 2011). The first layer is based on the membrane-­

Irish famine of the 19th century caused by localized pattern-recognition receptors

Phytophthora infestans, the oomycete agent of (PRRs) that perceive the microbe or pathogen-­ potato late blight (Vurro et al., 2010; Fisher associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or et al., 2012). Despite advances of modern agri- PAMPs). Recognition of these e­ ssential moltriggered culture in controlling plant diseases, emerging ecules by PRRs initiates PAMP-­ immunity (PTI) (Ma et al., 2012). Adapted infectious diseases are still posing a threat to ­ the global crop yield and food security (Fisher pathogens have evolved to overcome PTI by et al., 2012; Gawehns et al., 2013). An estimated the production of effector proteins. Effectors

See All Chapters

Load more