1786 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781780647906

8: Conclusions and Recommendations for the Future

Blair, R. CABI PDF

8

Conclusions and Recommendations for the Future

The organic pig industry is small at present but is likely to expand in the future due to a strong demand from consumers for organic foods. It is hoped that the information presented in this book will assist that expansion. At present pig producers lack advisory aids to assist them in developing successful organic systems.

As consumers become more familiar with organic meats it is to be hoped that derogations and permitted exceptions to the regulations will be phased out as soon as possible.

Consumers become very upset and distrustful when they discover that some organic foods are not 100% organic in origin. A related issue is that some consumers see the need for assurance that organic food is indeed as described in the label. Research outlined in this book demonstrates that reliable tests to prove that organic pork has indeed been produced according to organic standards may be introduced before too long and should be welcomed by the organic industry.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645087

1. Introduction, the nature of natural: What does domestication involve?: Peanuts, Rye, Tomato

Warren, J. CABI PDF

1

Introduction, the nature of natural

The entire raison d'être of this book is to try and ascertain why we eat so few of the plant species that are available to us on Earth. In attempting this feat the first chapter tries to establish whether our impoverished diet is a new phenomenon. The evidence suggests that our ancestral diets differed greatly between cultures and although some of these may have been more diverse than our own, many others would have been more monotonous. Throughout this book different elements of the problem are tackled by exploring crop biographies as case studies. In this first chapter this approach reveals that over the history of crop domestication, humans have successfully and repeatedly solved one of the most significant problems involved in transforming wild plants into crops, which is how to avoid being poisoned. This was achieved by a number of methods: by selecting plants that contain lower levels of toxic chemicals, by adapting our own biology to be better able to digest these new foods stuffs and finally by inventing methods of processing plant materials which make them safer to eat. These issues will re-emerge and are covered in greater depth in subsequent chapters.

See All Chapters
Medium 9789380386324

LAX10-1

Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF

2�=�H�J

4

GENETICS AND

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

T

he science of genetics originated when Gregor Johann Mendel published his pioneering work on inheritance in pea plants in 1866 in Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Brünn. But even before that people were aware of inheritance. Farmers used to select seeds of crop plants from those having good traits and even used to adopt breeding techniques to improve the agricultural traits of crop plants. But it was not always a science. Mendel explained his experimental results in the form of laws of heredity. He predicted that there are factors that control each trait, which is transmitted from generation to generation; and that is the subject of the first chapter of this part. It discusses the principles of genetics, the nature of genes and their interaction with environment, genetic recombination, and mutations, their role in variations and evolution, and gene frequencies in a population.

The second chapter mainly deals with the molecular basis of inheritance and the chemical nature and mode of action of genes. It explains the replication of genes, the expression of genes as proteins, and molecular mechanisms of genes regulation. It also discusses the possible involvement of errors in gene regulation and the basis of uncontrolled cell division resulting in the development of cancer.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780596008680

Troubleshooting Tools

Theodore Wallingford O'Reilly Media PDF

Chapter

11 11

CHAPTER

Troubleshooting Tools

The word troubleshooting may trigger memories of desperation when a critical system was down and you couldn’t figure out why. Troubleshooting often justifies highpriced consultants. The mere mention of it can make fainthearted IT executives squirm… because if you’re troubleshooting, that means something’s wrong. Regardless, troubleshooting tools are an important ingredient in the VoIP success recipe.

If you’re building your standards-based VoIP network from the ground up today, then you’re probably using SIP and not H.323. SIP is clearly the prevailing standard for VoIP call signaling, as it provides more interoperability and easier troubleshooting. The tools used to troubleshoot SIP and H.323 are largely the same, though: packet sniffers, log analysis, and softphones.

Since SIP is a framework for real-time media applications, the stability of one SIPbased system to the next can vary greatly. Problems are most likely at the application layer. Troubleshooting them may require a specific knowledge of the application, or even access to its source code. This isn’t always practical or available. Many system engineers aren’t hard-core C programmers. Of course, for those who want to probe the mechanics of IP telephony with C, a great book to read is O’Reilly’s Practical VoIP with VOCAL.

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131809051

apm11-1

R. K. Rajput Laxmi Publications PDF

11

Circular and Curvilinear Motion

11.1. Introduction and definitions. 11.2. Equations of angular motion. 11.3. Equations of linear motion and angular motion. 11.4. Relation between linear and angular motion. 11.5. Centrifugal and centripetal force. 11.6. Motion of a cyclist round a curve. 11.7. Motion of a vehicle on a level curved path. 11.8. Motion of a vehicle on a banked circular track. 11.9. Super elevation for railways—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Exercises—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved

Examples.

11.1. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Introduction

In a rectilinear motion, a moving particle describes a straight path while in a curvilinear motion it describes a curved path. In circular or rotating motion a moving particle describes a circular path, its position at any instant can be defined by the angle θ covered by it w.r.t. X or

Y-axis (generally it is done w.r.t. X-axis).

Definitions

1. Angular displacement. When a particle moves on a circular path its angle of rotation

(or its angular displacement) θ, varies with time. Thus, we can say, θ = f(t).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781902375205

(c)  The Exclusion Order

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 2

Are you covered by the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is the agreement a Construction Contract?

(a)     What types of agreements can be Construction Contracts?

(i)          Need for an agreement

(ii)         Nature of the agreement

(iii)        Value or size

(iv)        Mixed activities

(v)         Project location

(vi)        Commencement date

(vii)       Crown application

(b)     What are Construction Operations?

(i)          Construction Operations - In

(ii)         Construction Operations - Out

(iii)        Construction Operations - Practical problems

3.     Is the Construction Contract excluded from the Act?

(a)     Residential Occupiers

(b)     Contracts in writing

(c)     The Exclusion Order

(i)          Agreements under Statute

(ii)         Private Finance Initiative

(iii)        Finance Agreements

(iv)        Development Agreements

4.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The Act provides a set of rules defining those activities that are Or are not covered by the Act. It is unusual for a piece of legislation to be targeted at one sector of commerce. Concern was expressed that the Act would extend into other commercial sectors such as property. Those concerns led to a regime defining relevant construction contracts which are set out in the first four clauses of the Act. In addition, the Secretary of State has exercised the power to exclude various agreements from the Act by an Exclusion Order which came into force on 1 May 199819. In considering any particular contract therefore, there are two questions:

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780645308

Part II: The Economics of Sustainable Production

CABI PDF

PART II

The Economics of Sustainable

Production

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 3

Global Context on Price Volatility and Supply Chains – Is Europe

Competitive?

Nan-Dirk Mulder*

Rabobank International, Utrecht, the Netherlands

INTRODUCTION

The global poultry industry is being driven towards change by challenging global fundamentals in food and fuel demand and supply. One of the major challenges is the upwards variation in input costs, brought about through higher and more volatile grain and oilseed prices. In the future, business models applied within the poultry industry will require adjusting to reflect this change, particularly as grain and oilseed prices represent from 50 to 70% of production costs (Mitchell, 2008).

The significance of the country of poultry production, due to variations in both global supply and demand for poultry meat, will reflect these changing input costs and therefore will differ greatly between countries; for example, it is likely that production in the Americas and in the Black Sea regions will increase whereas Asia will face increasing difficulties in meeting demand and therefore have a greater need for imports (Rabobank, 2014). These changes are likely to lead to stronger linkages between Asian countries and the Americas with investments in both directions.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647050

9: Indigenous Soil Enrichment for Food Security and Climate Change in Africa and Asia: A Review

Sillitoe, P. CABI PDF

9 

Indigenous Soil Enrichment for Food Security and Climate Change in Africa and Asia: A Review

James Fairhead,* James Fraser, Kojo Amanor, Dawit Solomon,

Johannes Lehmann and Melissa Leach

Studies of indigenous soil knowledge or ‘ethnopedology’ identify how farmers differentiate and understand their soils and reveal their sophisticated appreciation of the biophysical characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit

(Barrera-Bassols and Zinck, 2003). Local ethnopedological frameworks share differences and similarities to scientific systems of categorization.

Farmers often categorize soils according to colour, texture (i.e. sand/clay/ stone/silt content), geographical or topographical position, potential, and wider ecological interactions. Such knowledge informs soil fertility management practices (Adewole Osunade, 1995; Krogh and

Paarup-Laursen, 1997; Birmingham, 2003;

Gray and Morant, 2003; Niemeijer and Mazzucato, 2003; Osbahr and Allan, 2003; Ngailo and

See All Chapters
Medium 9781902375205

(b)  Contracts in Writing

Martin Wood Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

Chapter 2

Are you covered by the Act?

1.     Introduction

2.     Is the agreement a Construction Contract?

(a)     What types of agreements can be Construction Contracts?

(i)          Need for an agreement

(ii)         Nature of the agreement

(iii)        Value or size

(iv)        Mixed activities

(v)         Project location

(vi)        Commencement date

(vii)       Crown application

(b)     What are Construction Operations?

(i)          Construction Operations - In

(ii)         Construction Operations - Out

(iii)        Construction Operations - Practical problems

3.     Is the Construction Contract excluded from the Act?

(a)     Residential Occupiers

(b)     Contracts in writing

(c)     The Exclusion Order

(i)          Agreements under Statute

(ii)         Private Finance Initiative

(iii)        Finance Agreements

(iv)        Development Agreements

4.     Key Points Summary

1.   Introduction

The Act provides a set of rules defining those activities that are Or are not covered by the Act. It is unusual for a piece of legislation to be targeted at one sector of commerce. Concern was expressed that the Act would extend into other commercial sectors such as property. Those concerns led to a regime defining relevant construction contracts which are set out in the first four clauses of the Act. In addition, the Secretary of State has exercised the power to exclude various agreements from the Act by an Exclusion Order which came into force on 1 May 199819. In considering any particular contract therefore, there are two questions:

See All Chapters
Medium 9788131809051

apm9-1

R. K. Rajput Laxmi Publications PDF

9

Work, Power and Energy

9.1. Concept of work. 9.2. Units of work. 9.3. Graphical representation of work. 9.4. Power—

Units of power—Indicated power (I.P.)—Brake power (B.P.). 9.5. Law of conservation of energy—

Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Unsolved Examples.

9.1. CONCEPT OF WORK

In ‘Mechanics’ work means accomplishment. A force is said to have done work if it moves the body, on which it acts, through a certain distance. A force is not able to produce any displacementtranslational or rotational no work is said to have been done.

Work is measured by the product of force (P) and displacement (S) both being in the same direction. Work is positive or negative, according as the force acts in the same direction or in the direction opposite to the direction of displacement, Mathematically,

Work = Force × Displacement in the direction of force

P sin a

a

P cos a s

Fig. 9.1

Fig. 9.1 shows the force P acting at angle α to the direction of displacement. Then

Work done by the force

‘P’ = Force × displacement in the direction of force

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642109

7: The Importance of Soil Quality in the Safe Practice of Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe, Kenya and South Africa

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

7 

The Importance of Soil Quality in the Safe

Practice of Urban Agriculture in Zimbabwe,

Kenya and South Africa

Lovemore Chipungu,1 Hangwelani H. Magidimisha,2

Michael Hardman3* and Luke Beesley4

1

School of the Built Environment and Development Studies,

University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 2Human Science

Research Council, Demography Governance and Service Delivery, Durban,

South Africa; 3School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 4Environmental and Biochemical Sciences,

The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK

7.1  Introduction: Urban Soils as Vital

Pseudo-natural Capital

Urban soils, waters and wastes are a valuable natural capital asset for the world’s burgeoning urban population. The utilization of this capital is beginning to be recognized as fundamental to strategies for ensuring a safe and secure food supply in many countries. This idea of growing in the city, or ‘urban agriculture’, is a relatively new concept in certain parts of the world, although ample literature exists on the practice in the North American context (see, e.g. Mougeot,

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780641836

6 The Chemical Environment in the Soil Seed Bank

Gallagher, R.S., Editor CAB International PDF

6

The Chemical Environment in the Soil Seed Bank

Henk W.M. Hilhorst*

Wageningen Seed Lab, Laboratory of Plant Physiology,

Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands

Introduction

Soil is the natural physical and chemical environment of most seeds. Essentially, soil is a three-phase system consisting of solids, liquids and gases in varying proportions. In most soils the solids are predominantly mineral, derived from rock materials. Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general structure. It is evident that minerals may only affect seed behaviour when they are solubilized by water that penetrates the soil. In this respect the soil pH is an important factor. The soil matrix may also contain more readily dissolvable solutes, for example salts in saline environments. Direct chemical effects of rock-derived minerals on germination of seeds in the soil seed bank are unknown.

Solubilized minerals may inhibit germination non-specifically when they occur in high concentrations in soils. Also the effects of high salinity can be either osmotic or toxic. Soil may also contain organic matter.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642789

2 How to Identify Plant Nutrient Deficiencies in Field Conditions

Kumar, P.; Sharma, M.K. CAB International PDF

2

How to Identify Plant Nutrient

Deficiencies in Field Conditions

Prakash Kumar

Visual Diagnosis and Difficulties

The term ‘clinical diagnosis’ is used in medical sciences to describe the way of diagnosis based on the appearance of the clinical symptoms, without any laboratory tests or X-ray films. In the process of clinical diagnosis, the practising doctor matches the appearing clinical symptoms of the patient with the symptoms of the diseases known to him and makes a preliminary idea of the probable disease. Then, the doctor suggests some laboratory tests to verify the disease. After confirmation, the treatment is prescribed. Though the clinical diagnosis is a preliminary assumption by the doctor, it is a very important observation as only this provides the right direction to the tests and treatments. Therefore the clinical diagnosis is the most essential skill of a doctor, which is based on his/her ‘knowledge’ and ‘experience’. At times, experienced doctors are so sure and confident that they prescribe the treatment without any laboratory test.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781601323286

Electronic Private Library Portal

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

316

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |

Electronic Private Library Portal

Shahriar Movafaghi

Department of Computer Information Technology

Southern New Hampshire University

ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION

The Electronic Private Library (EPL) consists of several different categories of media such as books, mail, photographs, audio, and video. Often these entities are located on different platforms. They may be accessible from personal computers, mobile devices, or located in cloud files. For the purpose of creating easy access to all user information, this paper explores the use of a portal to navigate through various applications and gather all items to one EPL.

This paper explores how an individual can create an EPL consisting of several different categories, such as books, mail, photographs, audio, and video. In the industry, a digital firm is defined as an [1]: organization where nearly all significant business processes and relationships with customers, suppliers and employees are digitally enabled, and key corporate assets are managed through digital means. In any industry, the main reason for becoming a digital firm is to increase productivity and efficiency; ultimately helping the digital firm reach its goal of becoming more profitable. However, there is no correlation between the funds that a firm spends on information technology and productivity [2].

See All Chapters
Medium 9789380386324

LAX5-1

Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF

Chapter

#

STRUCTURE AND

FUNCTION OF

MACROMOLECULES

In This Chapter

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Carbohydrates

5.3 Proteins

5.4 Enzymes

5.5 Nucleic Acids

5.6 Lipids and Biological Membranes

5.1

INTRODUCTION

W

e have discussed the structure and dynamics of smaller biomolecules, which form the building blocks of the important cellular macromolecules, in earlier chapters. These biomolecules can undergo polymerization or condensation to form specific polymers of high molecular weight known as macromolecules. These macromolecules are of four distinct groups—carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. All these macromolecules are specialized for carrying out specific cellular functions, which are very closely related to their functions. So a clear understanding of their structure is required for the proper understanding of their functions in the cell metabolism.

5.2

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates, as we have discussed in the previous chapter, consist of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides, or the simple sugars, are the building blocks or the monomers by which other forms are constructed. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide residues linked together by glycosidic bonds. This bond forms between the OH group of anomeric carbon (carbon No.1) of one sugar and with the OH group of any other carbon atom, preferably of 4th or 6th position of another sugar. The number of monomers varies

See All Chapters

Load more