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Medium 9781780647906

4: Approved Ingredients for Organic Diets

Blair, R. CABI PDF


Approved Ingredients for Organic Diets

New Zealand is one of the few countries to include a list of approved feed ingredients in the organic regulations (Table 4.1). This is a very useful feature of their regulations.

In addition, the regulations stipulate that the feeds must meet the ACVM Act and regulations, the HSNO Act, or are exempt, thus providing additional assurance to the consumer.

This list appears to be based on the EU list, possibly because of export requirements.

The EU has a somewhat similar list

(Table 4.1), but one detailing non-organic feedstuffs that can be used in limited quantities in organic feeds for pigs. It may be inferred from the EU list that organic sources of the named ingredients are acceptable. This list is particularly useful because it is currently very difficult to formulate some feeds that are 100% organic. As a result the regulations in several regions allow for feed to contain up to 10% non-organic ingredients.

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Medium 9788131805381


Dr. Simmi Kharb Laxmi Publications PDF





Human Genomic Project deciphered 3 billion base pairs that make up the genetic code. In 1988, US National Research Council’s special committee formulated a 15-years human genome project, costing some $ 200 million a year. In September 1994, a genetic map with 1 cM resolution was accomplished and a physical map involving 52,000 sequencetagged sites (STSs) was completed in October 1998.

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium consisting of investigators from 20 centres located in six countries—UK, US, Japan, France, Germany and China announced completion of a draft sequence in June 2000. The final sequence was accomplished in April 2003, with 99.99% sequence accuracy, with no gaps.

Human Genome

Of the total 3.2 Gb DNA of human genome, 2.9 Gb consists of, weakly staining generich enchromatic proteins, and only 1.1–1.4% sequence encodes proteins.

Estimated number of genes in human genome are between 26,000 and 31,000.

With the decoding of basic sequence, even more difficult task is elucidation of biological functions of these stretches of DNA.

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Medium 9781780646282

13; Botanical Composition and Nutritive Value of Selected Native Pastures in Belize

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF


Botanical Composition and Nutritive

Value of Selected Native Pastures in Belize

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


An initial assessment was undertaken of the productivity, nutrient value and botanical composition of eight representative native pastures on a range of clay soils, including three vertisols, in central Belize and the Belize River

Valley under wet tropical conditions. Regular harvests indicated that the productivity at all sites was very low, that palatable native legumes were present at low levels and that the native species, particularly Mesosetum angustifolium, the dominant grass at the more infertile sites, did not respond to fertilization either in yield or nutrient content. At all sites some of the nutrients essential for animal productivity were below minimal levels, particularly Cu, but also

P at all but one site. N, Ca, Mg and Zn also were limiting at some sites and harvests. The introduced legumes being tested in the trials at the sites also had lower than minimum levels of Cu but mainly higher than minimum levels of the other nutrients tested.

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Medium 9781780646312

3 The initiative gathers force – LFLP, the second leasehold forestry project

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 3

The initiative gathers force – LFLP, the second leasehold forestry project

“A project is a time capsule. It needs to change into a programme if it’s going to be sustainable.”

Mr. Bal Krishna Khanal, first coordinator of the Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project

From their houses in the hills, slowly, the village men and women converge. Many appear to be timid, somewhat reluctant. Some of the women fall behind, perhaps in deference to the men, or perhaps out of a sense of ambivalence or uncertainty as to whether they should be participating at all. At the same time, they know that they have a great deal that they would like to talk about and that the others would like to hear. Programme staff and group promoters whom they know and trust have encouraged them to participate. They push on.

The setting for the discussions is informal. There are no microphones, no round tables, no flip charts with coloured markers.

In fact, the setting is outdoors, in their own crop plots, on the grass and under the trees that they visit and use on a daily basis. Later, the discussions will continue during a walk into the forest areas that have been leased to them as part of this government project, as a way of making more palpable the lives that are being spoken about and the changes that are – or are not – taking place. After several hours of walking, talking and observing, themes begin to emerge. Some of them surface again and again, introduced by one participant and enthusiastically elaborated by another and then another. Others speak with a lone voice, but a voice that is so emphatic that it cannot be discounted. How have these people benefited from their newly gained access to land and forestry?

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Medium 9788131808153


Dr. R.K. Bansal Laxmi Publications PDF







Consider a small area dA in large mass of fluid. If the fluid is stationary, then the force exerted by the surrounding fluid on the area dA will always be perpendicular to the surface dA. Let dF is the force dF is known as the intensity of acting on the area dA in the normal direction. Then the ratio of dA pressure or simply pressure and this ratio is represented by p. Hence mathematically the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is dF

. dA

If the force (F) is uniformly distributed over the area (A), then pressure at any point is given by

p =







\ Force or pressure force, F = p ¥ A.

The units of pressure are : (i) kgf/m2 and kgf/cm 2 in MKS units, (ii) Newton/m 2 or N/m 2 and

N/mm2 in SI units. N/m2 is known as Pascal and is represented by Pa. Other commonly used units of pressure are : kPa = kilo pascal = 1000 N/m2 bar = 100 kPa = 105 N/m2.

p =


It states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a static fluid is equal in all directions. This is proved as :

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Medium 9781780643373

18: Woodland History in the British Isles – An Interaction of Environmental and Cultural Forces

Kirby, K.J. CABI PDF


Woodland History in the British

Isles – An Interaction of Environmental and Cultural Forces

George F. Peterken*

St Briavels Common, Lydney, UK

18.1  Introduction

Most of the British Isles has a moist, cool

­climate, but parts of East Anglia are classified as semi-arid; whereas the western seaboard remains largely free of frost and snow in winter, the central Highlands of

Scotland have sufficient snow cover to support a skiing industry. Furthermore, a complex geology gives rise to a wide variety of soil types. Hence, despite having among the lowest levels of woodland cover in

­Europe, Britain retains a surprisingly large range of woodland types. Beech, the dominant tree of European temperate deciduous forests, is prominent as a native tree only in the south and east of England and

Wales, while in parts of Highland Scotland enclaves of birch–Scots pine woodland have much in common with the boreal forests of


Several thousand years of human intervention have further affected this variation, as different regions within Britain each have distinctive patterns of woodland history.

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Medium 9781780644998

20: Pest Management in Organic Cacao

Vacante, V.; Kreiter, S. CABI PDF


Pest Management in Organic Cacao

Régis Babin*

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe),

Nairobi, Kenya


General information on cacao

Cacao, Theobroma cacao, is a small tree from the family Malvaceae, and originated in different forest areas of South and Central

America (Wood, 1985). During the 20th century, the cacao-growing belt spread considerably over tropical areas of America, Africa and Asia, and is around 10 million ha today

(FAOSTAT, 2014). Cocoa beans are produced for butter and powder that are used mainly in chocolate manufacture. In 2014, chocolate confectionery produced revenues of around US$120 bn, and these are expected to grow with the developing markets in countries with rising middle classes

(Hawkins and Chen, 2014). At the same time, cocoa world production rose constantly for decades and reached 5 million t in 2012

(FAOSTAT, 2014). In 2012, Africa alone produced around 66% of total world production with four countries in the top five cocoa-producing nations, namely Ivory

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Medium 9781780648903



List of Abbreviations





AgMIP anammox














GA3 gs
































1-methylcyclopropene abscisic acid

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate alcohol dehydrogenase

Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project anaerobic ammonium oxidation ammonia oxidizing archaea ammonia oxidizing bacteria adenosine triphosphate aminoethoxyvinylglycine


Bacillus thuringiensis internal CO2 concentration canopy evapotranspiration and assimilation carbon dioxide

CO2 concentration elevated CO2 concentration

El Niño-Southern Oscillation

Free Air CO2 Enrichment gibberellic acid stomatal conductance genetic × environment × management greenhouse gas growing season length

HElicoverpa Armigera and Punctigera Simulation model

Horizontal Flowering Index auxin-indole-3-acetic acid

Integrated Fibre Management

Integrated Pest Management leaf water potential

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index nitrite-oxidizing bacteria nutrient use efficiency open top chambers pyruvate decarboxylase plant growth regulators putrescine quantitative trait loci rainfall dark respiration ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate radiation use efficiency

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Medium 9781780646282

16: Initial Screening for Persistence and Productivity of 20 Promising Native and Exotic Pasture Legume Species in Two Productive Contrasting Forage Grasses in Belize

Lazier, J.R. CABI PDF

16 Initial Screening for Persistence

and Productivity of 20 Promising Native and Exotic Pasture Legume Species in Two Productive Contrasting Forage

Grasses in Belize

J.R. Lazier*1

*Formerly International Livestock Centre for Africa


In order to assess persistence and productivity of promising fodder legumes under the wet tropical conditions of central Belize on a black heavy clay soil, strips of 20 mainly locally collected accessions of fodder legumes (13 genera,

15 species) of potential were planted in three replicates on an upper terrace of the Belize River in established pastures of two grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria eriantha and Para grass, Brachiaria mutica) under low and high levels of applied fertilizer. Observational data were acquired at 6-week intervals. Once the legumes were well established the plots were mob grazed at 6-week intervals and observations were taken immediately before and after. Legume establishment and persistence was best in Para grass, and Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru and Stylosanthes guianensis were the most promising materials tested. Common Centro and three locally collected accessions (C. pubescens

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Medium 9781902375212

Case study

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub
Medium 9783835632141


Klaus Homann, Rainer Reimert, Bernhard Klocke DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag PDF

[Work plan]   Grid-layout


Purpose and background

Grid-layout comprises the complete design of a system of pipelines to meet the grid operator’s given or expected supply duties. This can be a simple linear transmission pipe transporting a fixed amount of gas from point A to delivering point B, or a real distribution grid with several entry stations and thousands of delivery points. It includes all necessary technical attributes, as well as the routing of the pipes. The grid-layout always has to take into account all relevant national and international technical standards; above all national legislation for routing using streets and public or private properties.

This chapter

—— at first outlines the necessary actions to be performed as a work plan and then

—— explains the calculation of peak load as the main design criterion.

Referring to the chapter about fundamentals of → Pipe flow hydraulics

—— the design of meshed grids is described.

—— At last some advice for de-bottlenecking is given.

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Medium 9781780642826

3: Food Consumption Pattern and Nutritional Security among Rural Households in India: Impact of Cross-cutting Rural Employment Policies

Brouwer, F. CABI PDF


Food Consumption Pattern and Nutritional

Security among Rural Households in India: Impact of Cross-cutting

Rural Employment Policies


Praduman Kumar1* and P.K. Joshi2

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi; 2International Food

Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, India


work at the statutory minimum wage. In

2009, these wages were Rs120 (US$2.39)

The Government of India has launched various per day (GoI, 2005). The wages paid under programmes from time to time in order to MGNREGA correspond to the minimum alleviate poverty in rural areas. These include: wages stated by the central government but

Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), vary across states. In 2014/15, the per day

Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), wages varied from Rs154 in Himachal PraPradhan Mantri Rojgar Yojna (Prime Minister desh to Rs236 in Haryana (GoI, 2014).

For operation of a scheme under MGNJob Scheme), Swaranjayanti Gram Swarojgar

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Medium 9781845939625

14. Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of Fruit Sensory Quality

P Nath CAB International PDF


Natural Diversity and Genetic Control of

Fruit Sensory Quality

Bénédicte Quilot-Turion and Mathilde Causse*

INRA, Unité de Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes,

Domaine Saint-Maurice, Montfavet Cedex, France

14.1 Introduction

Fruit sensory quality has only recently become a target for breeders. Due to consumer dissatisfaction relating especially to fruit flavour, genetic improvement of this quality is now required (Ulrich and

Olbricht, 2011). Fruit sensory quality is a complex trait that contributes a combination of flavour and texture components, together with general fruit appearance attributes. Most sensory traits are difficult to measure by methods other than sensory analysis. However, some of the major components of flavour and texture such as sweetness, sourness or fruit

firmness can be assessed by physical or chemical measurements (Baldwin et al.,

1998). The complexity of fruit quality (due to the number of parameters to take into account, their polygenic inheritance and their multiple interactions) and generation length for fruit trees has limited genetic progress. Today, molecular markers enable dissection of the genetic basis of complex traits, and our increasing knowledge about the genomes offer new and efficient tools to breeders.

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Medium 9781845938178

12: Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate Field Crops and Forestry

Buckle, A.P. CABI PDF


Rodent Control in Practice: Temperate

Field Crops and Forestry

A.P. Buckle1 and H.-J. Pelz2

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK;


Vertebrate Research Group, Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research

Centre for Cultivated Plants, Münster, Germany



Agriculture in temperate latitudes is extremely diverse. Cropping systems are sometimes based on a single, major component but more often comprise a mosaic of different elements. These elements include the farming of arable crops, such as wheat, barley and maize, the use of pasture and rangeland for the production of wool, milk and meat, the cultivation of semi-permanent topfruit tree crops (tree fruits), a wide variety of vegetable and fruit crops, including those grown for fodder, oil, sugar and energy production, and the planting of forest trees for timber and wood pulp. Without exception, agricultural production in all of these systems is adversely affected by rodent pests.

The species that are pests in temperate commensal situations belong almost exclusively to the family Muridae of the order

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Medium 9781780647708

4: Yield Components – Regulation by the Seed


Yield Components –

Regulation by the Seed


Dividing yield into its components is essential to understanding the processes involved in the production of yield. The concept of yield, the weight of seeds at maturity, is a contrivance of humans; the plant does not produce yield, it produces flowers and then seeds that grow, accumulating complex carbohydrates, protein and oil, until they reach maturity. It is necessary to focus our attention on flowers and seeds to evaluate yield production at a physiological level. Focusing on the end product, yield, will not help us understand the process.

One of our objectives in this book is to use our knowledge of seed growth characteristics, developed in Chapters 2 and 3, to understand the role of the individual seed in the production of yield. Yield – the weight of seeds harvested from a unit area when the crop is mature – becomes a defined, measurable quantity only at the end of the crop’s growth cycle, so it is difficult to relate processes occurring during earlier growth stages to the final yield. The key to making this connection is to focus on yield components and use characteristics of seed growth to understand their regulation and involvement in the yield production process. If we understand the regulation of the yield components, we understand the yield production process. We will find that involving seed growth characteristics will lead to a more profound understanding of how yield is produced and how it responds to plant characteristics and environmental conditions. For example, one common yield component is seed size (weight per seed), which may or may not be related to yield. Understanding the relationship between seed growth rate (SGR), seed-fill duration (SFD) and seed size will clarify this apparent ambiguity.

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