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Medium 9781780640921


Biddle, A.J. CABI PDF



Amongst the world’s most important non-cereal food crops, peas and beans are probably the most versatile. They provide a source of protein, are easily stored for long periods and can be consumed as processed or whole food by both humans and livestock. Commonly known as pulse crops or grain legumes, they are widely grown in temperate, subtropical and arid climates all over the world. They can be consumed as fresh vegetables or frozen, canned or dehydrated and also can be harvested as dry seed or pulses, which can be milled for use as a flour, or rehydrated and cooked whole. It seems likely that the adoption of legumes as agricultural crops in part reflects the nutritional balance between legumes and cereal seeds as well as the ability of legumes to break cereal rotations. Because of their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through their symbiotic relationship with soil-borne bacteria providing them with sufficient nitrogen for growth, the residue enriches the soil nitrogen supply for the following crop. The diversity of locations where peas and beans have been developed in agriculture is reflected in the diversity of species and varieties currently grown. They are found in agricultural systems throughout the world and have been domesticated in South and Central America, the Middle East, China, India and Africa. More recently they have been introduced to Europe and North

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Medium 9781780646312

6 When the programme leaves

Thierry, B. CABI PDF

Chapter 6

When the programme leaves

In Jhirubas, Palpa district, the well-tended dirt road, the village’s only artery, seems to be suspended in air. On either side, the land slopes sharply downward, with only the thatched roofs of the houses at waist level. Wherever the eye turns, one sees only sky, forest, cultivated fields, and tiny etchings in the slopes – roads. Yet along this main road in Jhirubas, one perplexing anomaly stands out:

Perched on a wooden pole is a solar panel the size of a small flipchart. This stark and singular contrast to the surroundings provokes many questions: How did it get here? What is it for? And, most importantly, how will it be maintained? For one day soon, a complex dismantling will begin to take place. Certain people, tools and pieces of equipment will be removed from the scene and used elsewhere, taking with them not only their pragmatic utility but certain flows of knowledge, innovation and energy. The operation will be an extremely delicate one. With so many interlocking pieces, it’s nearly impossible to know which one/s, if any, could cause parts of the structure to come tumbling down once they are excised. Not unlike a house of cards, except that these are real houses, with real people living in them, who have experienced the depths of poverty and have started to gain the skills to lift themselves out of it. No, this is no house of cards, and the famous “exit strategy” cannot be a roll of the dice.

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Medium 9788131806135


Mahesh M. Rathore Laxmi Publications PDF


Concepts and Mechanisms of Heat Flow

1.1. What is Heat Transfer ? 1.2. Modes of Heat Transfer. 1.3. Physical Mechanism of Modes of Heat Transfer—Conduction

—Convection—Radiation. 1.4. Laws of Heat Transfer—Law of conservation of mass : Continuity equation—Newton’s second law of motion—Laws of thermodynamics—Fourier law of heat conduction—Newton’s law of cooling—The Stefan Boltzmann law of thermal radiation. 1.5. Combined Convective and Radiation Heat Transfer—Equation of state. 1.6. Thermal

Conductivity—Variation in thermal conductivity—Determination of thermal conductivity—Variable thermal conductivity.

1.7. Isotropic Material and Anisotropic Material. 1.8. Insulation Materials—Superinsulators—Selection of insulating materials—The R-Value of insulation—Economic thickness of insulation. 1.9. Thermal Diffusivity. 1.10. Heat Transfer in

Boiling and Condensation. 1.11. Mass Transfer. 1.12. Summary—Review Questions—Problems—Multiple Choice Questions.

Objective of this chapter is to:

• give an introduction to heat transfer rate, heat flux,

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Medium 9781780648309

3: Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets



Nutritional and Health Benefits of Millets

Millets – the ‘noble grains’ – comprise sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet and five small millets.

Among the millets, sorghum used to be the most important in terms of its cropped area and food use, though its position has been overtaken in recent years by pearl millet. Pearl millet and finger millet are gaining regional importance as food staples, though their distribution across many Indian states is not as pronounced as that of ­sorghum. Direct consumption of millets has

­reduced over the past three decades because of inconvenient, cumbersome and time-consuming preparation, lack of processing technologies, and the lack of awareness of its nutritional merits. This trend in consumption can be manipulated by creating value addition to the

­millet crops through post-harvest processing, and can be enhanced through diversification of

­processing technologies as well as nutritional evaluation.

In view of this, here we examine the nutritional and health implications of millet, both in terms of the whole grain and in terms of processed products – specifically sorghum products – which have been studied in detail under the auspices of the Indian government’s

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Medium 9781780642109

3: Evaluating the Impact of Oil Palm Agriculture and Logging on Soil Microbial Communities in South-east Asia

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Evaluating the Impact of Oil Palm

Agriculture and Logging on Soil Microbial

Communities in South-east Asia

Heather D’Angelo,1* Krista L. McGuire,1,2 Caitlyn Gillikin,2

Francis Q. Brearley3 and Dina C. Merrer4


Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia

University, New York, USA; 2Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia

University, New York, USA; 3School of Science and the Environment, Manchester

Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 4Department of Chemistry,

Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, USA

3.1  Introduction

Since the mid-1900s, South-east Asia’s lowland rain forests have been subjected to intense, largescale deforestation, driven mainly by selective logging and, more recently, agricultural expansion of oil palm plantations (Flint, 1994; Sodhi et al., 2004; Wilcove and Koh, 2010). As a result,

South-east Asia now has the highest rate of tropical deforestation in the world, accounting for nearly half of total global forest cover loss

(Hansen et al., 2013). These human disturbances have created mosaics of old-growth forest, regenerating forest and oil palm monocultures across the terrestrial landscape, which have

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Medium 9781780644370

17 Insect Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management for Bt Crops: Prospects for an Area-wide View

Soberon, M. CABI PDF


Insect Resistance Management and Integrated Pest Management for Bt Crops: Prospects for an

Area-wide View

William D. Hutchison*

Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St Paul,

Minnesota, USA


Throughout this book, several authors have reviewed the pest resistance challenges within the context of the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, the solutions that are necessary to mitigate the evolution of insect pest resistance and the continued need for effective insect resistance management

(IRM). Clearly, the current selection pressure has resulted from the extensive adoption of

GM crops by millions of farmers worldwide due, in part, to their real or perceived benefits. Many of the benefits of GM maize and cotton have been well documented.

They include increased yields, reduced yield variability, increased economic returns to farmers, reductions in insecticide use, reductions in pesticide exposure to farm workers, the subsequent conservation of beneficial insects, and the environmental benefits resulting from less tillage. These benefits, however, are not universal for all

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Medium 9789351382492


Saradindu Panda Laxmi Publications PDF





In the static CMOS logic with a fan-in of N requires 2N devices. A variety of approaches were presented to reduce the number of transistors required to implement a given logic function including pseudo-nMOS, pass-transistor logic. etc. For the pseudo, nMOS logic, there are (N + 1) no of transistor required to implement an N input logic gate, but it has static power dissipation.

To avoid this static power dissipation and obtaining the same result, the alternating approach is called the dynamic logic design. With the addition of a clock input, it uses a sequence of precharge and conditional evaluation phase.

There are different style to design a dynamic VLSI circuits:

(i) Precharge evaluation logic style.

(ii) Dynamic TG logic style.

(iii) Pass transistor logic style.

(iv) Domino logic style.

(v) NORA logic style.


The operation of this circuit is divided into two major phases — pre-charge and evaluation — with the mode of operation determined by the clk signal clk. The basic construction of this type of design style is given below.

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Medium 9781601323286

Modeling and Self-Configuring SaaS Application

Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, George Jandieri, Ashu M. G. Solo, Fernando G. Tinetti CSREA Press PDF

Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research and Practice | SERP'14 |


















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Medium 9781902375212

Level of detail for integration

Tony Baxendale Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Operational Monitoring and Control

Project Progress Control

A project is dynamic and must respond to changing conditions if it is to be completed successfully. There is a continual need for reassessment and reappraisal of the project plan. Factors affecting an existing plan will include:

     Changes in the technical specification.

     Changes in the required dates.

     Changes in relative priorities.

     Revision of activity duration estimates.

     Reassessment of resource requirements for individual activities.

     Changes in resource availabilities.

     Inaccuracies in planned sequences.

     Technical difficulties.

     Failure of deliveries.

     Unexpected weather conditions.

It is therefore necessary to have a monitoring system which generates feedback that enables corrective action to be taken. There are usually some deviations that do not allow the project to proceed in accordance with the plan. It is therefore necessary to review operations periodically and to update or replan when a change is revealed. Close or detailed control of resources is not always considered. Close control is where resources are fully considered during the initial stages of the project and the timing of every activity is fixed, so as to obtain optimum use of resources. Flexible or overall control is often exercised during the initial scheduling of the project. Flexible control only considers resources to avoid peaks in key resources or those resources that are in limited supply. The frequency of review will depend on the overall duration of the project and the timescale on which the activities are measured. In general a weekly programme should be reviewed weekly and a daily programme daily.

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Medium 9781938549533

Chapter 2: Finite Element Method—A Summary

M. TABATABAIAN Mercury Learning and Information PDF







inite element method (FEM) is the dominant computational method in engineering and applied science fields. Other methods including finite-volume, finite-difference, boundary element, and collocation are also used in practice. To provide general readers with a background for applications of FEM, either directly or with application of a software tool, we discuss the FEM principles in summary in this chapter. We also refer readers who are interested in further reading on this subject to a selection of available textbooks and references.

As discussed in Chapter 1, modeling has an ancient history. However, since the mid-twentieth century a new definition of modeling has gradually emerged (see References 2.1 and 2.2). This definition is a direct consequence of the development of advanced computational methods as well as huge advances in digital computers in terms of their CPUs and graphics processing power. As a result, computer modeling is synonymous to

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Medium 9789381159101


Anand V. Kulkarni and Venkatesh K. Havanur Laxmi Publications PDF
Medium 9789380386324


Dr. A.J. Nair Laxmi Publications PDF





suspension or to intact or sliced plant tissues. For example, plant meristems or tissues capable of regeneration can be targeted directly. Unlike electroporation and microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations. Using biolistics, transgenic corn and soybean plants have been produced that contain heritable copies of the inserted gene.

This is also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the speed of the micro-projectile particles is controlled by certain specific mechanisms such as high voltage electric pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion.

Transgenic Analysis

The selection of transformed cells, whether plant or animal or microbial cells, is an important step in genetic-engineering procedures. Usually it is carried out by including one or more marker genes, for example, antibiotic-resistance genes along with the desired gene. The transformed cells can be selected on a special medium known as selection medium supplemented with the right type of antibiotics. The expression of the transferred gene (desired gene) can be monitored with the help of a reporter gene such as luciferase attached with the gene of interest. The gene integration and its expression can also be monitored and studied by Southern hybridization, Northern hybridization,

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Medium 9789381159422

2.10. Meaning of Decision

G. Murugesan Laxmi Publications PDF





In the top-down approach, the total organization is directed through corporate objective provided by the top level of management. In the bottom-up approach, the top-level management needs to have information from lower level in the form of objectives.



A decision is a choice between two or more alternatives. This implies three things:

When managers make decisions they are choosing right one from alternatives,

They are deciding what to do on the basis of some conscious, and

Deliberate logic or judgment.

A decision may be defined, in terms of commitment of resources—raw materials, machines, finance, time, efforts etc. in a particular channel of thinking and action.

For example, a decision to advertise the product, involves the time, effort, finance of the marketing department in preparation of advertisement programme, its implementation and reviewing its progress.

Whenever a manager takes a decision, his thinking and actions are involved in a particular direction. Whenever the decision is implemented, it implies commitment of precious organizational resources in that particular direction.

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Medium 9781780647098

9: Host-plant Selection and Feeding

van Emden, H.F. CABI PDF


Host-plant Selection and Feeding

Jan Pettersson,1* W. Fred Tjallingii2 and Jim Hardie3


Department of Ecology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,

Uppsala, Sweden; 2EPG Systems, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 3Royal

Entomological Society, St Albans, UK, and Imperial College London,

Department of Life Sciences, Ascot, UK


Prominent traits in aphid ecology are rapid reproduction and advanced adaptation to host-plant ecology and physiology. This includes host-plant and feeding-site discrimination using sensitive chemosensory information that has proved to be an important research topic over the past few decades

(Chapter 8, this volume). Cues shown to be important in host-plant selection, phloem finding, phloem acceptance and the sensory aspects are described in the sequence of choices from a distance, to the plant surface, to the internal plant factors, and ultimately to phloem feeding.

Visual cues constitute an initial step in host selection for alate aphids and have an important role for approaching and landing on a plant. Different aspects of spectral patterns have been studied with regard to orientation (Döring and Chittka, 2007).

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Medium 9781780645742

9: Risk and Mathematical Programming Models

J.B. Hardaker CAB International PDF


Risk and Mathematical

Programming Models

A Brief Introduction to Mathematical Programming

Mathematical programming (MP) is the term used to describe a family of optimization methods that may be familiar to many readers. Therefore, only a brief introduction to these useful methods is provided here and readers needing to learn more by way of background are referred to one of the many introductory texts on the topic, such as Williams (2013).

Almost all optimization problems, including planning problems accounting for risk and uncertainty, can be expressed as the optimization of some objective function subject to a set of constraints. MP has been developed just for such problems. Unfortunately, however, many real-world planning problems are complex, especially when accounting for risk and uncertainty. The result is that, while most risk-planning problems can be formulated as MP models, at least conceptually, not all can be reliably solved using available algorithms. Sometimes it may not be possible to be sure that a generated solution is the true optimum. The models for some problems may grow so large that the computing task may be beyond the capacity of the computer or software being used.

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