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2 - Religious Ambivalence in Jewish American Philanthropy

NoContributor Indiana University Press ePub

Shaul Kelner

PASSOVER 1967. AFTER an outcry of protest in the West, the Soviet Union had eased restrictions on the baking and import of unleavened bread, restrictions that had been designed to stamp out the last vestiges of Russian Jewry's observance of the springtime festival of the matzoh. Responding to the policy change, the American Jewish Conference on Soviet Jewry (AJCSJ), an umbrella group of twenty-five of the largest Jewish nonprofit organizations in the United States, revised the Passover seder supplement that it had first published the year before. The new text, written to be read aloud in homes and synagogues during the meal in which Jews ceremonially recount the biblical Exodus story, dropped all reference to the Soviets’ ban on matzoh. Instead, it invoked Passover's general theme of liberation from bondage to contrast the religious freedoms enjoyed by American Jews with the religious and cultural oppression that the Jews of the USSR were being forced to endure. With millions of copies circulated in the national media and through synagogues across the country, the 1967 text read as follows:

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1 A Short Sketch of the Fergana Valley

Vladimir Nalivkin Indiana University Press ePub

FERGANA IS A VALLEY that runs from northeast to southwest, surrounded by mountain ranges that open up only to its southwestern corner, near Khujand.

The length of the valley from Khujand to Uzgentom (in [geographic] projection) is approximately 300 versts.1 The greatest distance between the base of the foothills is about 130 versts, and the smallest (near Maxram), about 30 versts. Longitudinally, the valley is cut by the river Syr-Darya, formed from the junction of the Naryn and Kara-Darya Rivers, a few versts to the south of Namagan. Many small rivers and streams run down the mountain slopes and partly in the foothills, but mainly when they flow into the valley, their flow diverges into an enormous network of ariqs, artificial irrigation channels.

The major cities, the most populated trade and industrial settlements, are Qo’qon [Kokand], Marg’ilon, Andijon, Namangan, Osh, and Chust. Apart from these cities, which correspond to six current uezds [administrative divisions or regions] of Fergana oblast’ [province], there are kishlaks (villages), some of which—for example, Isfara and Rishtan of Qo’qon region, Shaxrixon and Assaka of Marg’ilon region, and Uzgent of Andijon region—compare in size and population to such cities as Osh and Chust.

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Chapter 9: Fire Marshal

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 9

Fire Marshal

Introduction

Fire can leave significant damage in its wake, including property damage, environmental devastation, and even death. There are many causes of fires including accidents, weather-related causes like lightning, faulty wiring, etc. When a fire is set deliberately or occurs due to negligence, police treat it as a crime of arson. Arson is the second leading cause of death in residential fires and is responsible for 500 deaths every year nationwide. Property damage from arson is estimated to cost $900 million each year.1

Arson has always been a crime, but in 1978 it was elevated to the status of Index Crime. In 1982 Congress passed the Anti-Arson Act, which made the crime of arson a permanent part of the Uniform Crime Reports Part I offenses.2 Basically, this piece of legislation reaffirmed that arson is worthy of being an Index Crime.

Other crimes may also fit within the definition of fire-related. These include insurance fraud and crimes where a fire is set to cover up another crime. The most common reason for arson is in fact financial difficulties.3 Homicide and burglaries are also crimes that frequently relate to fires.4

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9 Busting Barriers: Heeding the Call

Bing, Eric Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Millions of men, women, and children are dying of diseases we can inexpensively prevent and treat. Now is the time to create impacts in global health and save more lives. Significant technological and business model innovations have been developed that increase access, use, and quality while reducing the cost of health services. For these solutions to save more lives, they must be adapted to new populations and conditions, continually refined, and scaled to reach more people in more regions.

In Pharmacy on a Bicycle we have described many innovative and entrepreneurial solutions that have been developed in many countries by governments, NGOs, businesses, and donors to save lives. Fortunately, a confluence of circumstances makes scaling these solutions all the more feasible now. These circumstances include growing economies in many low- and middle-income countries, economic interdependencies among developed countries, investments by developing countries in health, and significant investments by businesses.

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4 Medicine with a Mission: Chinese Roots and Foreign Engagement in Health Philanthropy

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Zhang Xiulan and Zhang Lu

THE EARLIEST SUSTAINED foreign philanthropic involvement in China came from a wide array of church-sponsored philanthropies. Although such philanthropies are no longer prominent in China, their legacy has been considerable. Drawing on a range of archival sources, this chapter first briefly sketches the Chinese charitable landscape in which Western church-sponsored initiatives arrived. It then provides examples of the wide variety of projects that developed, considering both how these ventures were funded and their relationship with the state. Finally, it considers their legacy: paving the way for other foreign philanthropic engagement, establishing medical institutions that continue to thrive today (although they are no longer linked to their original church heritage), and, most significantly, acting as an initial point of contact for Western and Chinese health care practices, influencing medical education and management models that have carried through to the present day.

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