3988 Chapters
Medium 9780253357151

1. “Our Nation’s Authentic Traditions”: Law Reform and Controversies over the Common Good, 1999–2006

Dorothea E. Schulz Indiana University Press ePub

IN MARCH 2000 Malian national radio announced in daily news broadcasts that a family law reform proposal, prepared by legal specialists and representatives of civil society, was to be publicly discussed so as to ensure popular participation and support. The projected reform of the codification of family law (Code du Mariage et de la Tutelle [CMT]), the broadcasts explained, was part of PRODEJ (Promotion de la Démocratie et de la Justice au Mali), a project financed by a consortium of Western donors to improve the effectiveness and credibility of the judiciary, and to mend inconsistencies within the Malian legal code “in accordance with international standards.”1 The anticipated law reform generated vehement protest among Muslim religious authorities and activists who publicly condemned the government’s endorsement of the Beijing platform as an attack on women’s “traditional role and dignity” that ultimately threatened to undermine Mali’s authentic culture, one “rooted for centuries in the values of Islam.”2 Yet the main targets of these Muslim leaders’ wrath, and their main political adversaries, were women’s rights activists who, in broadcasts aired on local and national radio and tacitly supported by the Family and Women’s Ministry, dismissed their protest as an attempt by “conservative religious forces” to pave the way for reactionary influences from the Arabic-speaking world by mixing religion and politics. Clearly, behind obvious differences in ideological orientation, Muslim activists and their political opponents have several points in common. Speakers on each side acknowledge that the government’s decision to reform Mali’s legal and judicial system is the result of various international influences and support structures, on the one hand, and of local and national political processes, on the other. Agendas of Western donor organizations intersect and collide with the interests of sponsors from the Arabic-speaking world, but also with interest groups struggling to gain greater influence in the national political arena. Both parties also present women’s dignity, and their rights and duties, as essential to definitions of the common good and of membership in the political community.

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Medium 9780253019028

Luminous City, Luminous Gallery

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

Kimbembele Ihunga. Installation shot from Luminós/C/ity.Ordinary Joy exhibition at the Cooper Gallery, Fall 2014. Bodys Isek Kingelez, 1994. Paper, cardboard, polystyrene, mixed media. Photo by Marcus Halevi. Courtesy of the Pigozzi Contemporary African Art Collection (WWW.JAPIGOZZICOLLECTION.COM | WWW.CAACART.COM)

David Adjaye, Mariane Ibrahim-Lenhardt, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. discuss the new Cooper Gallery and its first exhibition, Luminós/C/ity.Ordinary Joy

WHEN IT CAME time to design a dynamic space for Harvard University’s new Ethelbert Cooper Gallery of African and African American Art, the Hutchins Center’s founding director, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., turned to award-winning Ghanaian architect David Adjaye, whose numerous grand and ambitious public buildings—including the soon-to-open Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture—are renowned for their seamless merger of modernist and African aesthetics. When Adjaye was then invited to curate the first exhibition in the new gallery space, he sought the help of Mariane Ibrahim-Lenhardt, the young Somalian curator whose gallery in Seattle is making waves by insisting that African contemporary artists be taken seriously by the contemporary art world at large. In this conversation—which took place at the Cooper Gallery’s opening event in October 2014—Gates, Adjaye, and Ibrahim-Lendardt discuss the gallery’s architecture and the process by which Adjaye and Ibrahim-Lendardt selected the pieces for their show from the legendary Pigozzi Contemporary African Art Collection. The Cooper Gallery is under the direction of Vera I. Grant and is located in the heart of Harvard Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Medium 9780253334114

16. PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS IN SEXUAL RESPONSE

Alfred C. Kinsey Indiana University Press ePub

It might properly be contended that all functions of living matter are physiologic, but it is customary to distinguish certain aspects of animal behavior as psychologic functions. The distinctions can never be sharp, and they probably do not represent reality; but they are convenient distinctions to make, particularly in regard to human behavior.

Usually physiologists have been concerned with the functions of particular parts of the plant or animal, and with an attempt to discover the physical and chemical bases of such functions. Psychologists, on the other hand, have more often been concerned with the functioning—the behavior—of the organism as a whole. Many of the psychologic studies record—and properly record—the behavior of an animal without being able to explain the bases of that behavior in the known physics or chemistry of living matter. When psychologists try to explain behavior in physico-chemical terms, it is difficult to say, and quite pointless to try to say, whether such studies lie in the field of psychology or physiology.

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Medium 9780253006851

6 - Nonprofit Sector in Crisis: Broader Implications and Strategies for Risk Management

Nuno S. Themudo Indiana University Press ePub

Broader Implications and Strategies for Risk Management

HOW AND WHY does nonprofit sector strength vary across nations and over time? This book identified and developed an explanation for the puzzling U-shaped relationship between nonprofit sector strength and economic development—the philanthropic Kuznets curve—which defies nonprofit sector theories proposing a linear relationship between economic development and nonprofit sector strength. Based on the intuition that historically high levels of economic instability could be a main cause of nonprofit sector weakness in middle-income countries, I began an investigation into the relationship between the nonprofit sector and economic risk. In stark contrast with research on business and public sectors, however, research on the influence of risk on the nonprofit sector remains surprisingly limited. This book revisits the relationship, developing a new theoretical framework for the study of the nonprofit sector based on finance and game theory principles. I developed a framework suggesting that the relationship between economic development and nonprofit sector strength is mediated by risk. Simply put, the framework argues that risk generally depresses social support to the nonprofit sector and weakens nonprofit sector capacity by leading to an increase in the rate with which contributors discount future nonprofit impact. The more distant the impact is likely to be, the more heavily it will be discounted. Risk should thus attenuate most incentives for philanthropy, increase “philanthropic friction,” and encourage government agencies to shift risk to nonprofit organizations. Risk should also weaken sector capacity by eroding existing financial, human, and social capital and discouraging startups and new capacity development. At the same time, rising risk should stimulate some nonprofit sector activities, most notably in short-term emergency relief, risk-sharing associations, and commercially funded organizations, in addition to providing a competitive advantage to the most resilient nonprofit organizations. Thus, risk should have a profound influence on the nature and size of the nonprofit sector.

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Medium 9781605093048

1 The Two Sides of Power

Kahane, Adam Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

TO EXPLAIN WHERE I have arrived in my understanding of power and love and social change, I have to explain how I started.

I grew up in Montreal and studied physics at McGill University. In the summer of 1981, as I was finishing my undergraduate degree, I attended a meeting of the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs in Banff, Alberta, where I heard a speech about the crucial energy and environmental challenges arising out of the increasing complexity and fullness—of people and ideas and things—of the world. I decided to shift my studies from physical to social sciences, and I went on to do a graduate degree in economics and public policy at the University of California at Berkeley. After graduation, I worked at a variety of research institutions in North America, Europe, and Asia, and then in the corporate planning department of Pacific Gas and Electric Company in San Francisco.

My father had taught me the value of industriousness—of doing my job well, whatever that job was—and of self-determination and self-improvement. His favorite story was of Henry David Thoreau, who had lived in the woods at Walden Pond and after two years had come out with his axe sharper than when he had gone in.

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