3469 Chapters
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Medium 9780253006424

4. Queer Beauty: Winckelmann and Kant on the Vicissitudes of the Ideal

PEG Z BRAND Indiana University Press ePub

WHITNEY DAVIS

Uranists often ornament their apartments with pictures and statues representing good-looking youths. It appears that they love the statue of Apollo Belvedere in a manner all their own.

—Albert Moll, Perversions of the Sex Instinct

The history of modern and contemporary art provides many examples of the “queering” of cultural and social norms. It has been tempting to consider this process of subversion and transgression, or “outlaw representation” (as Richard Meyer has called it), as well as related performances of “camp” or other gay inflections of the dominant forms of representation, to be the most creative mode of queer cultural production.1 Whether or not this is true in the history of later nineteenth- and twentieth-century art, we can identify a historical process in modern culture that has worked in the opposite direction—namely, the constitution of aesthetic ideals, cultural norms that claim validity within an entire society, which have been based on manifestly homoerotic prototypes and significances. There has been little subversion or camp in these configurations. Indeed, perhaps there has been a surfeit of idealizing configuration and normalizing representation. But as Johann Joachim Winckelmann’s art history and Immanuel Kant’s aesthetics might suggest, such idealization can be no less queer than camp inflections or outlaw representations.

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Medium 9781574412826

CD – II

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF

The Millennium Science Initiative Program (MSI) is an original model in the developing world whose main objective is to promote the advancement of cutting edge scientific and technological research in

Chile. This is done through Centers of Excellence in scientific research in the fields of Natural and Exact Sciences and in Social Sciences, as a relevant actor in the National System of Science, Technology and

Innovation. www.iniciativamilenio.cl

This book is a revised and amplified edition of the “Multi-ethnic bird guide of the austral temperate forests of South America,” published by Fantástico Sur – Birding & Nature, in 2003.

Cover: Branches of High Deciduous Beech (Nothofagus pumilio) with photographs of Úrsula Calderón and Magellanic

Woodpecker (top left), Cristina Calderón and Ringed Kingfisher (top right), Lorenzo Aillapan and Red-Backed Hawk, and

Ricardo Rozzi and Austral Pygmy Owl. Design by Paola Vezzani & Ricardo Rozzi. Photographs by John Schwenk (Úrsula

Calderón and Ricardo Rozzi), Paola Vezzani (branches of High Deciduous Beech or “Lenga” tree, and coastal landscape at the Beagle Channel, Navarino Island), Oliver Vogel (Cristina Calderón and Lorenzo Aillapan), Steve Morello (Austral Pygmy

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Medium 9780253001924

3 Influence District and the Courts: A Concept in Need of Clarity

Edited by Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

The concept of “influence district” is referenced frequently in discussions of minority voting rights and representational districting. An influence district is said to be a district in which voters constituting a cohesive quantitative minority of voters cannot elect a representative of their choice if their choice is a member of their own group, but can still be expected, given their level of presence in the district, to influence the legislative behavior of the person who is elected to represent the district. Theoretically the presence of any group satisfying these criteria could be the basis for calling a district an influence district for that group, but in application the concept has been applied almost exclusively to districts in which the group is a minority group protected by the Voting Rights Act (VRA), in particular African Americans and Latinos.1

Influence districts are one of three types of districts recognized by the United States Supreme Court in which minority voters do not constitute a majority of the voting age population. The others are “coalition districts” and “crossover districts.” In these types of districts, minority voters do have a reasonable opportunity to elect representatives from within their group based on predictable levels of support for those candidates from other voters. In the case of coalition districts, the other voters are members of other protected minorities; in the case of crossover districts they are typically white or Anglos voters.2 Influence districts, however, are districts “in which minority candidates do not win, but minority voters can play a significant role in electing candidates who will be sympathetic to their interests.”3

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Medium 9781574414769

Chapter 4: Pay Back

Mark T. Smokov University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER 4

Pay Back

There was a light snowfall the morning of December 27, 1894, and the cold was keeping several men inside the Clothing Store and Saloon run by Jake Harris. Harris’ left leg had been amputated close to the hip after a gun battle with City Marshal George Treat of Great Falls in November 1891.1 He used a shotgun for a crutch if he expected any trouble in his saloon. Harris and Landusky were friends, and Landusky had put up the money for the building with the status of silent partner. There was a counter in the back of the saloon where cheap clothing and some food items were sold. Harris had sent to Anaconda for a friend of his named Charles Annis, who went by the name Hogan, to be his clerk. Despite being frail and tubercular, he was reputed to be a gunman. It was understood that, besides minding the store, another duty of Hogan’s was to keep the wild cowboy element, such as the Currys, in line.2

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Medium 9781574412826

I. Birds from the Forest Interior

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF

CD 1 / Track 2

B IRDS O F TH E FO REST INTERIOR

Lána

Kürüpütriu

Carpintero negro

Magellanic Woodpecker

The Magellanic Woodpecker is the largest woodpecker species in South America. It belongs to the same genus (Campephilus) as the two largest species of woodpeckers known worldwide: the Imperial

Woodpecker (C. imperialis) and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (C. principalis). Both species inhabited the forests of North America, and today are presumed to be extinct due to the destruction of their habitats, and hunting pressures.

The Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus) is endemic to the Nothofagus forests of southern Chile and Argentina. It is so specialized in its habitat requirements that it nests solely in old trees of the genus Nothofagus. In the trunks of these trees, it excavates rounded cavities which provide nesting sites not only for woodpecker families, but also for numerous other cavity-nesting birds, such as the Austral Parakeet (Enicognathus ferrugineus) and the Austral Pygmy Owl (Glaucidum nanum).

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Medium 9780253329059

Eight Bambi

Elizabeth Bell Indiana University Press ePub

David Payne

Technoscience and science fiction collapse into the sun of their radiant (ir)reality—war. (Haraway 1991, 185)

My father is a wise and gentle man. He was never drunk, loud, violent, abusive, competitive, aggressive, unfaithful, or impatient. He never, in my presence or to my knowledge, made a fool of himself trying to prove that he was a man.

Until he was drafted into the army just after World War II, my father had never left the panhandle of western Oklahoma where he was born to a displaced Missouri farmer and Nora Jones, child of a half-Cherokee father. My father had avoided going to war through a farm deferment, graciously awarded even during war years to the last remaining son on a farm. In the army, he typed paychecks for his committed time, and then returned to the clay-red bluffs and coarse panhandle grasslands to become what every man raised there became: a farmer. After the birth of his second son, me, he decided what countless others in 1952 decided, and moved his young family to the city where he was to do factory work for most of the next thirty years. In Wichita, Kansas, he built and repaired the large bombers for Boeing Aircraft. He sired two more sons, but no daughters.

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Medium 9780253015846

8 Condition: Normal

Samuli Schielke Indiana University Press ePub

 

One of the formidable problems of aspiring to a better life is that the world is structured in a way that allows one’s aspirations to be realized, if at all, at the price of severe compromises. This creates discontent, more so when those compromises are oppressive and morally troubling. But what can one do? As people from the village have pursued education and work and have sought to gain a degree of what they see as a life in human dignity in the face of an oppressive system, they have resorted to subversive diversion at times, and to direct defiance at other times, with different consequences. One consequence was the longevity of the Mubarak regime. Another was the January 25 revolution, a dramatic and exceptional moment when everything seemed possible. But was there really a revolution? If there was one, what did it accomplish? And what, in a historical perspective, is the normal condition, and what is exceptional?

January 25, 2011, certainly felt exceptional. On the evening of that day I wrote the following note in my research diary:

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Medium 9780253001924

5 Bull Connor Is Long Dead: Let’s Move On

Edited by Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

Over time, the Voting Rights Act has evolved into one of the most ambitious legislative efforts in the world to define the appropriate balance between the political representation of majorities and minorities in the design of democratic institutions.

RICHARD H. PILDES, PROFESSOR OF
LAW, NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

In January 2009 Barack Obama became the first black leader of the free world, winner of an election in which his race was clearly no barrier, and may well have been an advantage. He won a larger share of the white vote than the previous two nominees of his party, and turnout for African Americans ages eighteen to forty-four was higher than that for whites.1 President Obama’s victory was unmistakably the end of an era and the welcome beginning of a new one. Whatever one thinks of his politics, his stunning success is a historic turning point. Integration was the aim of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and much of the 1960s, and, by the ultimate test, American politics is now integrated. Blacks have been a major force in American politics for decades – and now they have reached its highest peak.

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Medium 9780253330178

VII. Black Homes, White Homilies

David Barry Gaspar Indiana University Press ePub

Robert W. Sienes

On August 24, 1899, Simão Alves appeared at one of the main parish churches of Campinas, in Brazil’s São Paulo state, “to make a new registration of the act of marriage celebrated between Policarpo Salvador and Afra.” The witnesses to this new document—Egydio Franco and José Antonio Aranha—declared that Policarpo and Afra were “husband and wife—by virtue of the fact that they were married—the religious act having been celebrated in the church which was the parish seat of this county during the time when the said couple were slaves of Mr. Thomaz Luiz Alves Cruz—more or less in the year 1858–59.” Egydio and José Antônio “added that they had been companions [of Policarpo and Afra] in slavery and that for thirty and twenty-four years [respectively] they have known them always as a married couple.” The testimony of these men is reliable. Although it is not possible to check their story against the original marriage certificate (perhaps because the register of slave marriages for most of 1858 and 1859 disappeared from the church archives in Campinas—a fact which may provide us with the motive for the “new registration” of 1899), another document confirms its accuracy. On October 19, 1862, a child named Benedicta, aged thirteen days, was baptized in the county; she was identified as “a daughter of Policarpo and Afra, slaves of Thomas Luis Alvares [sic].”1

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Medium 9780253006691

5 From mirage to image: Contest(ed)ing Space in Diasporic Films (1955–2011)

Dominic Thomas Indiana University Press ePub

And then there was no more Empire all of a sudden Its victories were air, its dominions dirt . . . The map that had seeped its stain on a schoolboy’s shirt Like red ink on a blotter, battles, long sieges.

Derek Walcott1

The symbiotic ties linking Africa and France are incontrovertible facts of history. The French presence in Africa has received extensive scrutiny, yet more recently attention has shifted toward those populations of African descent (usually former colonial subjects), immigrants or ethnic minorities (either naturalized subjects or citizens), residing in the French hexagon.2 Findings have underscored the complexity and multidimensionality of this phenomenon and pointed to a broad range of discourses organized around such diverse cultural, political, and social questions as assimilation, incorporation, Islam, globalization, and secularism. On the one hand, European metropolitan centers have continued to exercise a magnetic effect in attracting labor from the global south, yet on the other we have witnessed a disquieting increase in anti-immigrant sentiment and intolerance toward migrant subjects. This has generated revisions to government policy and in some cases blurred the gap between domestic and foreign policy.

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Medium 9780253008848

13 Saudi-Islamist Rhetorics about Visual Culture

Edited by Christiane Gruber and Sune Hau Indiana University Press ePub

CHAPTER 13

Saudi-Islamist Rhetorics
about Visual Culture

MARWAN KRAIDY

In The Transparent Society, the Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo writes that in late modernity “reality . . . cannot be understood as the objectives given lying beneath, or beyond, the images we receive of it from our media,” concluding that “reality is rather the result of the intersection . . . of a multiplicity of images, interpretations and reconstructions circulated by the media in competition with one another and without any ‘central’ coordination.”1 Vattimo’s vision of social reality as a constellation of colliding and intersecting images is relevant to contemporary Arab societies that, since the early 1990s, have been bombarded by a plethora of images emanating from a global array of sources and beamed by a growing satellite television industry that by late 2009 numbered approximately five hundred Arabic-language channels.2 Privately owned, eclectically themed, and mostly unregulated, the pan-Arab satellite television scene also echoes Vattimo’s claim of the absence of central coordination of the myriad processes of reality construction. A visual and visible proof of the declining role of the state in controlling the production and flow of images, the anarchy of the pan-Arab airwaves has led to wide-ranging debates about the impact of visual media on Arab societies, often centering on the notion of authenticity.

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Medium 9780253007414

14. Apprentices and Entrepreneurs: The Workshop and Style Uniformity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Edited by Sidney Littlefield Kasfir and Indiana University Press ePub

Sidney Littlefield Kasfir

One of the major questions in African art scholarship concerns the degree to which the African artist was and is free to invent. Despite the early insights of Boas (1955[1927]:155) and his followers concerning artistic invention in oral cultures, the accepted picture until recently was that of the African artist as slave to tradition. He could not innovate because the pressures of traditional patronage forbade it. Since that time, numerous field researchers have shown that innovation can and does occur when the conditions are favorable. During the same period, the documentation of African art has expanded dramatically, and with it has come confirmation that the old “one tribe, one style” model fails to describe the stylistic diversity found in most art-producing African cultures (Kasfir 1984). We are, therefore, at a point where everyone recognizes that style varies from artist to artist as well as over time, even in quite highly structured and conservative societies. But how do these variations arise? And, more important, why do they occur much more often in some societies than in others? The purpose of this chapter is to examine the dynamics through which an artist’s personal style is encoded along with the limitations placed upon stylistic change. Although I will make less mention of it, most of the arguments hold true for iconography as well, simply because the two are often inseparable. I will focus on two major aspects of the question: the way in which the artist acquires a style, and the effects of patronage on his ability to change it. In doing so I am faced with a methodological dilemma: to generalize is to invite oversimplification of very complex creative processes, but to maintain that because every African culture is unique, it is not susceptible to comparative analysis is to reinforce stereotypical ideas concerning the lack of any common ground between creativity in literate and in oral cultures. Because of this problem, I have found it useful to compare some of the findings of other researchers with my own answers to these questions. As more documentation becomes available, these comparisons become increasingly valid.

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Medium 9781574411829

9. Halfway Houses

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 9

Halfway Houses

BACKGROUND

Halfway houses are community-based residential facilities designed to limit the freedom of offenders while seeking to reintegrate them into society through employment and other services. They are used primarily to help inmates who are being released from prisons make the oftendifficult transition from confinement to the community. Halfway houses are also referred to as adult residential centers, community residential centers/programs, community corrections centers, community release centers, parole residential centers, transitional centers, and residential community correctional facilities. Halfway house facilities are located within communities, were often once private residences, and are designed to “blend in” with the community.

Participation in halfway houses requires 24-hour supervision and offers offenders access to treatment and other rehabilitative services.

Participants are permitted to leave the house with restrictions for work, education, and other responsibilities and they generally spend the evenings at the halfway house. Given its residency condition, a halfway house provides more structure and supervision than a typical probation or parole program, but is not as secure as a jail or prison.

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Medium 9780253348920

Introduction: Colonial Power and Aesthetic Practice

Sidney Littlefield Kasfir Indiana University Press ePub

Introduction

COLONIAL POWER AND AESTHETIC PRACTICE

A Masai warrior is a fine sight. Those young men have, to the utmost extent, that particular form of intelligence that we call chic:—daring, and wildly fantastical as they seem, they are still unswervingly true to their own nature … and their weapons and finery are as much a part of their being as are a stag’s antlers.

—ISAK DINESEN, Out of Africa (1937)

The South was, for the most part, held in thrall by Fetish worship and the hideous ordeals of witchcraft, human sacrifice and twin murder. The great Ibo race to the East of the Niger… and their cognate tribes had not developed beyond the stage of primitive savagery.

—FREDERICK LUGARD, “Report on the Amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria” (1919/1968)

Where does the new come from in an artist’s practice? In this book, I explore an unexpected source, colonial authority, and trace the ways widely different late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century European impressions of Kenya and Nigeria and the subsequent British colonizing policies toward their imperfectly understood subject peoples intervened in and transformed the objects and practices of two groups of African artists. Equally, this book is about the ways those artists—sculptors and smiths—reinvented these objects and created a new artisanal practice. Because the two cultures, Idoma in Nigeria (one of Lugard’s “cognate tribes”) and Maa-speaking Samburu in Kenya, are geographically remote and superficially very different, the common thread of the institution of warriorhood helps weave the comparison. At a more immediate level, this book is also about real people—the warriors, the artists, and the blacksmiths—and how they strategized and made choices to circumvent the authority of colonial rule and to create new forms.

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Medium 9781574412772

BOOKS OF THE TFS

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

BOOKS OF THE TFS by Len Ainsworth

Books drew me to the Texas Folklore Society. I began to read TFS books in high school without paying attention to the publisher, being drawn to them by the editor and frequent contributor, J.

Frank Dobie. A ranch-oriented small-town boy in the 1940s, books such as Pitching Horses and Panthers just suited me. The illustrations by Will James, another favorite, were icing on the cake. Reading Mustangs and Cow Horses was akin to a religious experience and the subject of much discussion with a best friend.

We had grown up with horses, and recognized Dobie, Boatright, and Ransom as the gurus (although we wouldn’t have understood the word) or founts of greater knowledge about a Texas still much alive in our thoughts. We even expanded our taste to beyond

Dobie offerings, insofar as our school library provided them.

Someone in the school must have developed a fair collection of the earlier TFS publications for them to be available at least a dozen years later. We read some of the Mexican tales (Puro Mexicano,

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