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3 Film as Instrument of Modernization and Social Change in Africa: The Long View

PETER JASON BLOOM Indiana University Press ePub

Rosaleen Smyth

In this chapter I will ground the theme of modernization in sub-Saharan Africa in its authentic historical context by demonstrating its colonial roots. The central focus will be the efforts made to use film as an instrument of modernization and development communication. In doing so I will turn the current academic orthodoxy on its head. Development communication did not have “its origins in postwar international aid programs,” which were in turn “derived from theories of development and social change that identified the main problems of the post-war world in terms of a lack of development or progress equivalent to Western countries,” as stated in a 2001 report to the Rockefeller Foundation (Waisbord 2001). On the contrary, starting in the 1920s ideas about using mass media as a means of changing mindsets from “traditional” to “modern” and encouraging the adoption of new methods of agriculture and healthcare, among other techniques, were being explored and experimented with in Britain’s African colonies. This was long before the hatching of modernization and development communication theories in American universities and research institutes were in the heat of postwar reconstruction and enshrined in Daniel Lerner’s The Passing of Traditional Society (1958), Wilbur Schramm’s Mass Media and National Development (1964), and David McLelland’s The Achieving Society (1961). These works were published to great acclaim at the height of the Cold War. And, what is more, it was not just the British colonial administration acting in isolation; even then it was acting in concert with international entities including the aforesaid Rockefeller Foundation.

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Medium 9780253002150

6 The World Beyond: Kaguru Marginality in a Plural World, 1957–61

T. O. Beidelman Indiana University Press ePub

Ukaguru is the main subject of this book, but it needs to be seen within the larger context of the colonial system in which it was set, however insignificantly. For this reason, I here consider the chiefdom within the broader context of Kilosa district and, to a lesser extent, Eastern Province. Broader concerns of the district and provincial administrations, the nature of the British colonial civil service, the everyday worlds of the Europeans, Asians, and non-Kaguru Africans who lived outside Ukaguru must be understood to grasp what went on in Ukaguru itself. I began this consideration earlier with a study of the CMS (Beidelman 1982a, 1982b, 1999), so I do not discuss here again the important aspect of outside Christian missionary influence upon Kaguru and their land. Ironically, while the concerns and attitudes of outsiders often determined how Ukaguru was treated politically and economically, most of the time these strangers thought little about Ukaguru and Kaguru.

In 1957–61 the Kaguru chiefdom occupied the northern portion of Kilosa district, the westernmost district in Eastern Province.1 Eastern Province was about 40,000 square miles in size (like Ohio or a bit larger than Indiana) and had a population of slightly over a million people.2 This population was overwhelmingly African, although a large number were transient, ethnic outsiders employed on the many Greek- and Indian-owned sisal estates scattered throughout the region. There were about 6,000 Europeans in Eastern Province, but over 4,500 of these resided in the territorial capital of Dar es Salaam.3 The rest, most of them Greeks, were scattered thinly over the remaining area. The large Asian population, mainly Indians, Goans, and Pakistanis, numbered over 32,000, but over 27,000 of these resided in Dar es Salaam. The other 5,000 were scattered fairly evenly through the towns of Eastern Province as traders, shopkeepers, clerks, and artisans. In smaller trading centers they were replaced by Arab, Somali, or African merchants. The administrative headquarters for Eastern Province was Morogoro, an attractive town of over 14,000. It was a major transportation hub lying on the main east-west railway as well as at the intersection of major roads going north-south and east-west. The beautiful mountains south and west of the town were extremely densely populated.

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Medium 9780253016980

2. Canton, Illinois, 2008–

Bob Hammel Indiana University Press ePub


First Cook factory at Canton, opened and dedicated in 2009.

“And here comes Bill Cook, not with hundreds of dollars—millions! He gave us hope. He gave us life.”

—Michael Walters

Even the people closest to Bill Cook aren’t sure how long he thought about it before he began the remarkable, even charming, resuscitation job he did on the hometown he loved: Canton, Illinois, which had been given up as moribund by most.

Harriett Beecher Stowe invented the best word for how that Bill Cook ruminating materialized into today’s revitalized Canton. Like Stowe’s twinkly-eyed slave girl Topsy’s self-description in Uncle Tom’s Cabin, every evidence is that it just growed.

And it’s not done. As so many rusting relics that got their restorative TLC, particularly in the senior years of Bill and Gayle Cook, Canton today has an onward-and-upward look of its own momentum.

It’s a kind of love story not new in Canton. It’s hard to tell if it’s more a case of man influencing town than town influencing man, but either way, “charming” still is what that love story is.

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Medium 9780253020420

Appendix 2: Chronology of Ancestry

Alexander W. Clowes Indiana University Press ePub

Chronology of Ancestry

Geoffrey Clowes (1465–1525)

Sir William Clowes (1544–1604)

Thomas Clowes (1800–1862)

Caroline Pratt Clowes (1803–1884)

Emily Seppings (1830–1914)

Anna Clowes (1831–1914)

Josiah Herbert Clowes (1836–1911)

Ellen Seppings (1839–1914)

George Archibald Clowes (1842–1905)

Josiah Pratt Clowes (1844–1914)

Kate Allen Campbell (1856–1917)

Frank Whitehill Hinkel (1858–1946)

Thomas Herbert Clowes (1861–1933)

Ernest Guy Clowes (1867–1947)

Weston Sydney Clowes (1871–1947)

Helen Violet Clowes (1879–1910)

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Medium 9780253019028

Welcome to the Big Apple

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

an excerpt from a forthcoming novel

“GOD IS AMERICAN and he lives in New York City,” Khalifa liked to say.

Though Awa did not believe her brother’s exaggeration, she always imagined the city as celestially mighty, shrouded in blue. The Americans she translated for often spoke of the city as one talked about God, with a sense of reverence and wonder.

Her fear of heights had gradually melted but when the plane started its descent, she was sweating. She looked out the window but saw only water. The plane seemed to glide on the calm tide. She didn’t know which was more terrifying: being on a plane for the first time, or coming to America for the first time.

The Americans she translated for often spoke of the city as one talked about God, with a sense of reverence and wonder.

She had heard that New York was very cold in December. It did not stop her clamminess. Her brown-striped suit stuck to her back. She wondered why Moussa the tailor had used that scratchy polyester for the lining. She clenched her jaws and held on to her seat. Finally the airplane came to a stop. The passengers riffled for papers and stood up to deplane. The woman seated next to her was applying make-up, making faces as she looked into a small red mirror.

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Medium 9780253000811

Conclusion: The Anchoring of Identities

Bruce Whitehouse Indiana University Press ePub



Of Logs and Crocodiles

There is an expression in the Bamanan language: “Yirikurun mèn o mèn ji la, a tè kè bama ye,” which translates as “However long a log may float in the water, it will never become a crocodile.” This adage is part of everyday discourse in Mali and even inspired the title of a book about that country (Belloncle 1981). Like all popular expressions, it applies to a broad range of contexts. One could interpret it generally to mean “the leopard cannot change its spots.” More specifically, however, one can understand it as a commentary on migrants’ inability to assimilate into their host societies, an avowal that “one cannot renounce one’s origins” (Bailleul 2005:141). Natives will remain natives, and strangers will remain strangers.

This proverb, like the sentiment it articulates, turns out to be widespread in Africa. A cursory Web search reveals equivalent expressions in Wolof, Sonrai, and Pulaar. Congolese musician Casimir Zao uses a version of it to reproach his compatriots who travel to France and put on French airs after returning home. In his song “Pierre de Paris” (1982), he sings of a Congolese named Pierre who wears French clothes and only speaks French. Zao scolds him in Kikongo with the words “Ntí kà wú tìtùkáákà / Ngáándù kó mù maambbà”—“Never can a tree trunk / Be transformed into a crocodile in the water” (see Milandou 1997:120). Wherever it originated, today this expression has become something of a pan-African phenomenon.

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Medium 9780253356253

4 Sono stati loro: Erika, Omar, and the Double Homicide of Susy Cassini and Gianluca De Nardo in Novi Ligure

Ellen Nerenberg Indiana University Press ePub

Erika, Omar, and the Double Homicide of Susy Cassini and Gianluca De Nardo in Novi Ligure

ON THE AFTERNOON OF February 21, 2001, 42-year-old accountant Susy Cassini picked up her 16-year-old daughter Erika De Nardo after school at approximately 2:00 pm. They had lunch together at the family’s townhouse, then Erika studied at home until approximately 4:00 p.m., when she went to her boyfriend Mauro (nicknamed Omar) Fàvaro’s house. They spent a typical afternoon together: sex, drugs, music. Erika returned to the De Nardo home on Via Beniamino Dacatra in Novi Ligure at approximately 7:00 p.m. Susy had left the house to pick up Erika’s 12-year-old brother Gianluca from his afternoon sports practice. Francesco De Nardo, Erika’s father, was still at his weekly pick-up soccer match. Erika laid the dinner table for four, and Omar joined Erika to wait for the family’s arrival. Susy and Gianluca arrived home first. Omar and Erika heard them in the garage before they entered through the kitchen. Omar hid in the bathroom off the kitchen. Gianluca passed through the kitchen on his way to bathe in the upstairs bathroom. Once her brother was out of immediate earshot and the tub’s faucets masked the sounds downstairs, Erika took a kitchen knife and began stabbing her mother, screaming “Adesso muori!” (Die now!) Omar left the downstairs bathroom and helped in the attack. Erika ran up the stairs and began attacking Gianluca, trying first to persuade him to eat a blue powder, rat poison that she and Omar had purchased some time earlier, planning to poison the entire family. Omar joined Erika upstairs, where they both stabbed Gianluca while he was in the filled tub. Autopsy results revealed that the boy eventually drowned. Omar left Via Dacatra, disposed of his clothes, and hid the second knife. Erika ran from the house. As she approached the roadway, her charade began.

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Medium 9780253021359

Introduction: Oscar Micheaux and Race Movies of the Silent Period

Pearl Bowser Indiana University Press ePub

This catalog accompanies a seven-part program of American race films, which is premiering at the Giornate del Cinema Muto and will then be distributed by the Museum of Modern Art (New York) in a 35mm film format. The resulting Oscar Micheaux and His Circle package embraces virtually all of the surviving feature-length race films from the silent period as well as a selection of related shorts. These pictures were made between the end of World War I and 1930. Of the seven features, three were made by African-American filmmaker Oscar Micheaux (based in Chicago; Roanoke, Virginia; and then New York), two by the Colored Players Film Corporation located in Philadelphia, one by the Detroit-based Richard Maurice, and one by Richard Norman’s film company in Arlington, Florida. The shorter films were made for a wide variety of purposes: some are 35mm shorts that might be shown before a feature. Others were shot in 16mm: for the church circuit by James and Eloyce Gist and for ethnographic purposes by Zora Neale Hurston. Oscar Micheaux, recognized in his time as the foremost African-American filmmaker of this period, emerges as the central figure of this book. Enough films by his contemporaries survive for us to gain a context for his work. While these other films are certainly of considerable importance in their own right, it is Micheaux who emerges as a major figure of the New Negro Renaissance that flourished in the wake of World War I. In truth, Micheaux also emerges as one of America’s great directors, someone of absolutely world-class stature whose work is dense, rich, and complex. His films demand and reward repeated viewing and extensive critical engagement.

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Medium 9780253020659

5 Europe Bound: Shooting “Illegals” at Sea

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

On January 14, 2011, Tunisian President Aziz el Abidine Ben Ali fled Tunisia. Following the tragic death of protester Mohamed Bouazizi, demonstrations spread to various parts of the country, precipitating the Jasmine Revolution, the first revolution of the Arab Spring. Bouazizi was a twenty-six-year-old Tunisian man who set himself on fire in front of the Préfecture of Sidi Bouzid on December 17, 2010. Bouazizi’s self-immolation was an expression of his despair at his condition as an unemployed college graduate. His irreversible act was a physical migration out of an unbearable plight, because both physical and symbolic burnings are called hrig in Arabic. The extreme gesture is an unauthorized crossing over into death where the promise of a better life or the end of an ordeal is imaginable. Indeed, suicide is a religiously condemned practice. For lack of better professional opportunities, Bouazizi had resorted to selling produce. He set himself on fire after the municipal police confiscated his merchandise for not having a proper permit. Eighteen days after his desperate gesture, the young man died at the Ben Arous Burn and Trauma Center, and his fate set the Arab Spring in motion. The emergence of this revolution and subsequent ones in the region is partly attributed to the energy and dedication of the citizens ready to die at the hands of the police state1 to fight for justice and to denounce hogra.2 Some, like Bouazizi, sacrificed themselves—in Bouazizi’s case, it involved burning, in the literal sense of the term.3

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Medium 9781574412024

Part 3a. A Tribute to Paul Patterson

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781576754467

CHAPTER 5: Give All Children Healthy Futures

Daley-Harris, Shannon Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Children are one-third of our population and all of our future.


Do you remember going kicking and screaming to the doctor’s office when you were a child? One six-year-old’s screams routinely echo through the pediatrician’s office whenever the needle nears her arm. On a recent car ride to the clinic for a booster shot, she was accompanied by her three-year-old brother, who looked into her fear-stricken face and solemnly observed, “Uh-oh. Shots time.”

Half a world away in Cambodia, another six-year-old shrinks back in fear as the needle nears her arm to inject a measles vaccine. Despite her cries, the moment represents a joyous triumph against the odds. Such a simple shot puts her on the path to a healthy future—one that is still out of reach for millions of children in developing countries and for 9 million children without health coverage in the United States.

Good health strengthens children, families, and our future. UN Millennium Development Goal 4 challenges us to reduce child deaths, aiming to cut the death rate of children under five by two-thirds by 2015.

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Medium 9780874216257

7 From Schoolmarm to State Superintendent

Patricia Lyn Scott Utah State University Press ePub

From Schoolmarm to State Superintendent

The Changing Role of Women in Education, 1847–2004

Mary R. Clark and Patricia Lyn Scott

“Come children, come. We will begin now.” With these words, tradition holds, sixteen-year-old Mary Jane Dilworth opened Utah’s first school with nine pupils on October 24, 1847, three months to the day after the first Mormon pioneers entered the valley of the Great Salt Lake. This event and the public exhortations of church leaders have been used to illustrate Mormon commitment to education. While Mormons valued education, territorial schools were not necessarily the “firm foundation upon which is built the present day system of education” in Utah.1 Educational historian Frederick Buchanan found that Utah’s present public school system “cannot be explained by simply claiming it developed out of Utah’s inspired, prophetic pioneer heritage.”2 Ideology was less important than practical considerations as political leaders shaped the Mormon educational perspective.3 Like other western territories, education was spurred and retarded sporadically by the political, economic, and social realities of frontier life. In Utah, Mormon idealogy simply became a fourth element.

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Medium 9780253010179

1 - Wolof Women Break the Taboo of Sex through Songs

Edited by Thomas A Hale and Aissata G Indiana University Press ePub

Marame Gueye

One of the most important but often neglected subjects in the preparation of children for adulthood is sex education, a topic that seems to preoccupy parents in a variety of cultures around the world. In many African societies, sex education is more a collective activity than an individual parental duty, and the medium is song. The question is just how this ubiquitous genre can serve to inform youths about such a private topic. The example of Wolof society offers a variety of insights into how the community employs song for teaching about sex and sexuality.

In Wolof culture, sex education occurs during weddings, where one hears a variety of songs. One particular sub-ceremony within Wolof weddings is laabaan, reserved exclusively for women and conducted by them. The purpose is to celebrate the bride's virginity. Laabaan is the term both for the ceremony and for the genre of songs sung at this event.

For the researcher, however, even one who comes from Wolof society, the songs marking the laabaan ceremony are the most difficult not only to understand but also to record. In my case, although I began research on wedding songs in 1996, I did not record a single laabaan song or performance until 1998. My paternal aunts, who are performing guewel, the Wolof term for griots of both sexes, sang laabaan songs, but they refused to let me enter the space where these songs are sung because it is reserved exclusively for married or divorced women. The result was that I had to enlist the help of neenyo1 who were not family members and who were much younger than my aunts.

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Medium 9781457109614

28 Our National Industry

Fernando Armstrong-Fumero University Press of Colorado ePub

Whether or not we choose to emulate Leroy-Beaulieu,1 we can examine data on imports and exports in our country and see that our industry is very deficient. We have inexhaustible reserves of the metals that give life to modern industry: iron, copper, lead, antimony. There is an abundance of fuel: wood, charcoal, coal, petroleum, gaseous hydrocarbons. Materials for construction abound: marble, multicolored marble, onyx, polychrome limestones. So do precious materials like gold and silver. We also possess earth for ceramics and glass: red and white clay and silicates, precious stones (pearls, turquoise, emeralds, and opals). Our numerous fibers include henequen, pita, and palm. We have superior meat and skins from wild and domestic animals, rubber and elastics. In short, we have all those things that could make our country one of the foremost industrial producers of the world.

If raw materials are abundant, manual labor competent, and fuel plentiful, what is the cause for the stagnation of our industry? Setting aside the difficulty of transportation and the deficiency of our international mercantile relations, we will focus on factors of even greater transcendence. The fundamental error that limits our industrial potential consists of having inverted the character of industrial production. Rather than promoting national industries and gradually implanting foreign ones, the former were disdained and special attention was given to the latter. As a result, national industry was weakened to the point of becoming deficient. For the sake of developing a foreign industry, our typical forms of production have been unable to extend and develop themselves. Foreign industry cannot be produced or consumed adequately in our country, given the scarcity of workers who have acquired sufficient experience in foreign centers of industry and the exotic nature of its products. We will consider a more sensible relationship between these two industries in the lines that follow.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Ten: Rights v. access

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

I hope this writer’s commitment continues, because the reproductive rights and health movement needs her passion and her advocacy.

She understands what so many others who think we can’t go back to the bad old days don’t yet get: the bad old days are here.

Rights without access are meaningless

All right, Roe v. Wade hasn’t been overturned; abortion isn’t illegal. Griswold v. Connecticut, which legalized birth control and established the precedent of a right to privacy in reproductive decisions, stands. But our state and federal lawmakers, our courts, and our society’s lack of respect for women and children have ensured that many of us do not have the information, resources, or access to make those rights real. And rights without access are meaningless. If present trends continue, “Access Denied” may as well be stamped on the door of reproductive health centers.

If you’re poor, or young, or are in the military, or live in rural

America, you technically have the right to a legal abortion. But you’ll have to climb over barriers of distance, judicial review, transportation, money, waiting periods, mandated biased propaganda that encourages childbirth over abortion, and more to try to get one. The result might be a more expensive, more difficult, delayed abortion or one like Becky

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