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Medium 9781574414714

“The Wheels of Our Lives”

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

THE WHEELS OF OUR LIVES by Scott Hill Bumgardner

Apparently Gronk, the caveman, was inspired when he observed a round rock roll down a hill. This mystery man’s invention really, well, to use a bad pun, “started the ball rolling.” The wheel revolutionized the world of transportation and machines. It simplified the moving of materials and people with carts, chariots, and wagons. Its use in virtually all machinery, with the coming of the mechanized age, eventually gave us trains, automobiles, and much more. My life has been greatly enriched with not only the use and misuse of automobiles, but with the stories of my family’s wheeled past.

The value of wheeled transportation really struck home when I discovered the stories of my ancestors’ flight from their home in the “Run Away Scrape” during Texas’ revolt against Mexico’s tyranny. In April of 1836, my fourth great-grandmother, Lucy

Thomson Kerr, was left in charge of the family at Gay Hill near

Brenham. She was confronted with the frightening news that Santa

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Medium 9780253329059

One Breaking the Disney Spell

Elizabeth Bell Indiana University Press ePub

Jack Zipes

It was not once upon a time, but at a certain time in history, before anyone knew what was happening, that Walt Disney cast a spell on the fairy tale, and he has held it captive ever since. He did not use a magic wand or demonic powers. On the contrary, Disney employed the most up-to-date technological means and used his own “American” grit and ingenuity to appropriate European fairy tales. His technical skills and ideological proclivities were so consummate that his signature has obfuscated the names of Charles Perrault, the Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Andersen, and Carlo Collodi. If children or adults think of the great classical fairy tales today, be it Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, or Cinderella, they will think Walt Disney. Their first and perhaps lasting impressions of these tales and others will have emanated from a Disney film, book, or artifact. Though other filmmakers and animators produced remarkable fairy-tale films, Disney managed to gain a cultural stranglehold on the fairy tale, and this stranglehold has even tightened with the recent productions of Beauty and the Beast (1991) and Aladdin (1992). The man’s spell over the fairy tale seems to live on even after his death.

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Medium 9780253020512

6. Desires in Languages

Charis Boutieri Indiana University Press ePub

6

Desires in Languages

Linguistic ethics […] consists in following the resurgence of an “I” coming back to rebuild an ephemeral structure in which the constituting struggle of language and society would be spelled out.

—Julia Kristeva, Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art

In a badly lit, run-down, and unheated locker room, the girls in the senior-year Humanities track were getting ready for gym class. While changing into a tracksuit, adjusting her ḥijāb (veil), teasing her best friend about her dreadful volleyball skills, and singing the latest tune she heard on the radio, Khadija reported the newest developments of her online romance with Tarek. A student in the year below, Tarek spoke with Khadija online without being aware of her offline identity. I now understood why her girlfriends called her Camelia: it was her MSN (instant messaging service) pseudonym. Khadija assured me that after spending long hours chatting with Tarek she had learned French “par amour” (out of love).1 Her statement elicited great laughter among the group as Khadija cleverly played on the ambiguous meaning of the expression “par amour” as both love for the French language and love for Tarek. Her close friend Meryem teased her about the stratagems she used to engage in online chatting on her family’s only computer despite the explicit prohibition of its use and the vigilant monitoring of her two brothers and parents. There was really nothing surprising about this locker room scene of peer sociality and romantic awakening, but for the fact that it was the first time that these girls, with whom I had spent considerable time in and out of class, told me about their use of French for flirting. As they headed out for gym class, I asked Meryem if she also flirted online and, if so, whether she did it in French. She replied,

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Medium 9781609949273

9. Industrial diarrhea

de Graaf, John; Wann, David; Naylor, Thomas H. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Industrial diarrhea

DDT is good for me!

—1950S JINGLE

The chemical age has created products, institutions, and cultural attitudes that require synthetic chemicals to sustain them.

—THEO COLBURN ET AL.,
Our Stolen Future

Imagine spotting them through binoculars at a baseball game—icons of advertising’s hall of fame, lounging in front-row seats behind home plate. Look, there’s the Marlboro Man and Joe Camel, signing autographs and passing out smokes to the kids. The Energizer Bunny flings handfuls of batteries into the crowd like Tootsie Rolls, while Ronald McDonald argues defensively with an environmentalist about hormones, antibiotics, and pesticide residues detected in the Big Mac. The plump Pillsbury Doughboy giggles as the Jolly Green Giant looks down on the game from the parking lot, ho-ho-hoing every time the home team scores. No one messes with a guy that size, even though chunks of pesticide slough off his green body like gigantic flakes of dry skin.

They seem so innocent, so endearing, don’t they? So American. Many of us grew up with these guys, and we love their entrepreneurial optimism, their goofiness, their cool. Our demand for products like theirs has kept the US economy in the growth mode, overall, for more than half a century, and it really can’t be denied that America’s dazzling products make life seem bright, shiny, and convenient. But at what cost to our health, and the planet?

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Medium 9781574414769

Chapter 20: Winters' End

Mark T. Smokov University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER 20

Winters’ End

Kid Curry and his cohorts most likely hid out in the badlands between the Little Rockies and the Missouri River until the majority of manhunters left the area after mid-July 1901.1 This would have been the most opportune time for Curry to leave his hideaway for a visit to his friend Jim Thornhill and Jim’s common-law wife, Lucy Tressler. She was most likely the “old lady” Curry had in mind as the recipient of the bolt of green silk he lifted from the Wagner robbery. He would have been greeted at the door by three curious children, one his four-year-old namesake, Harvey D. Thornhill, nicknamed “Man.” When Jim later moved to Arizona, Man became a top roper and won several rodeo competitions. The others were three-year-old Sarah, and Jim’s son George, born December 27, 1899.2

Some histories state that Curry even took time out to visit his friend Sid Willis in Great Falls. He first took a room in the Minot block, not bothering to hide his identity. He then supposedly asked the Mint Saloon owner to act as a go-between in finding someone who would forge signatures on the unsigned Bank of Montana money. Whether Willis refused or just couldn’t find anyone willing to sign the bills, Curry nevertheless left Great Falls without the desired forgeries.3

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Medium 9781574415193

3. Friends and Enemies

Sherry Robinson University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER 3

Friends and Enemies

It is a nation so bellicose, all of it, that it has been the crucible for the courage of the Spaniards . . .

—Father Alonso de Benavides, 1630 1

Acho Apache warriors spent weeks making arrows, choosing the hardest wood, straightening the shaft with their teeth, attaching sharp points of stone or bone. When it was time, they left their camp on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and, carrying bows nearly as tall as themselves, along with clubs and lances, passed silently along slopes and canyons to join their Taos Pueblo brothers. In the early morning of August 10, 1680, the combined groups attacked settlers and missionaries in the Taos area and killed all but two. Acho Apaches, members of a band later called Lipan,2 were also involved in fighting at Picurís Pueblo and La Cañada.3

Devastation exploded across northern New Mexico, as the Pueblos and their allies made good on years of threats. In coordinated attacks, they killed twenty-one priests, settlers and soldiers and destroyed about sixty missions and many haciendas. Utes and Navajos also joined, but the Apaches were a pronounced presence. During the siege of Santa Fe, a Pueblo leader demanded the return of Indian captives “and likewise that all the Apache men and women whom the Spaniards had captured in war be turned over to them, inasmuch as some Apaches who were among them were asking for them.” Pueblo captives said they and the Apaches had devastated the country from Taos to Isleta. Governor Antonio de Otermín didn’t believe the rebels had Apaches among them, certain the two tribes were enemies, and refused the demand.4

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Medium 9780253347978

9. Peasant Ideals, Work Habits, and Causes of Poverty

Olga Semyonova Tian-Shanskaia Indiana University Press ePub

The Russian village was changing. Contact with the big city was becoming the common experience of many villagers, as the first vignette in this chapter makes clear. It also reveals two of the characteristics Semyonova thought that she could discern in the peasant way of thinking. The first is a very short time horizon, the inability of the peasant to project plans and expectations far into the future. Nothing could be counted on, not even the ordinary expectation in modern society that most children will reach adulthood. The second is the lack of interest in saving money. This characteristic is related to the first; if there is no future, at least none that can be counted on and into which one can project hopes and plans, then why sacrifice anything for it? It makes more sense to work only as much as necessary to make it through the current year and to consume whatever extra comes one’s way.

Semyonova believed that one reason for the lack of motivation to save was the impossibility of doing so in the face of price fluctuations that ate up profits in a good year. Yet while making this point, she seems to want to identify a deeper cause for this peasant attitude in the experience of several centuries of serfdom. Unfortunately, she fails to define exactly what she means by this.

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Medium 9780253355331

3 Providing Love: Male Migration and Building a Rural Home

Mark Hunter Indiana University Press ePub

The inkosi’s (chief’s) court was a strange place to talk about sex. Seated on rows of benches that scraped noisily on the concrete floor, attendees were mostly senior men, a fact that reinforced the court’s masculine aura. Trying my best to act deferentially by avoiding eye contact, I stole glances at the inkosi and observed his graying stubble and medium build. The court secretary ushered me forward when it was my turn to talk. The attendees seemed pleased that I spoke isiZulu, even though my speech was far from perfect.

“My research looks at why AIDS is so bad in South Africa,” I said, and then asked for permission to conduct interviews in the chief’s territory. The court fell into a brief pause. After several minutes of questions about my university affiliation and where I was staying in Isithebe, one of the izinduna (chief’s officials) leapt in with a statement and everyone laughed. I realized he was talking about ukusoma, usually translated as “thigh sex” or “to have thigh sex.” This practice was widely reported among young courting couples in Southern Africa and involves a man rubbing his penis between a woman’s thighs; the woman’s legs remain crossed to prevent vaginal penetration. The chief looked at me and, with some trepidation, I said that I had learnt about ukusoma after talking with elderly informants. The audience waited on the chief’s response and, after a brief silence, he laughed, signaling that others could relax into amused glances.

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Medium 9780874213256

Chapter 9 FOLKLORE RESEARCH

Barre Toelken Utah State University Press ePub

EVEN THOUGH INTRODUCTORY STUDENTS AND OTHER NEWLY INTERESTED persons may not become directly involved in folklore research, they should find the details of fieldwork directly related to their understanding of how the dynamic expressions of folklore become available, intellectually palpable, to audiences outside traditional habitats. Were it not for folklore field research, there would be little of substance for folklorists or their students to discuss. While at first sight such a statement seems a careless admission that there is a field of study only because we have dredged one up, it is actually an assertion that as a discipline folklore—like marine biology—is a study founded on items “brought up” for scrutiny. Although folklore surrounds us all the time, it is so enmeshed in all we do and say that we seldom take the opportunity to regard it separately. Folklore field research does just that by focusing on those particular performance activities that can be seen as traditional.

Research in folklore can be (naturally) divided into three main categories: gathering, storing, and pondering, or as they are more commonly referred to in the profession, collecting, archiving, and analyzing. In collecting, the main participants are the collector (the folklorist out in the field looking for—and recording—folklore) and the tradition-bearer, often called the “informant” (the possessor of folklore, whose role is to inform the collector). In archiving, there are the archivist (whose role is to protect and codify the collected materials as they are accessioned and stored) and the scholar (who wants to study these materials). In analysis, there are the collector, the archivist, and the scholar, trying together to make critical judgments on the meaning, function, and importance of folklore materials. Increasingly, the informants are being engaged in the analysis as well, sometimes as consultants, sometimes as collaborators.

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Medium 9781780641409

4: Principles and Strategies of Sustainability

Bruenig, E.F. CABI PDF

4

Principles and Strategies of Sustainability

4.1  Timescale and Hierarchy of Sustainability Principles and Strategies

The principle of sustainability has been recognised as the basic principle of economics and environmental management as long as conscious economic and long-term thinking has existed in humans, possibly at least from the hunter-and-gatherer stage. However, it has not always been practised. Plato (427–347 bc) and

Socrates (470–399 bc) lamented the bare hills of Attica, Greece, and realised that the driving forces of deforestation, soil exhaustion and soil loss, and common resources generally, were human greed for wealth and lust for power (The Republic of Plato, translated by

Davies and Vaughan, 1935). We still witness the same connections working all around us in all spheres of life, today – 2400 years later – not only in forestry and forest products processing and consumption, making sustainability a pretentious buzzword in media and politics. In theory, true sustainability (Section 3.1) should be the universally guiding principle of all aspects and levels of forestry and forest industries and trade. The reality is that in most tropical rainforest (TRF) countries, achieved sustainability is reported to exist in official statements and politically correct publications, without convincing evidence; in others, it is simply ignored. Reliable data and information

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Medium 9781574416541

23. Director Reyna and the Aftermath of 9/11

David S. Turk University of North Texas Press ePub
Medium 9780253007438

7 · Art Évo on the Chaussée d’Ixelles

Allen F. Roberts Indiana University Press ePub

Africa doesn’t exist. I know. I’ve been there.

—AFTER MICHEL-ROLPH TROUILLOT, SILENCING THE PAST

Storms took Lusinga with him to Europe in another way. When his men brought him the chief’s head, they also brought Bwana Boma a most remarkable wooden figure embodying Swift-of-Foot’s dynastic title and matrilineage.1 Storms carried this and other trophies back to Belgium with him, and a series of photographs taken in 1929 show the figure in the drawing room of his maison de maître (row house) at 146 Chaussée d’Ixelles in Brussels (fig. 7.1). There it stands among geometrically arrayed weapons and carefully composed displays of souvenirs from Lubanda and the other African locales visited by the lieutenant.

The discussion to follow is based upon the assumption that the salon and another room, also photographed in 1929, were still arranged as Storms knew them before his death in 1918. No documentation proves or disproves this assertion, and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries it was common for mourning rooms to be preserved as they had been enjoyed by deceased loved ones in “an implied narrative of melancholy.”2 Indeed, a velvet rope can be seen to transect the salon in one of the pictures, as though setting portions of the room off-limits to visitors and underscoring the likelihood that the Widow Storms kept the room as her husband had last known it. That the couple had no children reinforces the possibility that the rooms were left as shared by the couple in their later years. Furthermore, one of the photos shows a desk in the corner of the drawing room. Papers are carefully arranged to one side of a blotter, and a lamp has a shade with an image of African women bearing loads on their heads. One can imagine that it was while seated here that Bwana Boma lost himself in reverie and letters, surrounded by vestiges of his brief moment of glory in the Congo.

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Medium 9780253357137

Part 3. Red-Listed Languages

Edited by Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

Bernard C. Perley

In the summer of 1994 a meeting was organized to gather support for a Maliseet language immersion program for the Tobique First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada. The meeting took place in the native language classroom at the reservation elementary school. In attendance were the native language teacher, the organizer of the meeting, the Head Start teachers, several mothers of children attending the school, and me. We were all trying to look comfortable in the child-sized desks. Once we had settled in, the organizer began the meeting by arguing that the reservation needed a Maliseet language immersion program. The participants were discussing the merits of the proposal while the organizer distributed photocopies of articles on language endangerment in Canada. As everyone scanned the photocopies, the organizer called our attention to the appendix of one article. She pointed out a chart that listed three categories. First listed were the aboriginal languages spoken in Canada. Second was the number of speakers speaking each language in comparison to the population of that community. The last column indicated the state of the language on a scale of “viable,” “endangered,” “on the verge of extinction,” and “extinct.” As a group we all flipped the pages until we found the listing for Maliseet. There, in cold black-and-white text, Maliseet was listed as “on the verge of extinction.” Everyone in the room was silent as we all contemplated what “extinction” meant to each of us. The organizer allowed that moment of silence to continue until it turned into group discomfort. When she broke the silence, she reiterated her belief that the only way to avoid Maliseet language extinction was to support a Maliseet language immersion program for the school and for the community. One additional article predicted that, within two decades, only three aboriginal languages would be spoken in Canada. Maliseet was not one of them. That morning, we all had to come to grips with the prospect of Maliseet language extinction within the next two decades. The realization that the Maliseet language could become extinct within our lifetimes was not only discouraging but also suggested collateral extinctions that would undermine Maliseet cultural survival. In light of such dire predictions, it is difficult to find any positive or encouraging news.

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Medium 9781574412888

Appendix A

Keagan LeJeune University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

The information for this manuscript comes from a variety of sources.

In addition to the many articles and books cited throughout the work, the manuscript builds on interviews, field notes, and archival material.

The work also draws from the many local sources that collect various people’s accounts of the Smith legend and the Grabow War.

Long before the official work for this book began, I had heard various stories and details about life in No Man’s Land and several accounts of Leather Britches Smith’s life and deeds. Some of the more general observations about the region’s culture draw from these experiences. In

1999, I focused my efforts on the Smith legend and its connection to the Grabow War. I interviewed many people, often relying on taking notes rather than recording the conversations.

No attempt was made to select consultants based on gender, age, or status in the community. Instead, through the course of the conversations and informal meetings, I realized that for the Leather Britches legend many people turned to a few key persons in the area. The nature of this research dictated a focus on those persons known to possess the deepest knowledge of the time. Moreover, hesitancy by many to slander a family’s name on tape or to have their conversations about such events recorded on tape necessitated an approach focused on key members of the community. These people had garnered enough community status

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Medium 9781574412703

20. “Before He Could Cock His Pistol”

Jeffrey Burton University of North Texas Press PDF

+ 20 ∂

“BEFORE HE COULD COCK

HIS PISTOL”

journeyed to Fort Worth, they probably did not travel in the comfort and style to which their recent access of wealth entitled them. If they had any opportunity to buy new clothing to replace the worn and dirty garments they had worn on their flight from Winnemucca, a heightened sense of caution could have warned them against doing so until they had put a couple of states between Nevada and themselves. Thus they might well have traveled by side-door Pullman, as stated in one early account of their careers, rather than as paying passengers.1

Whether they posed as tramps or as gentlemen, they would have taken the

Colorado & Southern from Denver through Trinidad and Texline to Fort Worth.

They would have arrived during the third week of November, no more than a couple of days before Carver, Logan, and Kilpatrick came in from San Antonio. Carver, whose trip from the north preceded theirs by several weeks, would have taken the same route. Most likely he, Logan, and Kilpatrick knew just when and where to meet

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