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Medium 9780253012890

2 Displacement

Foreword by Saskia Sassen Edited by Hil Indiana University Press ePub

FARANAK MIRAFTAB

HISTORICALLY, IT WAS COLONIALISM AND SLAVERY THAT INTROduced the large-scale displacement of labor forces around the globe. While white colonial settlers relocated to explore and exploit new territories, slaves were captured, uprooted, and forced to work for free for European masters. In the contemporary global order of free-market capitalism, complex movements of people across territories, some through voluntary relocation, others through systematic displacement, have continued. However distinct in their incentives and trajectories, these population movements are commonly referred to as (im)migration—a term that often conflates the varied stories behind people’s movements within and across political, social, and cultural borders. In this chapter, I retell a narrative that is often told as one of immigration by uncovering the systematic dispossessions that make it a story of a displaced labor force.

America’s heartland in the last four decades has seen a significant transformation. Once capital moved overseas or south and west, many rust-belt towns struggled with depopulation. In the last two decades, however, many rural counties of the rust belt that did not have much, if any, foreign-born population have seen the end or even the reversal of their population shrinkage, thanks to the arrival of a new and growing foreign-born labor force (Massey and Capoferro 2008; Durand, Massey, and Capoferro 2005). Since the 1990s in particular, the percentage of foreign-born population has been decreasing in gateway metropolitan areas while increasing in non-gateway areas.1 Apart from the lower cost of living, immigrants arrive in these towns for employment. Often, these are jobs in manufacturing sectors that need to stay closer to their raw material—namely agriculture and animals—but to maintain profitability in the face of global competition they offer depressed wages unattractive to the local labor force. These rust-belt towns are saved by the arrival of an immigrant labor force and their families (Grey and Woodrick 2005). Immigrants in many cases “solve” the problem of urban shrinkage—a common reality for many dying towns of the heartland. They revitalize the towns by fixing up houses, registering their children in the local schools, and spending their wages at local shops and other facilities.

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Medium 9781574415193

30. Prairie Apaches

Sherry Robinson University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER 30

Prairie Apaches

Doubtless, the Indians that have left the Reservation are on the war path and driven to it by a class of outlaws whose highest aspiration is to pilfer and plunder.

—F. C. Crothers, 1875 1

The People returned to the Staked Plains. Comanches were settled on a reservation, and Apaches could roam freely. White men thought the Llano Estacado was dreary and monotonous, but Apaches knew where water stood in gleaming playas. Buffalo herds were thin, but the short buffalo grass still supported antelope. A thousand Apaches who had never lived on a reservation were in their former home, and their camps drew restless young men from the reservations. Troops were rarely seen, but scouting parties were beginning to thread their way across grassland and desert to etch new trails in the dust.

The No Water Lipans had been divided into small groups since the 1860s, when smallpox ravaged the tribes. Lipans suspected they got the disease from a shirt taken from a dead enemy along with his ammunition belt. They knew if they stayed together, more people would die. Chief Magoosh, who wore the scars of that epidemic the rest of his life, held a council and agreed to split up but rejoin when the sickness passed. Venego’s group settled in the mountains near Zaragosa, where they lived on good terms with the Mexicans. Chief Josefa and his people went to the Kickapoos near McAllen and then to Mexico. Magoosh took his people to live among the Naishans.2

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Medium 9781574414714

“Songs of the Depression”

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

SONGS OF THE DEPRESSION by Francis Edward Abernethy

“Beans, Bacon, and Gravy”

I was born long ago, in 1894,

And I’ve seen lots of hard times, that is true;

I’ve been hungry, I’ve been cold,

And now I’m growing old.

But the worst I’ve seen is 1932.

Refrain:

Oh, those beans, bacon, and gravy,

They almost drive me crazy,

I eat them till I see them in my dreams,

In my dreams,

When I wake up in the morning,

A Depression day is dawning,

And I know I’ll have another mess of beans.

We have Hooverized our butter,

For blued our milk with water,

And I haven’t eaten meat in any way;

As for pies, cakes, and jelly,

We substitute sow-belly,

For which we work the county roads each day.

There are several advantages to living a long time, one of which is that you become historical. You begin to find the commonplace times of your life in history books. The Depression was a distinct part of my life, and I talked to my father about these years and it was even more distinctly a part of his.

Every generation is the product of its parents. The Depression was the offspring of the Roaring Twenties. Will Rogers said of the

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Medium 9780253019028

The Smell of Fear

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

Bangundo. Afronauts series. Digital C-print. 12 × 12 in. ©2012 Cristina de Middel.

from the forthcoming novel My Place is Good

THE WAR CREPT up on us. First the army flooded Acholiland. Foot soldiers passed through Kati-kati, our village, in training. They ran and chanted songs in Swahili and Luganda. Sometimes, they even chanted in Luo. We ran after them, imitating—an exciting new game! Some days, they marched on the main highway. From the distance, they seemed to be moving in one straight line, countless pairs of legs lifting and moving as one. Countless pairs of eyes looking straight ahead, brows tightly knitted. The dark faces of the soldiers glistened with oily sweat, illuminating brilliantly like the midday sun.

The soldiers perched on top looked mean, competent, and important. Even adults stood by speechless, such grandeur!

I loved the sight of the trucks and trucks of soldiers, tanks, artillery—huge machine guns like we had never seen piled high, moving at a leisurely speed, heading towards Amuru. The soldiers perched on top looked mean, competent, and important. Even adults stood by speechless, such grandeur! Baba said that the soldiers were looking for rebels, whom I had never seen but was told wore tattered clothes, walked on foot, and carried small rusty guns. I was sure that the rebels wouldn’t survive a day.

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Medium 9780861966592

Chapter IV Facing Contemporary Politics

Floriane Place-Verghnes John Libbey Publishing ePub

The golden years of American materialism as depicted in The Big Money seemed too good to be true. There could be no wild years without a possible backlash. The first hints of the potentiality of the American foundations to crack and finally collapse appeared in the late 1920s and eventually, the “Roaring Twenties” came to a sharp end in 1929 with the Wall Street Crash. Apart from the unprecedented financial results of such a blow, the mental consequences on the people were to be terrific, limitless, and (above all) everlasting. This is a common phenomenon to be observed among people: each time you undergo a crisis, you tend to shape your subsequent behaviour according to the initial blow, even if the danger has passed away and you are hence secure. This is precisely what I mean by “an osmosis between the past and the present” – and as a consequence, the future. That is, the capacity of human beings to draw conclusions from their past so as to adapt to an awe-inspiring future. In the midst of such a crisis, testifying becomes an urgent necessity, since it binds people to one another, by making them aware of the fact that they are sharing the same predicament. The act of bearing witness is a painful relief. Tex Avery’s subconscious aim was nothing more than relief when he depicted insecure behaviours linked to the aftermath of the Depression. The American people had indeed undergone a huge blow. After decades of growing importance on the international stage, after claiming the American soil was a land of freedom and opportunity for everyone (see the rags to riches tales), its people had been reduced to the scum of the so-called developed world in a fortnight. No wonder then, that such an experience shattered their hopes for the future, and that they consequently perceived matters in quite another light.

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Medium 9780253017437

14 The Gender of Evil: Maasai Experiences and Expressions

Foreword by David Parkin Edited by Will Indiana University Press ePub

DOROTHY L. HODGSON

Although there is an emerging scholarship in anthropology on evil (e.g., Parkin 1985a)—its symbolism, manifestations, associations, and changes over time—few scholars have explored whether gender shapes experiences and expressions of evil, and if so how. Women and men appear as agents or victims of evil acts or forces, whether as intentionally negligent mothers (Parkin 1985c) or witches (van Beek 1994), but there has been little systematic effort to analyze what evil acts, beings or forces may tell us about gender relations, or, conversely, how a gender analysis may complicate our understandings of evil. But if, as David Parkin (1985c 10–11) argues, “evil . . . denotes an area of discourse concerning human suffering, human existential predicaments and the attempted resolution of these through other humans and through non-human agencies, including a God or gods,” then more attention to which humans—men and women, young and old—are implicated and how offers a more embedded, embodied account of evil.

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Medium 9780253010797

3 - “We Now Milk Elephants”: The Community Conservation Business in Rural Kenya

Peter D. Little Indiana University Press ePub

The Community Conservation Business in Rural Kenya

AN ELDERLY SAMBURU woman on the hot, dusty plains of northern Kenya explains to a visiting group of government and development officials that pastoralists have learned the value of wildlife. She notes unabashedly that “we now milk elephants like we do our cows—they provide us with income to buy food” (field notes, January 1995). The mixed crowd of state officials and development workers nod approvingly, discussing among themselves how local wildlife conservation efforts and enterprises in the area clearly have benefited local communities. This is exactly the kind of language the visitors wanted to hear, as the explicit goal of community-based conservation in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa was to make nature and wildlife “pay,” thereby encouraging communities to better conserve the region's rich biodiversity. In the era of pro-market reforms, a successful conservation program is one “linking business with nature” (USAID 2006).

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Medium 9780253018557

The Sweet Tooth of Slavery

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

THIS PAST SPRING and summer, in an installation by artist Kara Walker, a sugarcoated sphinx gazed upon visitors with a blank and inscrutable stare in the defunct Domino Sugar Factory in Brooklyn. At the entrance to the installation, thirteen statues of brown children, made of resin and coated with molasses, toted the sugar to construct the giant statue. This display drew upon stereotype and caricature—the sphinx sporting a headkerchief and exaggerated lips and butt, the children’s swollen heads copied from racist figurines—but this grotesquerie did not mitigate, but rather heightened, the unease that the installation inspired. Through the contrast between these figures, one monumental and thirteen diminutive, one dusted with refined sugar and the baker’s dozen oozing molasses, Walker suggested that the empire that erected and displayed the sphinx also excreted wounded black bodies.

Both works insist upon the centrality of sweetness and sugar to the exploitation of black bodies in the pursuit of white pleasure. The slave body becomes a kind of candy.

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Medium 9781523095056

8 The Media Is the Message

Ross, Howard J.; Tartaglione, JonRobert Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

The medium is the message. This is merely to say that the personal and social consequences of any medium—that is, of any extension of ourselves—result from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each extension of ourselves, or by any new technology.

— MARSHALL MCLUHAN

The media’s the most powerful entity on Earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s power. Because they can control the minds of the masses.

— EL-HAJJ MALIK EL-SHABAZZ (MALCOLM X)

In our opening scenario, Barry watches MSNBC to start his day, Joan watches Fox News, and Fatima watches the BBC. How are their attitudes and opinions being shaped by what they see every morning? How does that difference impact the “us versus them” dynamic among them?

How do you get your news?

On June 8, 2017, former FBI director James Comey testified before the United States Senate. Comey had been fired by President Donald Trump a month earlier. The firing created a media firestorm that, under examination, reveals a lot about our culture today. Over the course of the testimony, cable news programs not only covered Comey’s testimony but also added to the viewer’s experience by providing captions, usually in all capital letters, at the bottom of the screen (often called chyrons or lower-thirds). These chyrons are significant because they guide viewers’ understanding of what key points are being made during the broadcast and how a viewer should perceive and react to such points, thus guiding them toward particular conclusions. A look at some of the differences in how three major news outlets, CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC, chose to highlight what was being said is an illustrative example of one of the major reasons we exist in a world of separation.1

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Medium 9781574416329

6. Mexican Culture

Richard Gonzales UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781626562202

Conclusion Bringing Savings Groups to Fifty Million People

Ashe, Jeffrey Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I have been working in international development for almost half a century. I started in my twenties, bringing village leaders together in Ecuador to define how they were to secure their land under the agrarian reform law. In my thirties, I introduced solidarity group lending to Acción, leading to the commercialization of microfinance. In my forties, I brought group lending to the United States through a domestic microfinance program, Working Capital. Recognizing that microfinance would not reach the poor in significant numbers, over the past thirteen years I have embraced savings groups as the simplest and most practical way to serve the poor.

In all these endeavors, the underlying theme has been the same—providing a simple structure to help people take charge of their future. I have been both amazed and humbled by the energy and commitment of those we serve when they are in charge and we get out of their way.

The savings group experience gives us room to hope that the seemingly intractable problems of poverty can be addressed on a scale that makes a difference. I am by no means suggesting that savings groups are sufficient for development. Access to rule of law, institutional financial services, basic services, education, roads, and markets are all necessary—but savings groups are perhaps the best and most practical place to begin.

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Medium 9781574411522

22 What to do in Emergencies

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-two

what to do in emergencies

T

his topic was the birthing idea for this book. In January of 1993, my brother fell ill and my family was not only unsure how to contact me— they did not know the procedure to follow so that I might attend his funeral after he died. This hurt my family and myself deeply, that I could not be there to receive and give comfort. The Texas prison system places many conditions on this type of furlough, but it is allowed. But in such a situation, time is of the essence. If you want to get your relative out in time to see his dying mother, or to attend a memorial service for his daughter, then you must follow TDCJ guidelines, especially the guidelines that specify the people authorized to contact TDCJ with the details of a situation.

For TDCJ officials, this is an issue loaded with problems. Most state officials are sincerely sorry when tragedy befalls the family members of convicts and they do not want to seem heartless. However, security is a priority, and the system cannot allow just anyone to call and say, “John

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Medium 9780253355058

1 Turning toward Place, Space, and Time

David J Bodenhamer Indiana University Press ePub

EDWARD L. AYERS

Just as many disciplines rediscovered place and space over the last thirty years, so did they rediscover time and temporal representation. A critical geography and a new historicism have reoriented many humanists and social science disciplines. Like the spatial turn, the temporal turn now grounds the analysis of everything from literature to sociology in new kinds of contexts. The exciting challenge before us now is integrating those new perspectives, taking advantage of what they have to teach us.

The spatial turn began within the discipline of geography itself. By the early 1970s, geographer Edward Soja observes, many people in the field “sought alternative paths to rigorous geographical analysis that were not reducible to pure geometries.” In this new critical geography, “rather than being seen only as a physical backdrop, container, or stage to human life, space is more insightfully viewed as a complex social formation, part of a dynamic process.” By making this argument, geographers opened their discipline to humanists and social scientists who found congenial both a skepticism toward positivist social science and a focus on the texture of experience.1

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Medium 9780253010438

7  Nottoway Indians, Afro-Indian Identity, and the Contemporary Dilemma of State Recognition

Arica L. Coleman Indiana University Press ePub

In 2006, it is tragically ironic that some Virginia Indians and Anglo-Virginians still have little reticence in accepting light-skinned descendants of Indian tribes, who readily admit and celebrate their European duality as recognized Indians, yet anguish over the dark-skinned duality of Indian–African ancestry as somehow being of less legitimate descendancy.

CHIEF LYNETTE ALLSTON, NOTTOWAY INDIAN TRIBE OF VIRGINIA, STATE RECOGNITION PETITION COVER LETTER, 2006

The Recognition Committee appointed by the Virginia Council on Indians has completed the review of the petition submitted by the Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia for State Recognition. After careful review and debate on the information submitted by the petitioners, it is the recommendation by majority vote that the Nottoway Tribe of Virginia be Disapproved for State Recognition in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

VIRGINIA COUNCIL ON INDIANS RECOGNITION COMMITTEE REPORT TO THE NOTTOWAY TRIBE OF VIRGINIA PETITION FOR STATE RECOGNITION, 2009

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Medium 9780253008787

5. Antisemitism Redux: On Literary and Theoretical Perversions \ Bruno Chaouat

Alvin H Rosenfeld Indiana University Press ePub

Bruno Chaouat

Antisemitism can be buried, but it can never be destroyed as long as the Jewish people keeps its ancient position as a clearly defined foreign body in the midst of other peoples’ societies.

—JULIUS MARGOLIN

I will begin with a paradoxical and bitter admission: I believe that the transmission of the history and the memory of the Holocaust has triggered a backlash against Jews and Israel, at least in the West if not beyond, and at least throughout the last decade, although the phenomenon is arguably much older. This backlash has been described and analyzed in depth by Elhanan Yakira in his absorbing book, Post-Holocaust, Post-Zionism.1 Yakira argues that in a broad philosophical and journalistic corpus, in the works of a certain, perhaps marginal, Israeli intelligentsia deeply influenced by European and American postmodern and postcolonial theory, Israel is portrayed as owing its legitimacy to the Holocaust, then as exploiting the memory and the history of the Holocaust, and finally as perpetrating a new Holocaust, this time on the Palestinians. The same misrepresentation can be observed in France, and I would argue in Europe in general. Yakira insists that his method is phenomenological and that his purpose is not to provide any explanation. I wish humbly to complement this major contribution to the understanding of theoretical and political perversions with an attempt at tracing the sources of this paradoxical delegitimization of Israel grounded on Holocaust hypermnesia.

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