4025 Chapters
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Medium 9781607322023

SEVEN. COASTAL/HIGHLAND INTERACTION IN OAXACA, MEXICO

Arthur A. Joyce University Press of Colorado ePub

The Perspective from San Francisco de Arriba

ANDREW WORKINGER

At first glance, interaction between ancient polities of unequal sociopolitical complexities suggests a situation of dominance. Yet, as archaeologists continue to broaden their focus from major centers to peripheral regions, such an assumption becomes less tenable (Stein 1999). It is increasingly apparent that there exists great variability in the archaeological record when it comes to the dynamics of interregional interaction, particularly when agency is taken into account.

Situated in a narrow secondary valley of the lower Río Verde region in Oaxaca, Mexico, San Francisco de Arriba was the focus of archaeological investigations geared toward understanding the site’s role in a complex network of prehispanic exchange and interaction (Figure 7.1). The results of the San Francisco de Arriba Archaeological Project and those of other projects on the coast of Oaxaca (Joyce 2003, 2010; Levine, Chapter 8; Workinger 2002a; Workinger and Joyce 2009; Zeitlin 1990; Zeitlin and Joyce 1999) question the unidirectional view of interregional interaction held by some highland researchers (Balkansky 2002; Marcus 1976, 1983; Marcus and Flannery 1996; Redmond and Spencer 2006; Sherman et al. 2010; Spencer 2007; Spencer and Redmond 1997). Specifically, the project considered the claim that San Francisco de Arriba had been incorporated as the southernmost boundary of a Terminal Formative Zapotec empire, and it sought to clarify the site’s ties with central Mexico, particularly the city of Teotihuacan during the Early Classic (Figure 1.3). These issues were addressed by various means, including surface collections and a test pitting program carried out in 1997 and broader excavations conducted in 1998 and 1999 (Figure 7.2). A systematic survey of the Río San Francisco Valley was undertaken to place the site of San Francisco de Arriba within a regional perspective and to gain an understanding of the area’s settlement patterns. Neutron activation analysis of recovered ceramics aided in differentiating between local and imported pottery. Neutron activation was also used to identify the sources of imported obsidian recovered at San Francisco de Arriba and to propose potential trade networks and interregional relationships otherwise invisible in the archaeological record.

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Medium 9780861966738

Film as a Cultural Mirror

Amy M. Davis John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

In Hollywood, both in the past and in the present, what decides whether or not a film will be made, ultimately, is whether or not it is believed that the film will make money. If a film is to make money, it must appeal to a mass audience. If it is to do this, it must contain ideas, themes, characters, stories, and perceptions to which it can relate. It must, in other words, be relevant to the audience’s world view if it is to be successful. Why does a film like Thelma and Louise (1991), ostensibly a road movie about two redneck women trying to escape to Mexico, strike such a chord – and stir up such controversy – amongst audiences around the world? The simple answer to this is that Thelma and Louise touches upon certain issues – mainly women’s roles, rights and positions in what is still very much a male-dominated society – which are relevant not only to the lives of women of the same basic background as the title characters, but also to women as a whole, nearly all of whom have experienced some form of gender-related harassment and/or discrimination. More recently, the phenomenon of the success of the film Bridget Jones’s Diary (2001), as well as the attendant criticism of the way it depicts thirty-somethings at the turn of the twenty-first century, has enjoyed great success. This far-reaching popularity comes from the fact that, like it or not, Bridget Jones’s Diary mirrors back to a great many women the conflicting roles they are expected to fill, and their confusion as to how to navigate the difficulties and contradictions to be found within the era’s complex and evolving understanding of the ways in which marriage, career, and family are/should be prioritised amongst middle-class Western women.

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Medium 9781574414646

4. Labor Struggles

Jeffrey Marcos Garcilazo University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 4

Labor Struggles

O

n April 24, 1903, a dramatic scene took place on Main

Street in Los Angeles when more than thirty Mexican women

(primarily the wives of strikers) confronted several dozen esquiroles (scabs) imported from El Paso by the Pacific Electric Railway

Company (pe). Owned by Henry Huntington, the pe attempted to replace striking “cholo” laborers represented by a new Mexican union, La Union Federal Mexicana (ufm). Huntington arranged for police to arrest any picketing Mexicans. The mexicanas harangued the esquiroles to join the strike and marched boldly onto the grade site and wrestled shovels, picks and tamping irons away from the hands of the strikebreakers.1 The Los Angeles Times referred to the mexicanas as “Amazons” from various parts of “Sonoratown,” the principal Mexican settlement.2 Onlookers, mostly Mexicans and

Anglos, stepped over and around railroad ties, rails, wheelbarrows and mounds of dirt as they strained to watch the commotion. Within moments some esquiroles joined the strikers and others fled while a few others argued with the women and the striking traqueros and futilely tried to defend their actions.

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Medium 9780253356338

2 The Vakëf: Sharing Religious Space in Albania

DIONIGI ALBERA Indiana University Press ePub

GILLES DE RAPPER

Translated by David Macey

The phenomenon of joint Muslim-Christian attendance at the same places of worship has been widely reported in Albania. The annual pilgrimage from the city of Laç to the church of St. Anthony of Padua in the north of the country attracts thousands of Catholic worshipers, but it also attracts Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Widely covered by the media, it allows the religious dignitaries of different confessions to demonstrate that they are on good terms. The fact that they can share places of worship is used as an argument to prove that the different religions present in Albania are tolerant and can coexist peacefully. Important shrines such as Laç or Mount Tomor are not, however, the only places where Muslims and Christians worship together at the same time. In a country where most regions are inhabited by mixed populations, religious practices in shared spaces are also to be observed at a much more local level. The phenomenon is particularly obvious in what we can, with some qualifications, call the “religious revival” of the postcommunist period. After the period between 1967 and 1990, when religion was banned, a large number of different sites—churches, mosques, and monasteries, but also tombs, ruins, springs, and stones—began to be visited by growing numbers of people. The vernacular notion of vakëf then began to take on a particular meaning. The term is used to refer to most of these places that, despite their diversity, share certain characteristics. They are usually peripheral and marginal places (in terms of their relationship with churches or mosques, the clergy, and the national territory), but they are also places where devotional practices enjoy a relative freedom.

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Medium 9781574412024

Chapter 25. Some Past Directions of Narrative-Folklore Study

Edited by Kenneth L. Untiedt University of North Texas Press PDF

R

egardless of how we choose to define it, presumably folklore has existed for as long as human culture has existed. But while the collecting of folklore must also have its roots in prehistory—in the first bard’s notion of repertory—systematic collecting for the preservation of threatened species and for humanistic and scientific study belongs chiefly to the nineteenth century.

Two related political trends in eighteenth-century Europe, toward nationalism and toward democracy, awakened an interest in the folk-spirit as embodied in the common lore of the people. The word “common” has, of course, a double meaning; it implies the vulgar as well as the shared. Accordingly, educated Europeans schooled in the classics were slow to value the stories, jests, songs, and sayings of the unlettered masses. By and large, folklore was beneath notice except when taken over and transformed into literature by a Chaucer or Boccaccio. Near the end of the sixteenth century it had taken a courageous Sir Philip Sidney, a true knight and a gifted poet, to write uncondescendingly of a folk ballad, “I never heard that olde song of Percey and Douglas that I found not my heart moved more then with a trumpet.”

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9 Expansion of Research Programs

Alexander W. Clowes Indiana University Press ePub

THE DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS in Indianapolis were matched by separate and equally important programs in basic research conducted in Woods Hole during the summers at the Marine Biological Laboratory. The two programs depended to a certain extent on each other.

For example, the basic research group in Woods Hole provided an opportunity for Walden, a member of the drug development program, to learn the isoelectric focusing technique, which he ultimately used to purify insulin; Clowes, in turn, wanted to understand the underlying basic mechanism involved in producing anesthesia and therefore made use of barbituric acid derivatives prepared by Horace Shonle in the Indianapolis drug development group to study membrane permeability in Arbacia eggs. Shonle developed amobarbital (Amytal) and later the better-known barbituric acid derivative secobarbital (Seconal). Seconal was patented by Lilly in 1934 and was used to treat epilepsy and insomnia and as an adjunctive agent for general anesthesia.

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Medium 9780861966592

Chapter IV Facing Contemporary Politics

Floriane Place-Verghnes John Libbey Publishing ePub

The golden years of American materialism as depicted in The Big Money seemed too good to be true. There could be no wild years without a possible backlash. The first hints of the potentiality of the American foundations to crack and finally collapse appeared in the late 1920s and eventually, the “Roaring Twenties” came to a sharp end in 1929 with the Wall Street Crash. Apart from the unprecedented financial results of such a blow, the mental consequences on the people were to be terrific, limitless, and (above all) everlasting. This is a common phenomenon to be observed among people: each time you undergo a crisis, you tend to shape your subsequent behaviour according to the initial blow, even if the danger has passed away and you are hence secure. This is precisely what I mean by “an osmosis between the past and the present” – and as a consequence, the future. That is, the capacity of human beings to draw conclusions from their past so as to adapt to an awe-inspiring future. In the midst of such a crisis, testifying becomes an urgent necessity, since it binds people to one another, by making them aware of the fact that they are sharing the same predicament. The act of bearing witness is a painful relief. Tex Avery’s subconscious aim was nothing more than relief when he depicted insecure behaviours linked to the aftermath of the Depression. The American people had indeed undergone a huge blow. After decades of growing importance on the international stage, after claiming the American soil was a land of freedom and opportunity for everyone (see the rags to riches tales), its people had been reduced to the scum of the so-called developed world in a fortnight. No wonder then, that such an experience shattered their hopes for the future, and that they consequently perceived matters in quite another light.

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Medium 9781574414820

Chapter 8. HPD and the Klan

Mitchel P. Roth and Tom Kennedy University of North Texas Press ePub

8

HPD AND THE KLAN

By 1918, the police department had 176 officers for a city of 153,192. That same year, Mrs. Eva Jane Bacher joined HPD, officially becoming the department’s first female police officer. Another woman, Juvenile Officer Ferdie Trichelle, also served. Bacher would be promoted to detective in 1920. The 1918 Houston City Directory was the first to include a policewoman—in this case referring to Bacher as “Woman Police.” She would be referred to as “Woman Police” the following year as well, although Bacher signed most of her correspondence as “Policewoman.” Bacher next appeared as “Woman Detective” in the 1920–21 Houston City Directory.

In 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified and went into effect the following year as the Volstead Act, introducing America to Prohibition. Almost from the beginning, HPD was embroiled with enforcing the federal law. Like modern day police officers tracking drug dealers, early HPD used intuition to capture booze runners. For example, one night in 1920 two motorcycle patrolmen were riding along Sabine Street when they spotted an automobile “with kegs in it.” They pulled over the car and found ten kegs containing almost five gallons of moonshine whiskey. The two suspects were charged with violating the federal law. That same week, HPD detectives teamed up with Prohibition agents and raided a house on Wilson Street, where they found a small quantity of wine and whiskey. The tenants Mr. and Mrs. Tomasino operated a grocery store there, but were both arrested; these were little more than pyrrhic victories in a war that could never be won.

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Medium 9781574412383

“The Galloping Gourmet; or, The Chuck Wagon Cook and His Craft”

Kenneth L. Untiedt, editor University of North Texas Press PDF

THE GALLOPING GOURMET; OR, THE

CHUCK WAGON COOK AND HIS CRAFT by John O. West

The trail drive of the American cowboy is well known to the reading and viewing public of the entire world, thanks to the influence of television and movies and their enormous capacity for education. As is also well known, unfortunately Hollywood is not always careful with its facts—indeed, a new folklore might well be said to have developed because of the public media’s part in the passing on of information and mis-information. Such is the nature of oral transmission itself; one might recall: one old cowpoke remembers singing to the cattle to keep them calm; another points out that the average cowboy’s voice was far from soothing, and his songs might well have precipitated (rather than averted) a stampede. Of course, with the dulcet tones of Gene Autry and the Sons of the Pioneers as evidence, the popular view is of the romantic persuasion, as is much of the lore of the American cowboy.

Usually overlooked are the factual matters of the cowboy cook and his rolling kitchen. Of course, “everybody” knows that chuck wagon cooks are genially irascible—“as techy as a wagon cook” goes the old saying.1 George “Gabby” Hayes of the Western movies of the ’40s is an excellent model; and all Western movie buffs know that a chuck wagon looks pretty much like an ordinary covered wagon with a pregnant tailgate. But that’s about as much as most folks know. The day-to-day routine of the cook gets him up hours before breakfast to rustle grub for a bunch of unruly, and often unappreciative, cowpokes. Then there is the day-long battle to keep ahead of the herd, arriving at pre-designated meal-stops with enough time to spare to put together a meal that would stick to the ribs. But all that is a largely unsung epic!

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Medium 9781574416329

2. Policy

Richard Gonzales UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781855752191

4. The struggle to work with locked-up pain

Jessica Williams Saunders Karnac Books ePub

Paola Franciosi

I work in a prison that houses female offenders. The prison holds several hundred women, about two-thirds of whom are awaiting trial. For some of them it is their first time in prison, though more often they have had a previous experience, either whilst awaiting trial for earlier offences or whilst serving a prison sentence.

The prison is divided into:

1. Eleven units called Ordinary Location Units.

2. A Health Care Centre, which comprises three wards for approximately 80 to 90 patients. The Health Care Centre is located on the ground floor of the building.

3. A mother and baby unit, on the fourth floor, surrounded by Ordinary Location Units. In this unit, women and their babies up to the age of 9 months live.

4. A young offender unit, opened in 1998, for up to forty young women aged from 16 to 21.

A unit where more “vulnerable” women live. Pregnant women are located in this unit, as well as other women who, for a variety of reasons, may be thought to be vulnerable and not able to manage on an Ordinary Location Unit.

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Medium 9781626564275

Chapter Three • Breaking the Habit: It Takes More than You Think

Chaleff, Ira Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Breaking the Habit: It Takes More than You Think

MY WORK ON INTELLIGENT DISOBEDIENCE is a natural outgrowth of my earlier work on courageous followers. Courageous followers form relationships with their leaders in which they are both supportive of the leader and willing to give the leader candid feedback on the impact of the leader’s actions. For those interested, there is an overview of the topic in the appendix.

I was in Los Angeles giving a presentation on courageous followership at the International Leadership Association. ILA is an interesting group that was formed to bring together scholars, educators, and practitioners of leadership so they can enrich one another’s work in the field. I have since become a member of the ILA’s board of directors, but then I was simply a conference attendee and presenter.

After my presentation, a former army officer introduced himself to me and began telling one of the most fascinating stories I had ever heard on how to break the habit of too much obedience to authority. I’ll share that story with you in a minute. I promised to say a little more about courageous followership, so let me do that first.

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Medium 9781607321736

TWELVE Relationships among Households in the Prehispanic Community of Mesitas in San Agustín, Colombia

John G. Douglas University Press of Colorado ePub

VÍCTOR GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

In the Alto Magdalena region, in southwestern Colombia, the development of communities at the core of small polities back to around 1000 BC have been traced in regional settlement-pattern surveys. Since that time, groups of households began to cluster together around places that were to become the central mounded funerary sites of the San Agustín chiefdoms during the regional Classic period (AD 1–900). What were the interrelationships among households within such central communities? What kinds of forces shaped and held together these communities while they became the central places of Classic period chiefdoms?

This chapter describes the reconstruction of the development of Mesitas, one of the biggest mounded prehispanic communities in the region. Various probable factors in the shaping of the community are evaluated. Resource control, population growth, and craft specialization do not seem to have been important for bringing about change in the sequence at Mesitas. However, the evaluation of these aspects suggests that the development of social differences among households is related to the very early clustering of some households around agricultural activities during a period when these activities were not crucial for subsistence. A traditional ritual role that some households held in the community since early times seems to explain in part the shape of the community and the greater differences among households later in the sequence. The term “household” is used in this chapter to denote remains of households as evidenced by clusters of artifacts, features, and architecture.

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Medium 9781574411584

Chapter Four: Pierced ears

Gloria Feldt with Carol Trickett Jennings University of North Texas Press PDF

difference between parental authority in theory—where the rules are made—and in the real world. Yes, they needed my consent to have their ears professionally pierced. But just as my daughter and her friend went on to do it themselves, today, without our permission, our adultsin-training are making adult-type decisions about sex.

Because they can, and do, have sex without our consent or knowledge, the issue of their access to the related health care is an important one. This issue was on the agenda at the very first board meeting I attended at Permian Basin Planned Parenthood in 1971 in Odessa,

Texas. The board members argued long and loudly about whether to require parental consent for a minor to get birth control. They reached a very foolish compromise to dispense birth control to teenagers who already had what they called an “illegitimate” child. Whereupon the wise county judge, a board member on the losing side of the vote, exclaimed, “Now if that ain’t shuttin’ the barn door after the cow’s got out!”

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Medium 9780874259803

Understanding the Impact of Culture on Work

Jonamay Lambert HRD Press PDF

12

Understanding the Impact of Culture on Work

Objective

The purpose of this activity is to define culture and to look at what aspects of culture affect people at work.

Time

20 minutes

Materials

Flipchart and marker

Sample Lecture, “What Culture Means”

Overhead transparency (OHT) 12.1 and overhead projector

Procedure

1. Ask participants to suggest words that describe “Culture.” Some examples are physical features, dress, language, food, attitudes and values.

2. Record the responses in the flipchart and offer a definition of culture as used in the Sample Lecture (or use any source you prefer).

3. Present the Sample Lecture (or make up one of your own) and follow it by displaying OHT 12.1. (The transparency may also be distributed as a handout.)

4. Divide participants into small groups and ask them to discuss their own cultural background. Have the group talk about any situations that they have either experienced personally or know of, resulting from cultural differences. (See Trainer’s Notes.)

5. Reconvene and have the groups summarize and report on their discussions.

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