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Medium 9781786392015

13 Biofuels and Waste-Powered Generation

Henderson, P. CABI PDF

13

Biofuels and Waste-Powered

Generation

Biofuels

A biofuel is defined as a combustible material produced by recent biological production, such as photosynthesis or anaerobic digestion. In contrast, examples of non-biofuels are coal or mineral oil. Biomass is claimed to be the dominant source of renewable energy, contributing from 44% to

65% of total renewable output. In 2011, biomass-fuelled power generators provided around 10% of the world’s energy supply.

Important biofuels include:

• Bioethanol: alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane or sweet sorghum. These are mostly used as a petroleum substitute for vehicles.

• Biodiesel: produced from oils or fats using transesterification.

• Biogas: methane made from waste crop material through anaerobic digestion or bacteria.

• Biohydrogen: bacterial action can also produce hydrogen.

• Solid biofuel: wood chip, dried plants and other harvested organic material.

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Medium 9781786396211

5 Protocol for Developing Mutant Generations for Mutant Selection

Nur, F.; Forster, B.P.; Osei, S.A. CABI PDF

Protocol for Developing Mutant

Generations for Mutant Selection

5

Abstract

A practical step-by-step protocol is presented for mutation induction and mutation detection in oil palm. Germinated seed is chosen as the target material for mutation induction, as this provides the quickest development of mutant populations (as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4 of this manual). The protocol adopts gamma irradiation as this is a proven effective mutagen for mutation breeding. Genotyping is deployed in the M1 to select for mutants in target genes. These selections, plus a random selection of M1 plants, are then advanced from nursery to field conditions to produce mature palms, which may be self-pollinated to produce the M2 generation. The M2 generation is subject to phenotypic screening at all stages in plant development, from seed, germination, seedling, juvenile to adult palms. A list of target genes and traits for mutation is given.

As discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual, there are two practical targets for mutation induction in oil palm: pollen and seed. The seed option is the more favoured, as it takes less time and involves only one pollination/seed production stage, thus saving time and labour. A step-by-step guide is provided in generating the M1 and M2 populations for mutant detection.

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Medium 9781576753903

9 Leadership Principles for Spectacular Performance

Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

9

Leadership Principles for

Spectacular Performance

We have addressed three of the four major questions asked in the book:

How did extraordinary performance occur at Rocky Flats? Why does the abundance approach work, and what explains success? What levers can leaders use to achieve similar results? This last chapter addresses the final question: What are the prescriptions for extraordinary success? What is different from conventional leadership?

The transformational success at Rocky Flats was not supposed to be achievable. No previous organization had successfully accomplished this set of outcomes. No plutonium building had previously been taken down. A thousand glove boxes had never been decontaminated. Radioactive contamination in the ground on such a large site had never before been cleaned up to a standard that exceeded original federal guidelines. No unionized facility had ever worked itself out of a job at this rate of efficiency and enthusiasm. No organization had ever completed this kind of work $30 billion under budget. Even the

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Medium 9781780647845

12 Harvesting and Post-harvest Management

Khan, M.M.; Al-Yahyai, R.; Al-Said, F. CABI PDF

12 

Harvesting and Post-harvest

Management

Ahmad Sattar Khan1* and Zora Singh2

Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab,

Pakistan; 2Curtin Horticulture Research Laboratory, Department of Environment and Agriculture, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin

University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

1

The majority of lime fruit produced in the world are consumed as fresh. Preservation of the natural quality of lime fruit after harvest either for local or international markets is a prerequisite to maintain consumer confidence to buy limes. The literature on the harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus is fairly vast and has been reviewed in the past by various scientists, but information on post-harvest handling of limes is very scant. Similar to other horticultural fresh produce (Mahajan et al., 2014), the major challenge in post-harvest handling of limes is how to reduce post-harvest losses. Harvesting and post-harvest management of citrus fruit are important operations, which subsequently determine the storage and shelf life as well as the quality of lime fruit. Like other non-climacteric citrus fruits, limes are harvested at attainment of full maturity leading to maximum acceptability to consumers. Appropriate harvest maturity and method of harvest ensure good post-harvest handling with higher economic returns. Various post-harvest treatments are applied to limes in order to delay senescence and reduce mechanical injuries, physiological disorders and decay.

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Medium 9781845939625

9. Polyphenols

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF

9

Polyphenols

Agnès Ageorges, Véronique Cheynier* and Nancy Terrier

INRA, Montpellier cedex, France

9.1 Introduction

Polyphenols are a large class of plant secondary metabolites, ubiquitous in plants and structurally diverse. The earlier definition of polyphenols, proposed by

Bate-Smith and Swain (1962), implied the ability to precipitate alkaloids and proteins from solution, while many recent papers refer to all phenolic compounds as polyphenols. In fact, the term polyphenols should be restricted to plant phenolic compounds ‘derived exclusively from the shikimate derived phenylpropanoid and/or the polyketide pathway(s), featuring more than one phenolic ring and being devoid of any nitrogen-based functional group in their most basic structural expression’, as stated recently by Quideau et al. (2011).

This definition covers several groups, including flavonoids, hydroxystilbenes, lignans and benzoic acid derivatives such as gallotannins and ellagitannins. Wide structural diversity is encountered within each group, and especially the flavonoid family, comprising over 8000 molecules

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