1663 Chapters
Medium 9781780646534

17: Patentability of Human Embryo Stem Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Case WARF in the United States of America and Europe

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Patentability of Human Embryo

Stem Cells: A Comparative

Analysis of Case WARF in the

United States of America and


Jiang Li*

Kenneth Wang School of Law, Soochow University, Su Zhou, China

17.1  Introduction

Human embryonic stem cells are potentially of great therapeutic value in a number of areas including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and transplantation therapy (Thomson, 1998). The patentability of human embryonic stem cells has raised worldwide controversy and dispute in the last two decades, especially in the USA and Europe.

Following the basic principle of ‘anything under the sun that is made by man can be patented’,1 US patents on human embryonic stem cells have been granted. The US Patent and Trademark Office

(USPTO) granted a broad patent on primate embryonic stem cells (ESC) in December 1998 and a second patent on human embryonic stem cells

(HESC) in March 2001 (Loring and Campbell,

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Medium 9781780643236

15 Ecofriendly Management of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxin Contamination

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF


Ecofriendly Management of

Mycotoxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxin


M. Surekha, V. Krishna Reddy and S.M. Reddy

Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India

15.1 Introduction

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of filamentous fungi, which infest food commodities during different stages of food production to consumption. Statistics reveal that every year approximately 25% of world food grains are affected by variable levels of mycotoxins, which leads to considerable national economic loss (Muller et al., 1998). Outbreaks of mysterious diseases in different parts of the world of unknown aetiology probably may be attributed to mould growth and mycotoxin contamination of food and feeds. The problem of mycotoxin contamination and health hazards was discussed in detailed by Bennett and Klich (2003). Mycotoxin contamination is a worldwide problem.

Hence, the limitation of mycotoxin contamination is of utmost importance. Different countries have created guidelines to regulate the maximum acceptable limits of mycotoxin levels in foods and feed. The mycotoxin incidence mainly depends on environmental conditions both at the preharvest and postharvest stages of food grain production. Hence, the control of mycotoxin problem has become a task of Herculean proportions.

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Medium 9781780641645

7 Synergies between Climate Change and Species Invasions: Evidence from Marine Systems

Ziska, L.H., Editor; Dukes, J.S., Editor CAB International PDF


Synergies between Climate

Change and Species Invasions:

Evidence from Marine Systems

Cascade J.B. Sorte

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of

California, Irvine, California, USA


The hypothesis that climate change will facilitate species invasions has recently received increasing focus in studies of marine systems. Over the past decade, approaches to testing this hypothesis have shifted from time-series observations of concomitant increases in both processes to experimental tests that are beginning to reveal the mechanisms underlying the synergies between these two aspects of global change. The results of many studies conform to expectations that under climate change, invasive species’ abundances, ranges and per capita effects – collectively indicative of invader impacts – will increase. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of responses to non-thermal factors (such as changes in ocean pH, dissolved oxygen and storm events) and how species-specific idiosyncrasies will manifest in changes at the community level.

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12: The Family Histiostomatidae Berlese

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

12  The Family Histiostomatidae Berlese

Morphological Characteristics, Systematics and Bio-ecology

The body of mites of the family Histiostomatidae is large and not dorsoventrally flattened. The gnathosoma is strongly modi­ fied and adapted to feed on minute particles in suspension. The chelicerae are laterally compressed, not chelate, with the digi­ tus fixus comb like and equipped with many fine teeth. The digitus mobilis is short, fused to the base of the digitus fixus, and with few short distal teeth. The palpi have a freely movable and flattened distal segment, with long tarsal solenidion and eupathididal setae (Figs 12.1C and 12.4B). The prodorsum has four pairs of setae (ve, vi, sce, sci) and the hysterosoma ten pairs of dorsal setae (c1, c2, c3, d1, d2, e1, e2, f2, h1, h2); one pair of setae

(h3) is commonly set ventrally. The opisthonotal glands are commonly located between setae e1 and e2. The bursa copulatrix is set between the setae h1 (Fig. 12.1A). The genital valves of the female are fused to the body medially, and form a transverse oviporus; the genital papillae of both sexes are often seen as large rings on the ventral surface and are not closely associated; the posterior pair is set on the ventral opisthosoma (Figs 12.1B and 12.2A) (Hughes, 1976; O’Connor, 2009).

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Chronology of Leonardo’s Life and Work

Capra, Fritjof Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

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