1663 Chapters
Medium 9781780644202

9: Integrative Breeding Strategy for Making Climate-smart Potato Varieties for Sub-Saharan Africa

Low, J. CABI PDF

9 

Integrative Breeding Strategy for Making Climate-smart Potato

Varieties for Sub-Saharan Africa

1

A. Asfaw,1* M. Bonierbale2 and M.A. Khan2

International Potato Center (CIP), Nairobi, Kenya; 2CIP, Lima, Peru

Abstract

Breeding potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is becoming increasingly complicated because of the growing number of requirements for new varieties, particularly the added concern of adapting potato to climate variability, especially in regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Combining the right genes to overcome constraints of climate variability in a potato crop, together with an enhanced level of other desirable traits such as consumer and commercial preferences, yield and resistance to biotic stresses requires an integrated breeding strategy that makes use of the knowledge of scientists as well as farmers. This chapter discusses the design of a breeding strategy that incorporates adaptation traits with the commercial and home-use characteristics preferred by potato farmers for varieties to be grown in diverse environments.

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Medium 9781780645377

13 Innovative Formulations Useful for Area-wide Application Suitable for Climate Change

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

13

Innovative Formulations Useful for Area-­wide Application

Suitable for Climate Change

David Liszka* and Pawel Swietoslawski

ICB Pharma, Jaworzno, Poland

13.1 Introduction

can do so directly (via free-­living stages) or indirectly (by affecting hosts). Shifts or

Significant acceleration of climate change expansion in distribution, prevalence and since the mid-­20th century, involving so-­ intensity of parasites may be closely linked called global warming, with increase in tem- with that of their hosts and may depend on perature in the troposphere, is notable. Until numerous factors. The effects of environthis time, the climate changes have been mentally detrimental changes in local land mainly conditioned by natural factors, such use and alterations in global climate disrupt as changes in solar activity, changes in the natural ecosystem and can increase the

Earth’s orbit, volcanic eruptions, or the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases in impact of the El-­Niño phenomenon. In the the human population.

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Medium 9781789240542

3 Does Transgenic Food Production Affect World Food Prices?

Brankov, T.; Lovre, K. CABI PDF

3

Does Transgenic Food Production

Affect World Food Prices?

Food prices are of special concern to poor countries and poor people. As previously stated, the second food regime mechanism failed to solve world hunger, leading the

FAO to call a World Food Summit in 1974 to examine global food production and consumption. To be sure, this was not the first attempt to solve hunger, since the Great

­Depression in the 1930s with its disastrous effects on ‘consumer purchasing power and on the incomes of primary producers, underlined the need for some form of intergovernmental arrangement for staple food-stuffs . . .

In the early 1930s, Yugoslavia proposed that in view of the importance of food for health, the Health Division of the League of Nations should disseminate information about the food position in representative countries of the world. Its report was the first introduction of the world food problem into the international political arena’ (Shaw, 2007, p. 6).

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Medium 9780253011664

12 The Geographical Distribution of Life, Continued

Daniel Duzdevich Indiana University Press ePub

12

LAKES AND RIVER SYSTEMS ARE SEPARATED FROM ONE another by barriers of land, so it might seem obvious that freshwater species do not range across many bodies of water and that because the sea is an even greater barrier, they would never spread to distant regions. But actually the reverse is true. Not only do many freshwater species from quite different classes have enormous ranges, but interrelated species prevail throughout the world! When I first collected freshwater insects, shelled mollusks, and other freshwater species in Brazil, I remember being surprised at their similarity to those in Britain, and at the dissimilarity of the surrounding terrestrial organisms.

The capacity of freshwater organisms to range widely may be unexpected, but in most cases it can be explained by their being adapted to make short and frequent migrations from pond to pond or stream to stream – a tendency for wide dispersal follows as an almost necessary consequence. I can here consider only a few cases. With respect to fish, I believe that the same species never occurs in freshwater on widely separated continents. But within one continent, individual species range widely and almost capriciously: two river systems can have some fish in common and some different. A few observations favor the possibility that they occasionally spread by “accidental” means; for example, live fish are sometimes dropped by whirlwinds in India, and fish eggs remain viable after their removal from water. However, I attribute the dispersal of freshwater fish mainly to minor changes in land level within the recent period that caused rivers to flow into one another. Examples could also be given of this result brought about by floods without any changes in level. The loess of the Rhine reveals considerable changes in level within a very recent geological period when the surface was inhabited by still-extant terrestrial and freshwater shelled mollusks. The remarkable difference between fish on opposite sides of continuous mountain ranges, which must have parted river systems and prevented them from intertwining since an early period, suggests the same conclusion.

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Medium 9781780643236

7 Botanical Pesticides: The Novel Chemotherapeutics for Managing Plant Viruses

Ganesan, S.; Vadivel, K.; Jayaraman, J. CABI PDF

7

Botanical Pesticides:

The Novel Chemotherapeutics for

Managing Plant Viruses

C. Jeyalakshmi,1* D. Dinakaran2 and C. Rettinassababady1

1Department of Plant Pathology, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, U.T. of Puducherry, India; 2Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Navalur Kuttappattu,

Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

7.1 Introduction

Viruses are the second most important plant pathogens, after fungi. They cause severe yield losses and substantially lessen the quality of crop products. The yield losses due to plant viral diseases vary from 5 to 100% depending upon disease severity, susceptibility of cultivars and vector population. By the turn of the millennium, there were as many as 675 plant virus species recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The estimated losses in rice yields have been calculated as $1.5 billion in Southeast Asia (Hull, 2002),

$63 million has been lost in apple yields in the

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