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26; Work of Multiple Organizations to Improve Seed Potato Health in the USA and an Example of Change to Reduce Potato Virus Y in Seed Potato Lots



Work of Multiple Organizations to

Improve Seed Potato Health in the USA and an Example of Change to Reduce

Potato Virus Y in Seed Potato Lots

J.L. Whitworth1* and P. Nolte2

United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service

(USDA-ARS), Aberdeen, Idaho, USA; 2University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA



In the USA, seed potato improvement starts with the individual seed potato grower. The seed grower also has resources that are available from university experts and from the organizations that certify the seed potatoes. Systems that exist for the production of seed potatoes have similar but slightly different structures in individual states, although the basic principles for producing quality seed potatoes are followed in each state. Each state is signatory to a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the national regulatory agency (United States Department of Agriculture

Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA-APHIS). This allows trade between states and between the USA and other countries. The MOU requires a quality manual to be developed for each certifying state. This quality manual is a procedural manual. An audit of each certifying agency is conducted to ensure compliance with the approved quality manual. The MOU is a recent document and serves to unify practices of multiple certification agencies. This allows for a set of minimum seed standards that helps to facilitate international trade. An example of how certification practices can change to improve seed health occurred in Idaho starting in 2007. At this time, an outbreak of potato virus Y (PVY) necrotic strains occurred in ware fields planted with infected seed. Prior to this time, 95% of the varieties were visually inspected for PVY. The other 5% of varieties were serologically tested with ELISA because of latent symptom expression. This PVY outbreak led to a change requiring ELISA testing of all seed lots and all varieties. Over the next 4 years the number of seed lots with PVY was reduced by 10%. The change in the seed regulations was formulated by growers and university researchers and then approved by a grower advisory committee and finally a foundation seed stocks committee which consists of the certification agency and university scientists.

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6 - The Natural History of the Dodo and the Solitaire

Jolyon C. Parish Indiana University Press ePub


Comments are given on the morphology of Raphus, with comments on Pezophaps added. Comparisons are made with closely related taxa: the crowned pigeons (Gourd), the Nicobar pigeon (Caloenas) and the tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus).

General Appearance

Raphus. Dodos were described as being “like penguins” by the first Dutch eyewitnesses (e.g., Cornelisz 1598). They were said to be “very fat” (Van Heemskerk 1598; Van West-Zanen 1648) and “well fed” (Van West-Zanen 1648). Bontekoe (1646) remarked that they were so fat they could hardly go, and that when they walked their rump almost touched the ground. In contrast, L'Estrange (c. 1638) described the dodo as “so legged and footed” as a male turkey, “but stouter and thicker.” A similarity with the ostrich was also noted (Herbert 1638; Bontius 1658), and Almeida (1616) described the dodo as a “very young ostrich.”

Those who have tried to draw definitive conclusions concerning dodo anatomy (and many have!) from such pictures, have faced no end of difficulty, for we really know very little concerning the circumstances under which these paintings were made, nor the intentions of the artists.

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8: L-Arginine-Dependent Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity

D'Mello, J.P.F. CABI PDF



Nitric Oxide

Synthase Activity

F.J. Corpas,* L.A. del Río, J.M. Palma and J.B. Barroso

Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de

Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Granada, Spain

8.1  Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) has long been recognized as a signalling molecule influencing diverse physiological processes in animals. More recently, it has emerged as an innovative topic of research in plant physiology and biochemistry.

During the last decade, the involvement in a plethora of functions has been attributed to NO, including seed germination, plant development and senescence, as well as the mechanisms of response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

Nevertheless, the enzymatic source of NO generated in plant cells from l-arginine is still an open question. In this chapter, the current knowledge and evidence on the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in plants will be reviewed.

8.2  Introduction

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that diffuses readily through biomembranes and has been demonstrated to be involved, directly or indirectly, in almost all plant physiological and stress situations (Besson-Bard et al., 2008; Corpas et  al., 2011). Thus, NO participates directly in certain processes by reaction with specific targets that affect its function or can act as a signal molecule (Corpas et al., 2008c). During the last decade, one of the main goals in NO research in plants has been the identification and characterization of the potential enzymatic source(s) of this molecule because, considering the relevance of NO to a wide spectrum of functions, its synthesis must be carefully regulated. Therefore, a source of an enzymatic nature ­appears to be a very plausible mechanism.

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47: Improvement of Processing Technology Research and Utilization of Sweetpotato and its Derived Foods in China and Rwanda



Improvement of Processing

Technology Research and Utilization of Sweetpotato and its Derived Foods in China and Rwanda

K. Sindi,1* J. Xie,2 K. Xie3 and Y. Zhu2

International Potato Center Sub-Saharan Africa (CIP-SSA), Nairobi,

Kenya; 2Institute of Agro-products Processing Science and Technology of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu, PR China;


CIP China Center for Asia Pacific (CCCAP), Beijing, PR China



In the past decade, several new technologies in sweetpotato processing based on sweetpotato flours and purées rich in provitamin A and anthocyanin have been developed in China and Rwanda. First, this chapter describes these new technologies in use in China, such as accurate gelatinization with microwave treatment, energy-saving drying and highly hygienic packaging for sweetpotato flour and purée. The chapter also provides a step-by-step explanation on how to make products utilizing these technologies to get nutritious and healthy sweetpotato-based foods. Secondly, recent work done in

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6. Using Social Vulnerability Mapping to Enhance Coastal Community Resiliency in Texas

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Walter Gillis Peacock, Shannon Van Zandt, Dustin Henry, Himanshu Grover, and Wesley Highfield

Disasters like Hurricane Ike, as well as severe storms such as Allison, Katrina, and Rita are often referred to as “natural” disasters. Rather than being wholly “natural,” however, these disasters result from the interaction among biophysical systems, human systems, and their built environment. Indeed, the emerging scientific consensus states that the damage incurred, in both human and financial terms, is largely due to human action or, more often, inaction (Mileti 1999). Communities in the United States and much of the world continue to develop and expand into high hazard areas. This contributes to increased hazard exposure and often results in the destruction of environmental resources such as wetlands, often increasing losses. In other words, many of the communities in our nation are becoming ever more vulnerable to “natural” hazards while simultaneously becoming less disaster resilient.

When disaster strikes, its impact is not just a function of its magnitude and where it strikes. Galveston, like most communities, is not homogeneous, but rather contains areas characterized by wealth, leisure, and privilege, as well as neighborhoods plagued by poverty, crime, and unemployment. Development patterns typified by sprawl, concentrated poverty and segregation shape urban environments in ways that isolate vulnerable populations. Severe storms like Ike are not “equal opportunity” events. These events affect different groups in different ways. Very often, the social geography interacts with the physical geography to expose vulnerable populations to greater risk.

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