2165 Chapters
Medium 9781780645216

24: Microbial Metabolites in the Cosmetics Industry

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

24 

Microbial Metabolites in the

Cosmetics Industry

Hesham A. El-Enshasy,1,2* Mariani A. Hamid,1 Roslinda A. Malek,1 Nagib

Elmarzugi1,3 and Mohamed R. Sarmidi1

1

Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),

Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2City of Scientific Research and Technology Application,

Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Tripoli University, Libya

Abstract

The cosmetics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors and is a multibillion dollar business. Over the last few decades, people have shown increased interest in using cosmetics of natural origin, replacing in part the extensively used chemicals in this industry. Natural cosmetics are usually considered as safer, more biocompatible and with fewer side effects. For a long time, natural cosmetics have used plant or animal extracts as the basal material. However, microorganisms such as bacterial cells are now considered as potential sustainable sources of functional ingredients or additives in order to improve the quality of such products. Microorganisms in the appropriate conditions produce a variety of low-molecular-weight chemical compounds, including several organic acids, alcohols, proteins and polysaccharides which can be used for various applications in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries. Such compounds are extensively used in the cosmetic field either as the main functional active ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation, or as anti-ageing or antibacterial agents and immunomodulators, or as binding, thickening, colouring and stabilizing agents. This chapter reviews the main groups of microbial metabolites currently used in the cosmetics industry either as active ingredients or as additives.

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9 Marginal-Marine and Marine Vertebrates

Anthony J. Martin Indiana University Press PDF

9

M A RGI NA L -M A R I N E A N D

M A R I N E V ERT EBR AT ES

A TALE OF TURTLE T R ACKS

Sea turtle trackways are perhaps the most impressive of marginal-marine vertebrate traces anyone can stumble upon on a Georgia beach, and this one was no exception. But because my wife, Ruth, and I were infrequent visitors to the coast, we had never seen one in all of its glorious three dimensions. Its presence that June morning was enhanced by its freshness, telling us that its tracemaker had been on Nannygoat Beach of Sapelo Island only four or five hours beforehand. Other prominent traces in the area were of a turtle patrol vehicle (an all-terrain vehicle, or AT V) that abruptly decelerated just after intersecting the trackway, turned sharply to the left, and looped back to stop. Based on the driver’s tracks, she then spent much time at the end of the trackway, no doubt collecting data that would be analyzed later for its contribution to the larger scheme of understanding sea turtle nesting on the Georgia coast.

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Medium 9781786395061

8 British and Irish Islands: an Evolutionary Vantage

Dennis, R.L.H.; Hardy, P.B. CABI PDF

8

British and Irish Islands: an Evolutionary Vantage

An outstanding issue in the early 1970s was: how fast can evolution operate? How long does it take populations of, say, butterflies or moths to become distinct from populations found elsewhere? The answers are: unexpectedly fast and but a short time (Dawkins, 2009; Cook and

Saccheri, 2013). The British and Irish islands offer exciting opportunities for the investigation of evolutionary processes in animal populations over recent geological times. This is owing to: (i) the considerable variation in size and isolation of islands and thus of populations on them; (ii) clear starting dates of species arrival or entry on the islands; and (iii) equally well defined dates for species isolation on islands.

The task is facilitated by our developing knowledge of butterfly species migration capacity and colonization ability, and importantly the long period of natural history recording and data gathering over the islands.

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Medium 9781576337141

Fluids: AP Physics

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780647265

7 GROWTH REGULATORS IN BLUEBERRY PRODUCTION

Retamales, J.B.; Hancock, J.F. CABI PDF

7

Growth Regulators in Blueberry

Production

INTRODUCTION

Blueberries are a perennial crop that, when well managed, can produce for

25 years or more in some locations. In order to stay in business, growers need to manage their plantings efficiently. Hand labour can reach up to 80% of the operational costs in a mature blueberry field (Takele et al., 2007). Labour management is key to blueberry crop profitability (Plattner et al., 2008). This involves not only constant monitoring but also timely intervention and detailed assessment of the cost:benefit ratio of management practices. Fruit crop performance can be significantly controlled through genetic and management practices.

Once plants have been established, growers usually find traits that are less than desirable, or environmental factors that frequently reduce crop productivity, diminish quality or somehow affect the profitability of a blueberry field.

Among the myriad of management tools available for blueberry culture, plant growth regulators (PGRs) offer opportunities to solve specific problems. They can then become part of the management package and applied whenever the cost:benefit ratio is adequate. The cost of these compounds is generally high so they have to be effective and their impact on plant processes needs to be

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