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9 Stagnation and Segregation: Northern Ireland, 1971 to 2001

Ian N. Gregory Indiana University Press ePub


The late twentieth century saw a stark contrast between the experiences of the Republic of Ireland, described in the previous chapter, and those of Northern Ireland over the same period. While the Republic saw rapid economic progress and a decline in religious divisions, the situation in Northern Ireland was almost the reverse. Between 1971 and 2001 Northern Ireland saw rapid economic change as its traditional industries declined. At the same time it experienced a prolonged sectarian conflict in the form of the Troubles, during which more than three thousand people died. The complexity of the situation means that the next three chapters will be devoted to covering Northern Ireland over this period. chapter 9 looks at demographic, economic, and social change, stressing that in many ways Northern Ireland’s experience was typical of declining heavy industrial regions, albeit with a unique spatioreligious undertone. chapter 10 then moves to exploring the patterns of violence that occurred during the Troubles, which started in the late 1960s and ended with the various ceasefires of the late 1990s. chapter 11 draws these two threads together, focusing on Belfast, the area in which these themes had their largest impacts.

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2 What is the Bioeconomy

Viaggi, D. CABI PDF


What is the Bioeconomy

2.1  Introduction and Overview

This chapter describes the bioeconomy as it is defined today in research and policy documents.

As mentioned, there are differing views on these definitions depending on the point of view and needs of individual countries or actors defining the bioeconomy.

To a large extent this is based on the identification of economic sectors to be included in (or excluded from) the bioeconomy. Economic sectors are usually described based on the kind of goods and services they use and produce. Part of the effort here is to distinguish the bioeconomy from non-bio sectors or from non-bio sub-sectors in hybrid sectors such as energy, construction, and so on. In this attempt, the basis in biological raw materials and products is the distinguishing feature of the sectors of the bioeconomy.

Moreover, the bioeconomy is characterized by the interconnections among these sectors.

Both sectors and their connections can be qualified based on different aspects, such as their economic value, underlying biomass flows, waste and by-products management and the degree of circularity. These aspects are increasingly important in understanding the functioning of the bioeconomy, its economic potential and its limitations.

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Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF


Government Accountability Office

(GAO), cleanup and closing of

Rocky Flats and, 21–22

Government contract, evolution of enabling, 136–43

Government-furnished equipment and services (GFS&I), 138–39

Governors, political resistance from, 189

Governor-to-governor discussions, political support and, 190–91

Grameen Bank movement, success of, 1

Greenberg, Jack, 95

Green chart in measuring outcomes, 150–51

Grove, Andrew, 95

Headquarters building, early destruction of, 238

Heliotropic effects, 43–44 of abundance, 30–41 emotional manifestation at, 32 unlocking, 226

Heroic leader, accounts of, 227

Hierarchical controls, replacement of, by trust, 142–43

Hierarchy or Control quadrant,

94–95, 131–58, 159–60, 224 principles related to, 232–35

High performance, causal relationship between abundance and,


Honesty in trust-building, 175–76

Human capital and social relationships, 179–85

Human relationships, nurturing, 163

Iacocca, Lee, 96

ICF Kaiser Engineers, 18

Idea champions as leadership role,

85, 227

Incentives: bonus system and, 215–

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Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF


nities and, 166–68; fostering,

9; with government, 166–67; leadership in, 14; unions and,

169–72; work arrangements and relationships in, 160, 172; workforce and, 169–72

Collective efficacy, 43, 222

Colorado Department of Health, cleanup of Rocky Flats and, 83

Colorado Department of Public

Health and Environment,

Rocky Flats and, 53

Colorado state government: in good clarification, 133–34;

Rocky Flats cleaning and, 81–


Commitments, importance of keeping, 233

Communication, 234–35; downsizing and, 237–38; establishing baselines in, 151; of programs to external constituencies,


Communities: collaboration and,

166–68; turning point in relationships with groups in, 167–


Competing Values Framework, 4,

14–15, 90–92; Adhocracy or

Create quadrant in, 93–94,

101–30, 131, 159–60, 224,

228–31; change strategies in,

97; Clan or Collaborate quadrant in, 95–96, 159–60, 160–

85, 186, 187, 224, 236–39; core dimensions in, 90–91; enablers in, 97–99; Hierarchy or Control quadrant in, 94–95,

131–58, 159–60, 224, 232–35;

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6 Mexican Ichthyosaurs

Indiana University Press ePub

Mexican Ichthyosaurs

Eberhard Frey and Wolfgang Stinnesbeck



During the latest Jurassic and throughout most of the Cretaceous Period, much of what is now Mexico was covered by the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico. Toward the east this sea was connected with an intercontinental ocean, the central Atlantic and the Tethys Ocean, which separated Laurasia from Gondwana. The Caribbean corridor connected the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico via the central Atlantic and the Tethys Ocean with the European Archipelago (Fig. 6.1). Westward, the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico opened into the Paleo-Pacific, but both of these connections were occasionally closed during the Jurassic rendering the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico as an isolated basin. This basin frequently opened west of the Florida-Yucatan Ridge during the Late Jurassic. During this time, large marine vertebrates invaded the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico either via the Tethys Ocean or via the Drake Straight, which opened during the Late Jurassic (Fig. 6.1). Later, during the Early Cretaceous, the sea level rose and finally a third sea opened into the ancient Gulf of Mexico, the Western Interior Seaway, which covered the center of North America between the Appalachian and the Rocky Mountains (Goldhammer and Johnson, 2001; Ocampo-Diaz et al., 2008). The Western Interior Seaway linked the northern Boreal Sea with the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico. Thus, the ancient Gulf of Mexico for a long period of time formed a melting pot of different marine realms and occasionally, especially while isolated during the Late Jurassic, likely was the cradle for the evolution of new species of marine life. This enigmatic junction of oceans that once covered most of Mexico was inhabited by ammonites, belemnites, and bivalves, as well as a large variety of sharks and fishes. The most impressive animals, however, were the marine reptiles, some of which represented the top predators in the Jurassic and Cretaceous oceans: marine crocodilians (Thalattosuchia, chapter 7), plesiosaurs (Plesiosauria, chapter 5), mosasauroids (chapter 4), and the often neglected and rare sea turtles (chapter 3). This chapter will focus on the Ichthyosauria (“fish lizards”).

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