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7 Overview of Mesozoic Crocodyliforms from Mexico

Indiana University Press ePub

Overview of Mesozoic Crocodyliforms from Mexico

Gerardo Carbot-Chanona

7

Introduction

Crocodyliformes were more diverse in the Mesozoic than at present and included marine, amphibious, and terrestrial forms. Traditionally, this group included the “Protosuchia” and “Mesosuchia,” now known to be paraphyletic, and the monophyletic group Eusuchia (Clark, 1994). Recent phylogenetic studies show a paraphyletic grade of “protosuchians” forming sister lineages to the Mesoeucrocodylia, which includes “mesosuchians” and eusuchians. The most primitive crocodyliforms (“protosuchians”) first appeared in the Late Triassic and included terrestrial forms with long limbs and gracile skeletons. Some “protosuchians” persisted until the Cretaceous, but they were largely replaced by more advanced mesoeucrocodylians by the end of the Middle Jurassic (Benton and Clark, 1988; Clark, 2011).

A large increase during the last decade of new Mesozoic taxa from Asia (China and Mongolia), Africa, and South America (Brazil and Argentina) is shedding new light on the interrelationships of basal crocodyliforms and mesoeucrocodylians (Pol and Norell, 2004; Fiorelli and Calvo, 2007). Despite these discoveries, several aspects of mesoeucrocodylian phylogeny are unclear. Most mesoeucrocodylians appear to belong to either the Notosuchia or Neosuchia. Notosuchians are predominantly Gondwanan in distribution, and most appear to have been more terrestrial than living crocodylians. Neosuchians incorporate a wide range of forms, including several with gharial-like snouts (Dyrosauridae, Pholidosauridae) and others that resemble living crocodylians (e.g., goniopholidids). A few groups are phylogenetically problematic, including the marine thalattosuchians and some Gondwanan terrestrial forms that could be either notosuchians or basal neosuchians, such as the peirosaurids (Sereno and Larsson, 2009; Turner and Sertich, 2010).

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12 - The Invention of Life

Simon J. Knell Indiana University Press ePub

How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavoured to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.

MARY SHELLEY,
Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus (1818)

 

TO MOST OF MELTON AND SCOTT'S CONTEMPORARIES, THE conodont animal from Bear Gulch seemed impossible, even ridiculous – the latest and most spectacular addition to a heap of such impossibilities. To Melton and Scott, and a few others, of course, it looked entirely plausible; the reasoning that had brought it into existence was sound enough. Most conodont workers, however, liked to imagine the animal existed elsewhere. Some even thought it might already exist but remained lost in a paleontological blind spot – known but not recognized. A long list of outsiders had taken this kind of thinking to the extreme and imagined the key to the mystery already existed out there in the zoological world. With this thought in mind, we might ask if it was really so ridiculous for the young Klaus Fahlbusch to propose, in 1963, that conodonts were secreted by algae? Lindström, who had just sent his conodont book to the publisher, simply could not believe it, and Ziegler, who examined Fahlbusch's material, told him not to. In his naïvety, Fahlbusch had hit a hornets’ nest, and almost immediately the swarm (Beckmann, Collinson, Helms, Huckriede, Klapper, Lindström, Rhodes, Walliser, and Ziegler) was upon him, stinging him with accusations of poor science. Later, Lindström would feel nothing but regret for this incident, but when he did, he had perhaps forgotten that “conodontology” was not, in 1963, the respected science it was to become. It was still scrambling for recognition. In time, however, Fahlbusch would find some relief, for it was in this paper that he also told his seniors that their methods of acid preparation were damaging their fossils. On this point, too, they were outraged, but here Fahlbusch was to be proven right. And, as it turned out, he was not the last to look at this group of fossils and see plants. In 1969, Felton Nease published a paper suggesting that bar-like conodonts formed the midrib of aquatic plants found in the Chattanooga Shale, plants he called Conodontophyta chattanoogae. It was a suggestion treated with laudable seriousness by Huddle in the Pander Society Letter, although the idea must have tickled the conodont research community, which was then sufficiently mature to be unruffled by such outlandish ideas.1 Many years later, conodonts would again be mistakenly identified for plant remains, but on this occasion, as we shall see, it led rather unexpectedly to discoveries of huge significance in the hunt for the animal itself.

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12 Anuran Ilia from the Upper Cretaceous of Utah–Diversity and Stratigraphic Patterns

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Zbyněk Roček, James D. Gardner, Jeffrey G. Eaton, and Tomáš Přikryl

Thanks to their Relatively Robust Build and Distinctive structure, isolated ilia are among the most commonly recovered anuran bones from fossil micovertebrate sites. Across the spectrum of known anurans, there is considerable variation in features of the ilium. With some caveats, these features may be useful for assigning anuran ilia to biological taxa or, more conservatively, for estimating taxonomic diversities in fossil assemblages. A stratigraphically extensive sequence of 37 microvertebrate sites, ranging in age from the middle? Cenomanian–late Campanian (i.e., an interval of about 25 million years), in southwestern Utah, U.S.A., has yielded a relatively large sample of about 180 anuran ilia. Three major groups of ilia can be identified in the Utah sequence: those with an oblique groove on the medial surface, those with a dorsal tubercle, and those with neither structure. Within each group, specimens further can be subdivided into morphotypes based on other features (e.g., outline and relative size of acetabulum; extent and path of oblique groove; shape and position of dorsal tubercle). Some of the iliac morphotypes are discrete and easily recognizable, whereas others are less distinct. Certain of the iliac morphotypes (especially the more distinct ones) undoubtedly represent biological species, and the occurrence in many of the sampled localities and horizons of multiple morphotypes implies the presence in those areas of at least moderately diverse anuran assemblages. Only one iliac morphotype with an oblique groove can be assigned to a named genus, Scotiophryne, and this extends the temporal range for the genus back from the late Maastrichtian into the late Campanian. Although anuran ilia are not useful for stratigraphic correlations within the Utah sequence, several interesting patterns are evident; for example, the rarity both of specimens with a dorsal tubercle in the early–middle Santonian and middle Campanian and of specimens with an oblique groove in the late Santonian or early Campanian. The Utah ilia are typical for Mesozoic anurans in that none has a dorsal crest and only a minority have a dorsal tubercle; this contrasts with the situation in the Cenozoic, when most anurans have one or both of those iliac structures.

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7. The Science of Flight

Capra, Fritjof Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

From the texts that accompany Leonardo’s anatomical drawings we know that he considered the human body as an animal body, as biologists do today. He often transferred what he learned from numerous dissections of animals to the human body (see p. 227). But beyond these pragmatic aspects, Leonardo’s anatomical studies of animals were grounded in a profound respect and compassion for all living creatures.1 Thus it seemed natural for him, as Domenico Laurenza observes, “to give equal ontological and scientific dignity to humans and animals.”2

Leonardo used his animal dissections to gain knowledge about human anatomical structures, but was also keenly interested in the many differences between the bodies of animals and human beings. “You will draw for this comparison,” he wrote on a sheet showing the superficial muscles of a man’s legs, “the legs of frogs which have a great similarity to the legs of man, in their bones as in their muscles. Then you will follow with the hind-legs of a hare which are very muscular and have agile muscles because they are not encumbered by fat.”3

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Medium 9780253006042

2 - A Beacon in the Blackness

Simon J. Knell Indiana University Press ePub

In a few days the Eldorado Expedition went into the patient wilderness, that closed upon it as the sea closes over a diver…. I looked around, and I don't know why, but I assure you that never, never before, did this land, this river, this jungle, the very arch of this blazing sky, appear to me so hopeless and so dark, so impenetrable to human thought, so pitiless to human weakness.

JOSEPH CONRAD,
Heart of Darkness (1902)

 

JUST THREE YEARS AFTER THE PUBLICATION OF PANDER'S BOOK on the conodont fishes, oil was discovered in the United States. A new black liquid flowed out of the ground and into American minds, altering them forever. (The conodont played no part in this discovery, but it too was altered). Notorious wastefulness followed. Successive wells ran dry. But calls for conservation fell on deaf ears, as America developed its obsession with the automobile. In 1921 there were 10.5 million motor vehicles on the road. By the end of the decade there were 26.5 million. Demand for oil grew exponentially, but without the predicted oil shortage as discovery continued to outpace demand. A plague of oil derricks advanced across the American landscape, from Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, Ohio and Indiana into California, the mid-continent (Kansas and Oklahoma), the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast, and Illinois.1 In the unregulated American economy, oil was soon in overproduction and prices plummeted, falling below that of water in some states during the drought years of the early 1930s. By then the once buoyant economy was in freefall and oil had played no small part in that collapse.

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Medium 9781780645216

31: Bioremediation of Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Sulfide Pollutants by Microbial Oxidation

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

31 

Bioremediation of Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Sulfide

Pollutants by Microbial Oxidation

Ravichandra Potumarthi,1,2* A. Gangagni Rao1 and

Annapurna Jetty1

1

Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical

Technology (CSIR), Hyderabad, India; 2School of Agriculture, Food and Wine,

The University of Adelaide, Australia

Abstract

Sulfide emissions into the environment, both in gas and in liquid phase, have increased due to the rapid increase in industrial operations. Although physico-chemical treatment methods have been developed and applied successfully at an industrial level of operation their ability to remove sulfide compounds from the environment is questionable. Biological sulfide oxidation processes are promising methods as the microorganism used in these processes uses sulfide as part of the metabolic mechanism and thus eliminates the compounds from the sulfur cycle changing them into non-toxic end products. This chapter discusses a few developments in the area of biological sulfide oxidation and in particular their application in reactor systems.

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Medium 9781780646138

29: Assessment of Italian Landrace Density and Species Richness: Useful Criteria for Developing In Situ Conservation Strategies

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF

29 

Assessment of Italian Landrace

Density and Species Richness: Useful

Criteria for Developing In Situ

Conservation Strategies

R. Torricelli,* L. Pacicco, M. Bodesmo, L. Raggi and V. Negri

Department of Agricultural, Nutritional and Environmental Sciences,

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

29.1  Introduction

Landraces (LR) are a key component of agro­ biodiversity; being increasingly threatened, they deserve immediate conservation actions (Vete­ lainen et al., 2009). There is an imperative to maintain LR diversity in situ (on-farm) and in­ crease their use. In fact, in the actual climate change and climate unpredictability scenario,

LR are key sources of genetic variation for sus­ taining agricultural diversity and for secure food availability for the future. In this regard, the

‘PGR Secure project’ aims to develop conserva­ tion strategies for European crop wild relative and LR diversity and to enhance their use as a means of underpinning European food security in the face of climate change.

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Medium 9781786394644

11 New Technology, Cognitive Bias and Ethical Tensions in Entrepreneurial Commercialization: The Case of CRISPR

James, H.S., Jr. CABI PDF

11

New Technology, Cognitive

Bias and Ethical Tensions in Entrepreneurial

Commercialization: The Case of CRISPR

Desmond Ng1* and Harvey S. James, Jr.2

Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University,

College Station, Texas, USA; 2Division of Applied Social

Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

1

Introduction

The identification and exploitation of external opportunities are widely recognized as central functions of entrepreneurship. Identification refers to the creation of new inventions or technologies and exploitation refers to efforts to bring them to market. However, both the development of technologies and efforts to commercialize them depend on the resources and expertise of others. For instance, a study of randomly selected drugs from ten pharmaceutical firms revealed the average cost of bringing a new drug through the approval process to market was nearly

US$2.6 billion (2013 dollars) (DiMasi et al.,

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Medium 9781786390325

11 Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted Beneficial Interaction

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

11  Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted

Beneficial Interaction

Shatrupa Ray,1 Vivek Singh,1 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3

Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*

1

Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of

Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

11.1 Introduction

Successful interaction between plants and beneficial microbes lays a foundation for improving plant growth and soil structure.

However, several attempts to introduce beneficial bacteria into the rhizospheric region of agricultural plants have met with varying degrees of failure, particularly because of the huge competition posed by the pre-existing established rhizomicrobiota (Keswani et al.,

2013, 2014; Bisen et  al., 2015, 2016; Keswani, 2015; Keswani et al., 2016a, b). Moreover, several reports claim loss of microbial bioactivity owing to long-term storage (Nautiyal, 1997). Considering the biodiversity and population density of indigenous soil microbiota, causing permanent structural changes to the rhizospheric microbiota may become quite hectic and cumbersome, or to be more succinct, impossible (Singh et al.,

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Medium 9781780642895

10 Adaptation of Mixed Crop–Livestock Systems in Asia

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

10

Adaptation of Mixed Crop–

Livestock Systems in Asia

Fujiang Hou

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, China

College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology,

Lanzhou University, China

10.1 Introduction

The mixed farming system combining crop and livestock production, which usually is based on the interaction of arable crops such as forage crop, grain crop and oil crop, rangeland, woodland and livestock, is the dominant agricultural system of the world.

It produces about half of the world’s food

(Herrero et al., 2010) and makes the largest contribution to the food supply of humans.

The production system uses 90% of the total cropland, feeds 70% of sheep and goats and produces 88.5% of beef, 88% of milk, 61% of pork and 26% of poultry meat (Seré and Steinfeld, 1996; Blackburn, 1998).

Approximately 84% of the total agricultural population is involved in the operation of mixed farming systems in developing countries (Blackburn, 1998). As one of the biggest developing areas, the situation in

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3 The Microstructure of Bones and Teeth of Nonmammalian Therapsids

Indiana University Press ePub

Bone is a specialized connective tissue. Except for extant jawless fishes (lampreys) and to some extent chondrichthyes (sharks), it composes the skeleton of all vertebrates. It is a composite material with an organic phase and an inorganic mineral phase consisting of carbonate hydroxyl apatite—Ca10(PO4 Ca3)6(OH)2. However, relatively soon after an animal dies, and becomes buried by sediment, the hydroxyl group is displaced from the bone mineral and is commonly replaced by fluorine to form carbonate fluorapatite. Thus, X-ray diffraction analysis of fossil bone often has a slightly different mineral spectrum than living bone (Fig. 3.1A).

3.1. (A) X-ray diffraction spectra of hydroxyapatite (OHAp) and fluorapatite (FAp). Fluoridation of the apatite lattice (replacement of hydroxyl ions by fluoride ions) alters the mineral structure, which is detected as an increase in the 2θ position of key bands in an X-ray diffraction spectrum. (B) A thin section of a modern bone. The white arrow points to a ring of bone (the osteon) around a central dark region, which is the channel in which the blood vessels, nerves, and other connective tissue are located. The short black arrow indicates an osteocyte lacuna wherein the osteocyte (bone cell) occurs. The long black arrow points to the fine network of canaliculi that allows communication between neighboring osteocytes.

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5. The Elements of Mechanics

Capra, Fritjof Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

As Leonardo studied, drew, and painted “all the forms of nature,” he investigated not only their external qualities and proportions but also the forces that had shaped and continued to transform them. He saw similar patterns in the macro- and microcosm, but his careful investigations of these patterns of organization made him realize that the forces underlying them were quite different.

In his extensive studies of flowing water, Leonardo recognized correctly that gravity and the fluid’s internal friction, or viscosity, were the two principal forces operating in its movements (see p. 39). In his detailed observations of rock formations, he identified water as the chief agent in the formation of the Earth’s surface (see p. 69). Moreover, he speculated about the nature of the tectonic forces that caused layers of sedimentary rock to emerge from the sea and to form mountains (see p. 89).

In his studies of plants and animals, Leonardo identified the soul as the vital force underlying their formation and growth. Following Aristotle, he conceived of the soul as being built up in successive levels, corresponding to levels of organic life. The first level is the “vegetative soul,” which controls the organism’s metabolic processes. The soul of plants is restricted to this metabolic level of a vital force. The next higher form is the “animal soul,” characterized by autonomous motion in space and by feelings of pleasure and pain. The “human soul,” finally, includes the vegetable and animal souls, but its main characteristic is reason.

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Part Three: The Evolution of the Jawed Vertebrate Chassis and Something Fishy

Matthew F. Bonnan Indiana University Press ePub

You know when that shark bites with his teeth, babe, scarlet billows start to spread.

BOBBY DARIN, Mack the Knife

WE TAKE OUR JAWS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED TEETH FOR GRANTED. I was reminded of this with my children when both were less than a year old and only beginning to sprout their first teeth. When you begin to feed a baby real food and wean them from a strictly milk- or formula-based diet, food has to be thoroughly mashed up and puréed. As my wife and I have learned, it takes quite a while before a child masters eating larger pieces of food. Thanks to our jaws and teeth, we can eat quite a variety of food items of almost unlimited size, provided we have the time and inclination (and preservatives!) to take the necessary number of bites. In a strange and abstract sense, as we grow from infant to child we move from the micro-particle food consumption of our jawless ancestors to the larger food items of our jawed ancestors.

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5 Qualitative GIS and Emergent Semantics

David J Bodenhamer Indiana University Press ePub

JOHN CORRIGAN

The possibilities for qualitative Geographic Information Systems (GIS) rest largely on the prospective successes of humanities researchers in interrogating GIS in a way that will compel its adaptation to humanities data. One way of characterizing what is at issue in that turn as it now has begun is to observe that GIS ontology currently privileges disambiguation in its organization of knowledge, while in the humanities, it is trust placed in the slipperiness of data, in its status as multivalent, equivocal, and protean, that determines the processes of its sorting and analysis. Our imagining an eventual common ground that escapes the dread gravity of this seemingly perennial problem—a problem articulated in many ways since the Enlightenment as a “war” between science and its epistemological competitors—might be well served by our focusing on ways of exploiting opportunities for multimedia GIS. The challenge is to construct a spatial multimedia that is coherent and productive even while remaining emergent. In simpler terms, we need a more fluid and ambiguous GIS.

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25 PGPR-Mediated Defence Responses in Plants under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

25 

PGPR-Mediated Defence Responses in Plants under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Gagan Kumar,1 Jai Singh Patel,2 Anupam Maharshi,1 Arpan Mukherjee,2

Chetan Keswani,3 S.P. Singh,3 H.B. Singh1 and B.K. Sarma1*

1

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India; 2Department of Botany,

Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India; 3Department of

Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

25.1 Introduction

The rhizospheric region of different plants can be colonized by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) and provide beneficial effects such as plant growth promotion, resistance against diseases caused by phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and nematodes

(Kloepper et al., 2004). A report by van Loon et al. (1998) suggested elicitation of physical or chemical changes towards plant defence and the process is known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). PGPRs are used as bio-inoculants for the purpose of phytostimulation, biofertilization and biocontrol.

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