1663 Chapters
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Medium 9781786390325

21 Genome Insights into Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria, an Important Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

21 

Genome Insights into Plant GrowthPromoting Rhizobacteria, an Important

Component of Rhizosphere Microbiome

Vasvi Chaudhry,1* Niladri Chaudhry2 and Shrikant S. Mantri3

Bacterial Genomics & Evolution Laboratory, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology,

Chandigarh-160036, India; 2Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India; 3Computational

Biology Laboratory, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Mohali,

Punjab-160071, India

1

21.1 Introduction

Plants interact with the environment and their associated microbial communities in both above- and belowground ecosystems.

This assemblage of plant with environment and associated microorganisms together comprises the “plant microbiome” similarly to the way a human being possesses its microbiome (Turner et al., 2013; Berg et al., 2014).

The plant microbiome has been considered as one of the key determinants of plant health and productivity (Hartmann et  al., 2009).

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Medium 9781780644011

20: Validating Adoption Estimates Generated by Expert Opinion and Assessing the Reliability of Adoption Estimates with Different Methods

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF

20 

Validating Adoption Estimates

Generated by Expert Opinion and

Assessing the Reliability of Adoption

Estimates with Different Methods

T.S. Walker*

Independent Researcher, Fletcher, North Carolina, USA

Arriving at a comprehensive set of estimates of improved varietal adoption for many important food crops and producing countries was the core activity of the Diffusion and Impact of Improved

Varieties in Africa (DIIVA) Project. In Chapter 4, this volume, we spelled out our reasoning for the choice of expert opinion over other methods.

Briefly, neither did participants have the time nor did the project have the resources to carry out household- or community-­level surveys on varietal adoption for all crops in all countries.

Moreover, we needed compatibility with estimates generated in the 1998 Initiative for comparative purposes. That earlier benchmark on varietal adoption was estimated via expert panels.

Estimates from expert panels are only as good as the expert’s knowledge and the elicitation protocol. In theory, competing methods, such as seed-sales inquiries and household

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Medium 9781603447652

8. México-United States Shared Environmental Problems in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo Basin Ecosystem

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Sergio Jiménez-Hernández and Gary L. Powell

The Rio Grande/Río Bravo is a troubled source of life for the environment and the people that its ecosystems support. The United States and Mexico share many common problems along this legendary river, and the extent to which they work together will determine not only the future of the river but the future of the inhabitants of the river basin as well. The environmental stressors are a list too familiar: dewatering of the river through increasing impoundment and diversion activities; water pollution from municipalities and industry, agricultural inputs of salts, nutrients, raw sewage, toxic pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals and heavy metals; introduced exotic plants and animals; habitat loss through deforestation and other land-use changes; climate change that could be making the basin more inhospitable and difficult to manage; and a burgeoning human population that is creating its own tidal wave of crisis.

Added to the management issues are important socioeconomic, cultural, technical, and agricultural differences between both nations sharing this international border. The aim of this chapter is to present a new starting point for focusing environmental policies on mitigating these negative effects throughout the socioeconomic and ecological systems dominating this region.

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Medium 9781786394644

6 Genetically Modified Organisms in Food: Ethical Tensions and the Labeling Initiative

James, H.S., Jr. CABI PDF

6

Genetically Modified Organisms in Food: Ethical Tensions and the Labeling Initiative

Debra M. Strauss*

Charles F. Dolan School of Business, Fairfield University, Fairfield,

Connecticut, USA

Introduction

This chapter explores the ethical implications of genetically modified organisms

(GMOs) in food that originate from plants genetically altered through bioengineering.

The tensions between the proliferation of agricultural biotechnology and consumer concerns about potential harm to human health and the environment ultimately cause us to reflect on the current regulatory scheme in the USA. Does the failure to require adequate, meaningful labeling, and the preemption of grassroots efforts to do so, violate our right to informed consent by not allowing consumers a choice as to whether to knowingly and willingly assume the risks of ingesting GMOs?

Genetically modified (GM) plants involve a uniquely invasive application of agricultural biotechnology, unlike traditional plant breeding and hybrid methods used in the past. Through this novel process, the DNA of one organism is inserted into another, causing the target trait to be expressed in that non-related species at the cellular level throughout the plant, including the fruit or vegetable and the component ingredients that become part of a variety of food products. Most commonly, GM plants are engineered to withstand a weed-killing pesticide,

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Medium 9781786390325

6 Pseudomonas Communities in Soil Agroecosystems

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

6 

Pseudomonas Communities in Soil

Agroecosystems

Betina Cecilia Agaras,* Luis Gabriel Wall and Claudio Valverde

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Microbiología e Interacciones Biológicas en el Suelo,

Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

6.1 Introduction

Among all soil bacterial genera having a representative described as a plant-growth promoter, Pseudomonas comprise a wide variety of PGPR species, with different mechanisms of action (Lugtenberg and Kamilova,

2009). Several pseudomonads have demonstrated high rhizosphere competence, production of different kinds of secondary

­metabolites involved in antagonism, phytostimulation or fertilization, and an ability to degrade complex organic compounds, hence being able to contribute not only to plant health but also to bioremediation of soils

(Lugtenberg and Dekkers, 1999; Haas and

Défago, 2005; Tapadar and Jha, 2013; Agaras et al., 2015; Mishra et  al., 2015; Kumar,

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Medium 9781574414486

Bibliography / Bibliografia

Bernard Goffinet and Ricardo Rozzi and Lily Lewis and William Buck and Francisca Massardo University of North Texas Press PDF

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Ecology and Conservation in the Magellanic Sub-Antarctic Ecoregion / Ecología y

Conservación en la Ecorregión Subantártica de Magallanes

Alaback, P.B. 1991. Comparison of temperate rain forests of the Americas. Revista Chilena de Historia

Natural 64: 399–412.

Armesto, J.J., D. Manuscevich, A. Mora., C. Smith-Ramírez, R. Rozzi, A.M. Abarzúa & P.A. Marquet.

2010. From the Holocene to the Anthropocene: A historical framework for land cover change in southwestern South America in the past 15,000 years. Land Use Policy 27: 148-160.

Armesto, J.J., R. Rozzi, C. Smith-Ramírez & M.T.K. Arroyo. 1998. Effec ve conserva on targets in South

American temperate forests. Science 282: 1271-12.

72.

Armesto, J.J., C. Villagrán & M.T. Kalin (eds.). 1995. Ecología de los Bosques Nativos de Chile. Editorial

Universitaria, San ago, Chile. 469 pp.

Arroyo, M.T.K., M. Riveros, A. Peñaloza, L. Cavieres & A.M. Faggi. 1996. Phytogeographic rela onships and regional richness pa erns of the cool temperate rain forest of Southern South America.

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Medium 9781780644370

16 Resistance Management for Bt Maize and Above-ground Lepidopteran Targets in the USA: From Single Gene to Pyramided Traits

Soberon, M.; Gao, Y.; Bravo, A. CABI PDF

16

Resistance Management for Bt

Maize and Above-ground

Lepidopteran Targets in the

USA: From Single Gene to

Pyramided Traits

Fangneng Huang*

Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University

Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Summary

Since first being commercialized in 1996, transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins has gained widespread acceptance in the world. In 2013, nearly 50

Mha of Bt maize were planted in 15 countries. In the same year, growers in the

USA alone planted c.30 Mha of Bt maize, which accounted for 76% of the total Bt maize area of the country. Up to now, Bt maize technology can be classified into two generations. The first generation of Bt maize contains only a single Bt gene for a target. In

2010, the second generation of Bt maize became commercially available and this expresses two or more pyramided Bt proteins. Currently, the pyramided products are predominant in the USA. The major lepidopteran targets of Bt maize in the USA are corn borers (Crambidae), the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. To counter the threat of insect resistance, two resistance management strategies for Bt maize, ‘high dose/refuge’ and gene pyramiding, have been implemented. The long-term use of Bt maize against the major agricultural pests in North America provides a good opportunity to analyse the effectiveness of the adopted insect resistance management

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Medium 9781845939946

10: Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

10  Brief History of the Main Published Works on the Mites of Economic Plants

The mites of economic plants are mainly included in the superfamily Eriophyoidea and the families Tetranychidae and

Tenuipalpidae. Other families, e.g. the Tarsonemidae and the

Penthaleidae, have relatively few injurious species. Summarizing the history of these mite groups according to their economic importance is very difficult because of the very large number of references. This brief history covers only the main works on economic acarology, and the references that are included on systematic and taxonomic aspects highlight the importance of basic knowledge in the intervention that is applied. The discussion is arranged by geographic area. The Mediterranean region is taken to include the North African countries, the Middle

East, Turkey and Cyprus; the northern Mediterranean countries are included in the section on Europe.

Europe

The European history of acarology follows for long stretches of time the world history of the discipline, in conjunction with North

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Medium 9781845939625

18. Functional Genomics for the Study of Fruit Ripening and Quality: Towards an Integrative Approach

P Nath;  M Bouzayen; A K Mattoo CAB International PDF

18

Functional Genomics for the Study of

Fruit Ripening and Quality: Towards an

Integrative Approach

Federico Martinelli1,2 and Abhaya Dandekar3*

1Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, University of Palermo,

Palermo, Italy; 2Istituto Euro Mediterraneo di Scienza e Tecnologia,

Palermo, Italy; 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of

CaliforniaDavis, CA, USA

18.1 Introduction

Fruit development is controlled by genetically programmed processes influenced by environmental factors. Different ‘omics’ approaches (deep sequencing, microarray analysis, suppression subtractive hybridization) have identified and characterized genes involved in this process in several fruit species. The mass of knowledge concerning transcriptional regulatory networks affecting important physiological and developmental processes has expanded in the last two decades.

Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing uses microarray technology and realtime PCR to generate comprehensive data for functional genomics studies. Following the pioneering work of Aharoni and coworkers (2000) on strawberry, microarrays have been used in many different fruit species. In tomato, large-scale EST sequencing projects have clarified molecular mechanisms of fruit ripening and identified important transcription factors

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Medium 9780253006042

3 - The Animal with Three Heads

Simon J. Knell Indiana University Press ePub

The figure that faces the principal entrance is the most remarkable in this excavation, and has given rise to numberless conjectures and theories. It is a gigantic bust, representing some three-headed being, or three heads of some being to whom the temple may be supposed to be dedicated.

CAPTAIN BASIL HALL,
Fragments of Voyages and Travels (1832)

 

IN 1933, TED BRANSON AND MAURICE MEHL BELIEVED THE conodont would remain forever silent on the question of its anatomy. But they were wrong. Indeed, at the very moment they took possession of the fossil and turned it into a geological abstraction, new discoveries were being made that threatened to tear their utilitarian dream apart. These discoveries did not do so, however, because Branson and Mehl's bubbling pots of mud and practical science fit perfectly into a country infatuated with oil. Who, by comparison, really cared about the biology of a tiny, obscure creature? Who would willingly sacrifice the fossils’ usefulness for the sake of incorporating this new anatomical information? Carey Croneis, doyen of the new micropaleontology at the University of Chicago, certainly valued this practical turn, but he objected to the willingness of oil company geologists to sacrifice science for the sake of economic gain. He felt that the very integrity of the new science was at stake and called upon the industry to employ “men not only of adequate scholastic attainments but even more important, men of a high type of intellectual potentiality, which is, of course, a very different thing.” His was not a solitary voice, but the economic reality of the new industrial paleontology was never going to be affected by the moralizing of paleontologists in universities and museums. Ted Branson's son, Carl, for example, working for Shell in Texas in the late 1940s, revealed how fundamentally different this utilitarian world was: “It has been five years since I have seen many non-oil seekers; too long…. I'm mostly tied to hunting for grease and get no time for reading or research.”1 As a result, in the United States, two overlapping cultures developed around microfossils. One was committed wholly to the economic project. For it, fossils were no more than abstract tools, and biological concepts, such as evolution, simply devices to be used to distinguish as many unique “species” (or time markers) as possible. The other community also valued the practical benefits of fossils, but it saw the fossils embedded more properly in sciences that sought to understand the past conditions of the earth and life upon it. One group, fed on its greasy diet, soon grew obese in participants, while the other remained small and, since it trained the new oil men and women, could never fully separate itself from the practical science. For many types of fossil this division of labor caused few problems because the fossils themselves were simple objects. The conodont, however, was a biological mystery and it was, as we shall see, about to acquire considerable complexity. This produced an animal with a schizophrenic identity.

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Medium 9781780644554

13: Mass Casualty Incidents

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

13 

Mass Casualty Incidents

M. Shanahan

Head of Special Operations, Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK

Key Questions 

• What is a mass casualty incident?

• Why is it different from a major incident?

• What are the challenges for the NHS in managing this type of incident?

13.1  Introduction

This chapter largely considers the preparedness for and response to mass casualty incidents (MCIs) in the UK; however, principles can be extrapolated to other settings. The emergency services are well versed in planning and preparing for large-scale incidents. It is commonplace for events hosting in excess of 100,000 people to be planned for and safely managed. In the UK this is achieved through coordinated planning and management of the events using guidance such as the Purple Guide to Health, Safety and Welfare at Music and Other Events or The Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds (see Further Reading).

Apart from the planned events, the day-to-day business of the emergency services is to respond to the unplanned, no-notice incidents. In 2015 the police and ambulance services across England responded to over 22,000 emergency calls in any 24-hour period, with the fire and rescue services responding to approximately 1700 calls in the same period. A number of the calls related to multiple casualty incidents, arising from events such as road traffic collisions or relocating people who became displaced from their homes because of

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Medium 9780253009289

5 Making Places in Space: Miners and Collectors in Guanajuato and Tucson

Elizabeth Emma Ferry Indiana University Press ePub

5 MAKING PLACES IN SPACE: MINERS AND COLLECTORS IN GUANAJUATO AND TUCSON

Figure 5.1, a map featured in a report titled Potencial Minero de Guanajuato (Franco 1997) shows Guanajuato’s centrality in Mexico, in particular the fact that over 60 percent of the country’s population lives within a 350-kilometer radius (thus implying the density of infrastructure and services). The radiating circles on the map give an image of the mines and city of Guanajuato as a central origin point, with its subsoil resources expanding centrifugally to the rest of the country, and by extension, the world.

This image and the sensibility behind it contrast with many other views of the movement of mineral resources from mines to market, both for “regular people” and for social scientists. Within such views, for instance, mined ores such as silver, gold, or copper are quintessential raw materials, extracted from the “ends of the earth” and brought to the centers of global finance in New York and London. Likewise, mineral specimens are produced in geographically distant places and brought to Tucson, Munich, Denver, and other mineral marketplaces. In fact, even when minerals come from near these marketplaces, they are often treated as pristine emissaries of the margins of the cultural world. People also move from all over to a central meeting point at these mineral shows. Tucson, in particular, is called the “Mecca for mineral collectors,” emphasizing its role as a pilgrimage site and meeting place for the faithful all over the planet.1

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Medium 9781576753903

4 Competing Values and Paradoxical Leadership

Cameron, Kim Berrett-Koehler Publishers PDF

4

Competing Values and

Paradoxical Leadership

In addition to the existence of certain leadership roles, there is a more extensive answer to the question What levers can leaders use to produce similar results? Leaders at Rocky Flats relied on a set of key enablers to create the spectacular results that were achieved. One important purpose of this book is to highlight the enablers that may be generalizable to other settings. Identifying enablers that account for dramatic turnaround and extraordinary performance, however, requires a framework by which they can be organized. Rather than merely listing factors that accounted for the Rocky Flats achievement, we provide a framework that allows us to simplify and categorize the most important factors that explain success. The enablers being identified proved to be vital in turning the impossible into the possible at Rocky Flats—from disastrous performance to spectacular performance.

As mentioned in chapter 1, the framework we chose to organize the enablers is the Competing Values Framework. Its purpose is to identify the main themes represented by the enablers. The

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Medium 9781845939076

6 Predicting the Geographial Distribution of an Invasive Species (Chromolaena odorata L. (King) & H.E. Robins) in the Indian Subcontinent under Climate Change Scenarios

CAB International PDF

6

Predicting the Geographical

Distribution of an Invasive Species

(Chromolaena odorata L. (King) &

H.E. Robins) in the Indian

Subcontinent under Climate

Change Scenarios

S.K. Barik and D. Adhikari

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, North-Eastern Hill

University, Shillong, India

Introduction

Biological invasion, coupled with climate change, threatens the global environment as well as economics (Thuiller et al., 2007;

Tripathi, 2009; Walther et al., 2009). Rising temperatures, rapid economic development and invasion by alien species can potentially affect ecosystems, rapidly disassemble communities and negatively impact native biodiversity (Sanders et al., 2003; Lin et al.,

2007; Thuiller et al., 2007; Kelly and Goulden,

2008; Walther et al., 2009). Worldwide, alien invasive species cause an estimated annual economic loss of US$314 billion in the agriculture and forestry sectors, of which

India’s share is round US$116 billion

(Pimentel et al., 2001). Around 40% of the total plant species found in India are alien, of which 25% are considered to be invasive

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Medium 9781780647647

PART I: INTRODUCTION TO INVASION BIOLOGY AND THE HIERARCHY-OF-HYPOTHESES APPROACH

Jeschke, J.M.; Heger, T. CABI PDF

Part I

Introduction to Invasion Biology and the Hierarchy-of-hypotheses Approach

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1

Invasion Biology: Searching for

Predictions and Prevention, and

Avoiding Lost Causes

Phillip Cassey,1,* Pablo García-Díaz,1,2

Julie L. Lockwood3 and Tim M. Blackburn1,4,5

1School

of Biological Sciences and the Environment Institute,

The University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Landcare Research New

Zealand, Lincoln, New Zealand; 3Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick,

USA; 4Department of Genetics, Evolution & Environment, Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, UCL, UK; 5Institute of

Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, UK

Abstract

The introduction and establishment of alien species is one of the many profound influences of ongoing anthropogenic global environmental change. Invasion biology has emerged as the interdisciplinary study of the patterns, processes and consequences of the redistribution of biodiversity across all environments and spatio-temporal scales. The modern discipline hinges on the knowledge that biological invasions cannot be defined and studied solely by their final outcome of establishing alien species but rather as a sequential series of stages, or barriers, that all alien species transit: the ‘invasion pathway’. Some of the most important influences for a species transiting these sequential stages (i.e. transport, introduction, establishment and spread) are event-level effects, which vary independently of species and location, such as the number of individuals released in any given location (propagule pressure). The number of studies of biological invasions has increased exponentially over the past two decades, and we now have a significant body of research on different

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