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Medium 9781780644202

48; Building a Sustainable Sweetpotato Value Chain: Experience from the Rwanda Sweetpotato Super Foods Project



Building a Sustainable Sweetpotato

Value Chain: Experience from the Rwanda

Sweetpotato Super Foods Project

J. Ndirigwe,1* K. Sindi,4 J. Low,2 D. Shumbusha,3 J.B. Shingiro,3

J.C. Nshimiyimana,4 S.Hakizimana5 and A. Angsten6


Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB), Kigali, Rwanda; 2International

Potato Center Sub-Saharan Africa (CIP-SSA), Nairobi, Kenya;


RAB, Huye, Rwanda; 4International Potato Center (CIP), Kigali,

Rwanda; 5Catholic Relief Services, Kigali, Rwanda; 6Johns Hopkins

University, Baltimore, USA


Sweetpotato is widely grown in almost all agroecological zones of Rwanda, where it is prized by most resource-poor farmers as a reliable, low-input, food security crop but with limited commercial potential. The bulkiness, lack of processing technologies and lack of market at the peak of sweetpotato production are reported as major constraints by producers and policy makers for scaling up production.

A strategy to promote and make available to farmers disease-free planting material of two elite selected orange-fleshed sweetpotato varieties (Gihingamukungu and Cacearpedo) that yield roots of acceptable consumer quality was initiated and has been adopted by organized farmers’ groups in three districts.

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Medium 9780874217070


Steven K. Madsen Utah State University Press ePub

The Civil War broke out on April 12, 1861 and disrupted the plans for a timely report on the findings of the Macomb expedition. Futhermore, it changed the lives of the expedition’s main participants. Ultimately, what happened to the men? What did they achieve? More importantly, what were the major contributions of their San Juan Exploring Expedition?

During the Civil War, Macomb and Dimmock broadened the skills they had developed in the expedition. Macomb served as aide-de-camp to Gen. George McClellan. As the war progressed, the Union Army placed him with a balloon reconnaissance unit and he produced detailed maps of battle zones. At war’s end, he was brevetted a colonel for meritorious service.1

After the Civil War, Macomb remained a topographical engineer. For several years, he served as commander of the Philadelphia District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1874, in his honor, the government commissioned the J. N. Macomb, an iron snag boat employed on the Mississippi River. Continuing his military career, Macomb rose through the ranks and created a large number of topographic maps; many are now considered rare antiques. In 1867, he achieved the rank of colonel in the U.S. Army. He retired in 1882, following fifty years of military service. Macomb died in Washington, D.C., on March 16,1889, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His wife, Nannie, died in 1916 and was buried in the same grave.2

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Medium 9788131807002


Dr. Rashmi Tyagi Laxmi Publications PDF





n living system, different genes give rise to different types of RNAs and proteins, but all the proteins are not needed all the time and in all the types of tissues. Thus, throughout the lifecycle of a multicellular organism, though, all cells contain same set of genes, but in different types of tissues different genes are expressed to produce various types of RNAs and proteins, depending upon the need, e.g., digestive enzymes are specifically produced in alimentary canal, growth hormone in pituitary, insulin in pancreas, testosterone hormone in testis, progesterone and estrogen hormones in ovary, etc. Similarly, in all the organisms (multicellular as well as unicellular), expression of genes also varies with the environment. Thus, gene expression is highly regulated and energy is not wasted in the expression of unwanted genes, as protein synthesis requires energy in the form of ATP, GTP, etc. (Fig. 11.1).


Fig.11.1 Various levels of gene regulation.

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Medium 9781576337356

Radioactivity: CLEP Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780644202

51: Price Integration of Sweetpotato Marketing: Implications for an Efficient Marketing System in Nigeria


51  Price Integration of Sweetpotato

Marketing: Implications for an Efficient

Marketing System in Nigeria

H.N. Anyaegbunam,1* A.C. Nwosu2 and J.A. Mbanasor2

National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria;


Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria



This 2010 study was carried out in the south-east agroecological zone of Nigeria to determine the degree of market integration and infrastructural and social problems associated with sweetpotato marketing. In a food market economy like Nigeria, an efficient, integrated and spatial pricing system should lead to economic growth. This will be true if the price differential in traded product due to costs of transportation, storage and processing is effectively minimized over time and space. A multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting states, markets and respondents. A total of four states with 360 respondents (comprising 240 retailers, 120 wholesalers) in 24 markets were randomly chosen. The list of wholesalers and retailers who pay stall fees formed the sampling frame. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Analyses of data provided descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation coefficients. Results revealed that the markets were spatially separated but not fully integrated. The major problems of sweetpotato marketing identified include, in order of severity (most to least): (i) the lack of credit facilities; (ii) perishability of sweetpotato; (iii) lack of good processing machines; (iv) inadequate market stalls; (v) high transport cost; (vi) bulkiness of the commodity; (vii) lack of storage facilities; and (viii) the negative attitude of law enforcement agents. The study concludes that in general, the markets in the zone are integrated but not yet perfect. Consequently, we recommend that advocacy on structural lending reforms be conducted and facilities provided to enhance marketing activities and efficiency in the zone. Market actors should be encouraged to form cooperatives to capture economies of scale, especially for capital build-up and to establish bulking centres.

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Medium 9781780645216

18: Biotechnological Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Biotechnological Production of

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Ederson R. Abaide, Juliana Bastos, Valeria Dal Prá, Lisiane de Marsillac Terra, Raquel C. Kuhn and Marcio A. Mazutti*

Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil


The market for omega-3 fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for biodiesel production is continuously increasing. The main source of omega-3 fatty acids is from the extraction of oil from cold-water fish that usually inhabit deep-water environments, whereas biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils. Microbial oil can be an interesting alternative for the production of PUFAs. This chapter reviews the production, extraction, chemical characterization and future trends on microbial oil production for applications in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. From the analysis of several studies available in the literature, it has been shown that the production of lipids by the biotechnological route can be an effective way to complement the production of fatty acids for biodiesel production or to substitute the traditional extraction of fish oil for production of PUFAs. However, more technologies should be developed to enable the industrial production of microbial lipids.

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Medium 9781786390325

5 Role of Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Remediation

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF


Role of Plant Growth-Promoting

Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Remediation

Rama Kant Dubey,1 Vishal Tripathi,1 Sheikh Adil Edrisi,1 Mansi Bakshi,1 Pradeep

Kumar Dubey,1 Ajeet Singh,1 Jay Prakash Verma,1 Akanksha Singh,2 B.K. Sarma,3

Amitava Rakshit,4 D.P. Singh,5 H.B. Singh3 and P.C. Abhilash1*


Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Microbial Technology and Nematology Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India; 3Department. of Mycology and

Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi,

India; 4Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural

Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 5ICAR-National Bureau of

­Agriculturally Important Microorganisms, Kushmaur, Mau Nath Bhanjan, Mau, India

5.1  Introduction: Plant GrowthPromoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

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Medium 9781780645216

19: Functional Enzymes for Animal Feed Applications

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF


Functional Enzymes for Animal Feed


Hesham A. El-Enshasy,1,2* Nor Zalina B. Othman,1 Elsayed A. Elsayed,3, 4

Mohamed R. Sarmidi,1 Mohammad A. Wadaan3 and Ramlan Aziz1


Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

­(UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2City of Scientific Research and Technology

Application, Alexandria,Egypt; 3Zoology Department, King Saud University,

­Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Natural and Microbial Products Department,

National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt


The great demand for animal feed additives is directly proportional to the increased world human population.

Such increase in demand has inspired scientists to look for alternatives to traditional feed additives in order to cope with the increased requirements in animal feeds which ultimately enter the human food chain. Antibiotics have been used traditionally as animal feed additives for their various beneficial effects. However, their application has been recently banned after discovering several potential side effects, which will ultimately enter the human food chain, resulting in many health problems. In addition to probiotics and prebiotics, functional enzymes are considered to be one of the major sources for non-traditional feed additives, and they have been intensively investigated in the last two decades. This chapter highlights the application of different functional enzymes as animal feed additives. Moreover, the different groups of phytases and xylanases will be discussed in detail for their role as feed additives, including their characterization as well as their microbial production and application.

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Medium 9780253015150

2 Ichnology

Pérez-Lorente, Félix Indiana University Press ePub

ACCORDING TO THE MOST RECENT PUBLISHED COUNT (PÉREZ-Lorente, 2003b), the number of footprints in La Rioja is 7967. Subsequent studies of additional sites have provisionally increased that number to 9150. This number only includes footprints that have been studied and that have data available regarding their form and dimensions. The 9150 footprints are distributed among 866 theropod, 146 ornithopod, 22 sauropod, and 34 unidentified trackways, as well as a number of isolated prints. There are 5236 theropod footprints, 1059 ornithopod prints, 1198 sauropod prints, and 950 as yet unidentified prints. Many footprints at other sites remain to be studied. For example, the site of La Pellejera contains more than 700 footprints in about 70 trackways.

The distribution of the tracksites in the Cameros Basin is heterogeneous. They occur in the rocks of the Tera, Oncala, Urbión, and Enciso groups. The rocks with footprints are limestone, sandstone, and shale. The neighboring outcrops may be adjacent to each other or separated by hundreds of meters.

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Medium 9781576336366

Introduction: GED Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781786390325

11 Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted Beneficial Interaction

Singh, H.B.; Sarma, B.K.; Keswani, C. CABI PDF

11  Endophytomicrobiont: A Multifaceted

Beneficial Interaction

Shatrupa Ray,1 Vivek Singh,1 Kartikay Bisen,2 Chetan Keswani,3

Surendra Singh1 and H.B. Singh2*


Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University,

Varanasi, India; 2Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of

Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India; 3Department of

Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

11.1 Introduction

Successful interaction between plants and beneficial microbes lays a foundation for improving plant growth and soil structure.

However, several attempts to introduce beneficial bacteria into the rhizospheric region of agricultural plants have met with varying degrees of failure, particularly because of the huge competition posed by the pre-existing established rhizomicrobiota (Keswani et al.,

2013, 2014; Bisen et  al., 2015, 2016; Keswani, 2015; Keswani et al., 2016a, b). Moreover, several reports claim loss of microbial bioactivity owing to long-term storage (Nautiyal, 1997). Considering the biodiversity and population density of indigenous soil microbiota, causing permanent structural changes to the rhizospheric microbiota may become quite hectic and cumbersome, or to be more succinct, impossible (Singh et al.,

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Medium 9781845939076

5 Ageratum conyzoides: an Alien Invasive Weed in India

CAB International PDF


Ageratum conyzoides: an Alien

Invasive Weed in India

Shalinder Kaur1, Daizy R. Batish2, R. K. Kohli2 and

H.P. Singh1


of Environment Studies, Panjab University,

Chandigarh, India; 2Department of Botany, Panjab University,

Chandigarh, India


Worldwide, invasion by exotic alien plants has caused a significant change in structure and composition of vegetation leading to homogenization of flora (Cushman and

Gaffney, 2010). Due to increased globalization and burgeoning human population, there has been an unprecedented increase in movement (both intentional and unintentional) of species beyond their natural biogeographical range into new environments. In fact, the spread of invasive species is occurring at an exceptionally high rate throughout the world and is amongst one of the major threats to global biodiversity. It has greatly enhanced the interest of scientists in studying the magnitude of occurrence and impact of invasive species (Davis, 2009). Invasive plants damage ecosystems both economically and ecologically and, out of these, ecological impacts are more difficult to assess than economic effects (Pimentel et al., 2005).

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Medium 9789380386607


Rehana Khan Laxmi Publications PDF







Mitochondria are conspicuous, hollow, sac like cell organelles found in all eukaryotic cells except mature red blood corpuscles (RBCs) of mammals. It was firstly observed by

Kallikar. Altman named it as bioblasts and Benda called it Mitochondria.

Structurally, it consists of a fluid filled cavity surroundings not by, a single but by two trilaminar unit membranes—an outer limiting membrane and thicker inner membrane.

Outer membrane is smooth and straight. Inner membrane is infolded into cavity forming number of simple/branched plate like septa or tubular ridges, both called cristae. The part of inner membrane covering the cristae bears numerous, regularly spaced, minute, club shaped particles projecting into mitochondrial cavity. These particles are called elementary or f0f1-particles. Each particle has three distinct parts—a base piece, embedded in the membrane, a projecting stalk or pedicel and a knob like head at the tip of stalk.

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Medium 9781780646534

17: Patentability of Human Embryo Stem Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Case WARF in the United States of America and Europe

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF


Patentability of Human Embryo

Stem Cells: A Comparative

Analysis of Case WARF in the

United States of America and


Jiang Li*

Kenneth Wang School of Law, Soochow University, Su Zhou, China

17.1  Introduction

Human embryonic stem cells are potentially of great therapeutic value in a number of areas including spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and transplantation therapy (Thomson, 1998). The patentability of human embryonic stem cells has raised worldwide controversy and dispute in the last two decades, especially in the USA and Europe.

Following the basic principle of ‘anything under the sun that is made by man can be patented’,1 US patents on human embryonic stem cells have been granted. The US Patent and Trademark Office

(USPTO) granted a broad patent on primate embryonic stem cells (ESC) in December 1998 and a second patent on human embryonic stem cells

(HESC) in March 2001 (Loring and Campbell,

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Medium 9780253012821

7 Time’s Shadows

John Sallis Indiana University Press ePub





Around the time of the summer solstice the sunlight can become almost unbearable both in its intensity and in its duration. Yet it was a fitting time to chance upon a remarkable instrument by which, in a former time, sunlight provided the measure of time. I found it on the side of an old house in the nearby village of Bergheim. Set between two second-story windows above a small shop, the astronomical sundial consists of a painted square some two meters wide from which extend three metal rods. On the white background there is superimposed, near the top, an image of the sun; it is represented as a radiant face. Above the sun face there are two inscriptions. The first reads: “Sicut umbra fugit vita” (Life is fleeting just like a shadow), while the other, just below the first, indicates that the sundial was made in 1711. From the face of the sun, arrows radiate out – to the side and downward – to two three-sided bands running along the sides and the bottom of the square; on the bands are inscribed the hours of sunrise and sunset, the signs of the zodiac, and the months of the year. Along both sides of the arrow that points directly downward, the hours of the day are indicated. At the center of the square, directly below the face of the sun, two of the metal rods extend at an angle from two points on the surface, meeting so as to form with the surface an equilateral triangle. From the point where these two rods meet, a third, longer rod extends upward to the face of the sun. It is from the shadow that the three connected rods cast across the surface of the sundial that the various determinations of time can be read off, most directly the time of year (the month) and the time of day (the hour). It is the shadow that gives the measure of time; and it can hardly have been simply by chance that the inscribed word that is placed at the very top of the sundial directly above the face of the sun is umbra.

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