2165 Chapters
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Medium 9780253008831

2 Geologic Overview

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Alan L. Titus, Eric M. Roberts, and L. Barry Albright III

Cretaceous Strata in Southern Utah were Deposited in the proximal portion of the Sevier Foreland Basin. Total thickness of Cretaceous sediments probably exceeded 3000 m in the region before mid-Laramide uplift and erosion. Exposures are primarily found at the Kaiparowits Plateau and around the margins of the Markagunt and Paunsaugunt plateaus and the Pine Valley Mountain region. The Cretaceous section is divided up into the Cedar Mountain, Dakota, Tropic, Straight Cliffs, Wahweap, and Kaiparowits formations east of Parowan Canyon and is contained almost entirely within the Iron Springs Formation west. The sections are highly fossiliferous and yield one of the best records of Late Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystem evolution known in North America.

The state of Utah lies within both the Cordilleran Thrust Belt and Cordilleran Foreland Basin System (Fig. 2.1). The boundary between these two provinces, called the Cordilleran or Wasatch Hingeline (DeCelles, 2004), roughly parallels the east margin of the Sevier Fold and Thrust Belt. West of the Wasatch Hingeline are the extended and dissected remnants of thrust sheet stacks of Precambrian through early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. East of the Wasatch Hingeline are thick sections of largely flat-lying Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleogene sedimentary rocks (Hintze, 1988). Cretaceous strata crop out widely east of the Wasatch Hingeline, especially in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Book Cliffs, Henry Basin, La Sal-Abajo Mountains, and the southern portion of the state (Fig. 2.2).

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Medium 9781576337349

Kingdoms: Bacteria, Fungi, Protista: CLEP Biology

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780253008831

22 Late Cretaceous Theropod Dinosaurs of Southern Utah

Edited by Alan L Titus and Mark A Loew Indiana University Press ePub

Lindsay E. Zanno, Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Gy-Su Kim, Leon P. A. M. Claessens, and Christopher T. McGarrity

Recent interest in Upper Cretaceous Formations of southern Utah including intense collection efforts by the Kaiparowits Basin Project–a joint collaboration between the Utah Museum of Natural History, the University of Utah, and the Bureau of Land Management–has added considerably to our understanding of dinosaur diversity in the Western Interior Basin. These taxonomically unique and historically underrepresented ecosystems document a relatively high diversity of theropods, including a minimum of seven taxa known from the Kaiparowits Formation alone. Recent discoveries include at least five new taxa: Hagryphus giganteus, the first diagnostic North American oviraptorosaurian south of Montana; a new species of troodontid paravian; Nothronychus graffami, the most complete therizinosaurid skeleton yet discovered; and two new tyrannosaurid taxa, including Teratophoneus curriei and an undescribed taxon that represents the oldest North American tyrannosaurid recovered to date. Presently, data-rich paleobiogeographical comparison of latitudinally arrayed, coeval Western Interior Basin formations can only be made for a short temporal window that includes the upper Campanian Kaiparowits Formation. These investigations reveal that theropod diversity is relatively homogenous at higher taxonomic levels. Yet new discoveries also demonstrate a high degree of interformational, species-level endemism, indicating that the southern Utah theropod fauna is surprisingly unique and that theropod ranges in the upper Campanian Western Interior Basin were more restricted than previously understood. On the basis of these data, we argue against the referral of fragmentary dinosaur remains and teeth recovered from upper Campanian strata of the Western Interior Basin to taxa from other Western Interior Basin formations without substantial morphological evidence.

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Medium 9781780645216

1: Microbial Resources for Improved Crop Productivity

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

1  Microbial Resources for Improved

Crop Productivity

Javier Raya-González,1 Esmeralda Hernández-Abreu,2

Eduardo Valencia-­Cantero1 and José López-Bucio1*


Instituto de Investigaciones Químico-Biológicas, Universidad

Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mexico;


Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico-­Agropecuario No. 7, Morelia, Mexico


The ever-increasing human population and depletion of soil, nutrient and water resources make it necessary to ensure sustainability and genetic integrity of crops via exploitation of new technologies and through better agricultural practices. Many bacterial and fungal species may contain genes for plant resistance to biotic and abiotic factors and can produce metabolites that improve both the quality and the quantity of grains, fruits, fibre and nutritional energy. To ensure that beneficial microbes are available for commercial use, development of screening methods for identifying favourable traits is necessary. Recent advances in plant molecular biology, genomics and physiology using model plants and crop species together with improvements in microbial isolation, identification and culture techniques have provided the means to accelerate and strengthen the use of microbial formulations.

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Medium 9781780647708

2: Seed Growth and Development


Seed Growth and Development


Seed Structure, Composition and Size

Seeds of grain crops seem to the novice to be quite variable because they exhibit large differences in size, shape and colour, but, at a more fundamental level of structure and function, there is much less variation. Most of the seeds harvested for food or feed come from species of only two families, the Poaceae (grasses) and

Fabaceae (legumes), which limits the variation in seed characteristics (18 of 22 species,

Table 1.1). This concentration in two families also limits variation in seed composition, with seeds from Poaceae uniformly high in starch and the non-­endospermic seeds of the Fabaceae important sources of protein. Crops with high oil concentrations in their seeds (rapeseed, sunflower, sesame and sunflower) come from several other families (Table 1.1).

The composition of oil and protein in the seeds also varies among and within species and this variation plays an important role in determining quality and economic value of the products produced from these seeds. Current interest in healthier foods favours some species or cultivars over others (e.g. rapeseed cultivars that produce edible oils over traditional oil sources, such as soybean, that are higher in saturated fats) and stimulated development of cultivars with more desirable oil profiles. To date, commercialization of these cultivars has often proved difficult. Synthesis of oil and protein requires more metabolic energy than synthesis of starch (Penning de Vries et al., 1974), thus seed composition affects potential yield, which explains some species differences in yield. Variation in energy requirements also explains why genetic manipulation of seed composition can affect yield, as shown, for example, by the yield reduction that often occurs when plant breeders increase seed protein concentration (Brim and Burton, 1979). Seeds exhibit tremendous variation in size (weight per seed), ranging from 0.001 mg seed–1

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Medium 9780874216509

Chapter 1. Defining the River

Craig Denton Utah State University Press ePub

Allsop Lake is the source of Left Hand Fork of the Bear River and the most easterly lake in the river’s watershed.

It’s hard to get hold of a river. It invites the touch, but it’s difficult to grasp, an elusive thing that exists as much in the imagination as on the ground.

Most times, a river knows its place, sticking to hollows it carves for itself in the earth. In high times, though, it wanders where it wants, with blind momentum and its own cadence.

A river’s personality changes from day to day, sometimes shyly, sometimes with braggadocio. Some seasons, a river can be secretive and timid with a flow that struggles to cover its bed, eventually drying up on sun-baked rocks. Other times, when provoked, it can fill with thunder and fury.

The definition of a river seems simple enough. It is flowing surface water of a size large enough to capture the imagination and have a name. Rivers share that ineffable magic of the way water forms and holds together, with hydrogen and oxygen atoms sharing each other’s electrons so they can become whole molecules. Then the molecules, which look like Mickey Mouse heads, link themselves together through the mutual attraction of two positively charged hydrogen ears bonding with an adjacent, negatively charged oxygen head to create a chain that has mass but no form.

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Medium 9781780646138

4: Screening Wild Vigna Species and Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Landraces for Sources of Resistance to Striga gesnerioides

Maxted, N.; Dulloo, M.E.; Ford-Lloyd, B.V. CABI PDF


Screening Wild Vigna Species and

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Landraces for Sources of Resistance to Striga gesnerioides

O. Oyatomi,1* C. Fatokun,1 O. Boukar,1 M. Abberton1 and C. Ilori2

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria


4.1  Introduction

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), also known as black-eyed or southern pea, belongs to the genus Vigna, section Catiang, species unguiculata.

It comprises four subspecies, namely: unguiculata, stenophylla, dekindtiana and tenuis (Ng and

Marechal, 1985). The subspecies unguiculata is the only one cultivated, while the other three are wild relatives. Subspecies unguiculata is itself subdivided into four cultivar groups (cv-gr) namely

Unguiculata, Biflora, Sesquipedalis and Textilis

(Westphal, 1974). The cv-gr unguiculata is the most diverse of the four and is widely grown in

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Medium 9781576336359

Kingdom: Plantae: GED Biology

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781845939076

1 Plant Invasion in India: an Overview

CAB International PDF


Plant Invasion in India: an


R.K. Kohli1, D.R. Batish1, J.S. Singh2, H.P. Singh3 and

J.R. Bhatt4


of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India; of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;

3Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University,

Chandigarh, India; 4Director, Ministry of Environment and Forests,

CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi, India



The Earth’s flora is dynamic and has been constantly changing over a period of time.

Changes may be natural or human-aided, although in the recent past the latter has played a vital role. In fact, the movement of plants from one part of the earth to the other has become very common and frequent owing to better trade and transport facilities. Plant species that move from one geographical region to the other (either accidentally or intentionally), establish and proliferate there and threaten native ecosystems, habitats and species are known as invasive alien plants (hereafter referred to as invasive plants) (Richardson et al.,

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Medium 9781786396211

1 Introduction

Nur, F.; Forster, B.P.; Osei, S.A. CABI PDF




A brief and general description of mutation breeding is provided. Mutation has been a successful strategy in producing over 3000 mutant cultivars in over 200 crop species worldwide. Oil palm is one of the few major crop species, and the only oil crop not to have been improved by mutation breeding.

However, pioneering work in mutation breeding in oil palm did take place in Ghana in the 1970s. This produced the first M1 population in oil palm and has only recently been progressed by developing M2 populations and in discovering mutants for crop improvement.

1.1  Brief History of Plant Mutation Breeding

The history of plant breeding spans centuries. The improvement of crop plants has been continuous since the domestication of species: initially by simple selection of naturally occurring forms; later by deliberate intervention. A landmark for plant breeding was the establishment of the laws of inheritance (Mendel, 1866), which transformed plant breeding from an art into a science. Since then, various plant breeding technologies have had significant impacts on plant breeding. These include: induced polyploidy; interspecific hybridization; chromosome engineering; alien gene introgression; doubled haploidy; F1 hybrids; transformation; genetic modification

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Medium 9781603442909

Eastern Gulf of Mexico

Buster, Noreen A. Texas A&M University Press ePub

Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor

Gregg R. Brooks

Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are the 2 largest estuaries in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. They lie in close proximity to one another, separated by less than 200 km, along the westward-facing, barrier-island Gulf Coast of peninsular Florida (Fig. 5.1). They have similar dimensions, share the same regional geological setting, have a similar climate (humid subtropical), and share a similar oceanographic setting (tide and wave regimes). Geologic research over the past 50 years has developed slower for Charlotte Harbor than for Tampa Bay. Over the past 20 years, studies have focused on the recent geologic history and modern depositional units because interests and funding have concentrated more on anthropogenic impacts and environmental concerns.

Figure 5.1. Location map of Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor along the Florida Gulf Coast (modified from Randazzo and Jones 1997).


Tampa Bay is a large multilobed system of interconnected bays and lagoons (Fig. 5.2). It covers over 1000 km2, but despite its large aerial extent is rather shallow with an average depth of 4 m. It has been naturally divided into 5 physiographic subregions. Middle and lower Tampa Bay form the main body, which is 1520 km in width, 30 km in length, and contains 58% of the total area. Fifty percent of middle and lower Tampa Bay is 26 m deep, and 30% attains depths >6 m. Almost all of the depths >6 m are in this part of the bay. Old Tampa Bay, the northwestern lobe, is approximately 25 km long, 510 km wide, and comprises 26% of the bay area. Almost 38% is <2 m deep and 2% is covered by water depths >6 m. Hillsborough Bay, the northeastern lobe, is approximately 15 km long by 7 km wide and comprises approximately 10% of the bay complex. Its depth distribution is similar to that of Old Tampa Bay. Boca Ciega Bay, located north of the mouth of Tampa Bay, is not technically part of the estuary but is a small lagoon behind the coastal barrier islands. Much of Boca Ciega Bay has been dredged and filled, resulting in a substantial decrease in estuarine habitat. Greater than 75% of Boca Ciega Bay is <2 m in depth (Goodell and Gorsline 1961).

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Medium 9781607320692

THREE Engineering, Management, and the Military-Industrial Complex

Debora Hammond University Press of Colorado ePub

Engineering, Management,
and the Military-Industrial Complex

Many of the organizations I experience are impressive fortresses. The language of defense permeates them. . . . For most of its written history, management has been defined in terms of its control functions. . . . If organizations are machines, control makes sense. If [they] are process structures, then seeking to impose control through permanent structure is suicide. If we believe that acting responsibly means having our hands into everything, then we cannot hope for anything except what we already have—a treadmill of effort and life-destroying stress. . . . As we let go of the machine models of work, we begin to step back and see ourselves in new ways, to appreciate our wholeness, and to design organizations that honor and make use of the totality of who we are.

—Margaret Wheatley, Leadership and the New Science1

Having been introduced to the system concept in the contexts of biology and new-paradigm thinking, I was neither aware of nor particularly interested in parallel concepts in the fields of engineering and management. I knew very little about cybernetics and had no idea that the field of systems thinking had anything to do with the military. My own orientation, like that of many in my generation, was closer in spirit to the romantic tradition, an organic holism that was both antimechanistic and antitechnocratic. Despite the fact that most of my graduate school colleagues in the early 1990s shared my concerns about the increasingly technocratic orientation of the military-industrial complex, I was surprised to discover that romanticism and organic holism were somewhat suspect in the academic community and often associated with fascism.

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Medium 9781789240542

2 Genetically Modified Foods in the Light of Food Regimes

Brankov, T.; Lovre, K. CABI PDF


Genetically Modified Foods in the Light of Food Regimes

Understanding of the world food system in a broader context, its crises, food prices, environmentally hazardous agro-industrialization, and food sovereignty movements, as well as the diffusion of transgenic foods, is almost impossible without analyses of food regimes.

Buttel (2001, pp. 21–24) wrote: ‘Beginning in the late 1980s, the sociology and political economy of agriculture began to take a dramatic turn. The extent of the shift in the literature was not entirely apparent at the time, because at a superficial level the concepts and vocabulary of late 1980s and early 1990s agrarian studies did not depart sharply from those of the new rural sociology. The lexicon continued to be primarily that of Marxist/ class categories. But only 5 years after the seminal piece – Friedmann and McMichael’s

1989 Sociologia Ruralis paper on food regimes – was published, the sociology of agriculture had undergone a dramatic transformation. . . this article on food regimes was arguably the seminal piece of scholarship in the abrupt shift away from the new rural sociology, and

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Medium 9780253356024

General Information

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub



Table G-1. Land Use by Natural Region Based on National Land Cover Data, 1992

Highland Rim

Land Use


open water


low-int. res.


high-int. res




bare rock/sand/clay






deciduous forest


evergreen forest


mixed forest








row crops


small grains


urban/rec. grasses


wooded wetlands


emergent herb. wetlands




Northwestern Morainal

Land Use

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Medium 9780874217919

8 On the Same Page

Bruce L. Smith Utah State University Press ePub

I eagerly delivered reports—annual progress reports, habitat inventory summaries, status reports of big game species—to the Tribal Fish and Game Committee and Joint Business Council. Certain council members would thumb the pages and glance curiously at me as if to say, “I am not impressed by how much time you spend at a typewriter.”

Most of these documents were skimmed at best. I knew that. But I regarded chronicling our findings an essential contribution for succeeding biologists, tribal leaders, and the Shoshone and Arapaho people. This permanent record was the benchmark by which future efforts to restore WRIR’s natural treasures would be gauged.

I liked that my position provided access to tribal decision-makers. It is not that it conferred a sense of self-importance; rather it made my work feel relevant. Being at the Joint Business Council’s beck and call and able to schedule a time slot to present some pressing matter of my work to this governing body was gratifying and often hastened decision making.

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