1663 Chapters
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Medium 9781780643663

1 Climate Change and Agricultural Development: A Challenge for Water Management

Hoanh, C.T.; Smakhtin, V.; Johnston, R. CABI PDF

1

Climate Change and Agricultural

Development: A Challenge for

Water Management

Chu Thai Hoanh,* Robyn Johnston and Vladimir

Smakhtin

International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri

Lanka

Abstract

Freshwater-related risks of climate change increase significantly with increasing global temperatures. Globally, the negative impacts of future climate change on freshwater systems are expected to outweigh the benefits, and agriculture and irrigation, as the largest consumers of water globally, are most at risk. This book analyses the potential impacts of climate change on water for agriculture, and the adaptation strategies in water management to deal with these impacts, drawing on global assessments and regional studies.

This chapter introduces the book, sets the scene for research on climate change in agricultural water management, and synthesizes the issues, methodologies and findings in the chapters to follow. Chapters 2 and 3 provide an overview of global assessment of climate change impacts and water requirement for future agriculture. Chapters

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Medium 9781626562462

Introduction A Shift in Perspective

Garan, Ron Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

A Shift in Perspective

This is a book about perspective—the perspective of seeing our planet from space, the perspective of working on development projects on the ground, and the orbital perspective, which synthesizes them both and is the focus of this book.

There usually are two ways to define the word perspective. It may refer to the rendering or interpretation of a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional plane, or it may refer to an attitude toward something, a point of view. Both of these definitions come into play in our discussion of the orbital perspective. Historically, for the most part, our perspective has been two-dimensional. Although we know that the world is not flat, a true perspective on a three-dimensional, interrelated reality is usually beyond our immediate awareness. Nonetheless, the real world is not two-dimensional, and to solve the problems facing our global society we need to start living in the real world. Two-dimensional thinking focuses on the next quarterly report or election campaign. Three-dimensional thinking, the orbital perspective, brings to the forefront the long-term and global effects of every decision. Two-dimensional thinking prioritizes capturing market share, whereas three-dimensional thinking looks to expand the market itself and does not particularly care who’s got the biggest piece of the pie.

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Medium 9781603447652

3. Ecosystem-Based Management of the Apalachicola River–Apalachicola Bay System, Florida

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Robert J. Livingston

Temperate, river-dominated estuaries are among the most productive and economically valuable aquatic resources in the world. However, alluvial systems have been seriously damaged by various human activities. Estuarine primary production, based on loading of nutrients and organic compounds from associated rivers, is one of the most important processes in river-dominated estuaries (Howarth 1988; Baird and Ulanowicz 1989; Livingston et al. 2000). Nutrient input from river sources has been closely associated with autochthonous phytoplankton production. River-driven allochthonous particulate organic matter maintains detritivorous food webs in estuaries (Livingston 1983, 1984, 1985a). However, the relative importance of various sources of both inorganic nutrients and organic carbon (dissolved and particulate) can vary from estuary to estuary (Peterson and Howarth 1987). These differences can be related to the specific tidal and hydrological attributes of a given system (Odum et al. 1979). Human sources of such compounds often have the exact opposite effect leading to hypereutrophication, plankton blooms, deterioration of the estuarine food webs, and loss of secondary production (Livingston 2000, 2002, 2005).

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Medium 9780253355089

15. Neck Posture in Sauropods

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub

ANDREAS CHRISTIAN AND GORDON DZEMSKI

The neck posture in sauropod dinosaurs is a crucial feature that affects their biomechanics, physiology, ecology, and evolution. Yet neck posture and utilization in sauropods are still controversial topics. In this chapter, we use a biomechanical approach to reconstruct the habitual neck posture of sauropods. The analysis is based on a comparison of stresses on the intervertebral cartilage along the vertebral column of the neck. In previous studies on extant animals with long necks, this method has shown to yield reliable results. The habitual neck posture is shown to differ considerably among sauropods. At least in some sauropod species, the long sauropod neck was biomechanically capable of both feeding at great heights and sweeping over a large feeding area without moving much of the body. Differences in neck posture indicate that the feeding strategy varied among sauropods.

A long neck is a characteristic feature of almost all sauropod dinosaurs (McIntosh 1990; but see Rauhut et al. 2005). The necks of some sauropods, such as Brachiosaurus, Barosaurus, Diplodocus, and Mamenchisaurus, reach twice or even more the length of the trunk (e.g., Janensch 1950a, 1950b; Bonaparte 1986; McIntosh 1990). Neck posture is a crucial feature for understanding the ecology, physiology, biomechanics, and evolution of sauropods. Yet the neck posture continues to be a highly controversial subject (Figs. 15.1, 15.2). The long neck has been interpreted as either a means for high vertical browsing (e.g., Bakker 1987; Paul 1987, 1988) or for increasing the horizontal feeding range (e.g., Martin 1987). Taking a single species, Brachiosaurus brancai for example, the range of neck postures suggested extends from horizontal (Frey & Martin 1997; Berman & Rothschild 2005; Stevens & Parrish 2005a, 2005b), to forwardly inclined (Janensch 1950b; Christian & Dzemski 2007), to nearly vertical (Bakker 1987; Paul 1987, 1988; Christian & Heinrich 1998; Christian 2002) (Figs. 15.1, 15.2).

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Medium 9781780644554

11: Training and Exercising for Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

11 

Training and Exercising for

Emergency Preparedness,

Resilience and Response

R. Ellett1 and A. Wapling2

Former Fire Commander, Humberside Fire and Rescue Service; and Course

Director at the Emergency Planning College, Easingwold, Yorkshire, UK

2

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response,

NHS England (South), UK

1

Key Questions 

Why is it important to train staff to manage emergencies?

How can specialist training best be delivered to those who need it?

How do we evaluate training?

Why is it useful to test our preparedness through exercises?

How does learning make our response to emergencies more effective?

11.1  Introduction

Emergencies are a unique and sometimes extreme environment not only for those caught up in the event, but also those responsible for enacting the response. For emergency responders it is important to recognize that the environment will be different from that of their daily work. The response of an ambulance paramedic to a road traffic collision with two cars (a relatively frequent if unfortunate event) will be different from that of a collision of a coach with 52 children involved (thankfully a rarer occurrence). As emergency planners and organizational managers we have a responsibility to prepare and equip our staff to manage extreme and uncommon events.

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Medium 9781786392756

5 Driving Forces and Demand-side Economics

Viaggi, D. CABI PDF

5

Driving Forces and Demand-side

Economics

5.1  Introduction and Overview

This chapter illustrates the demand-side issues in the bioeconomy. The central focus of this topic is individual consumer behaviour. Consumers have been mentioned at several points in the previous chapters, as their individual choices are key to understanding trends and the development of markets and sectors. Yet, consumers are not acting in isolation. On the contrary, they take decisions in a context in which they are called to interact continuously with other consumers and society as a whole. Individual and collective choices may well be promoted by major needs laying in the background but acting as driving forces and enacted through policies, network’s actions and information by various opinion groups.

This section seeks to address the entirety of the demand-side issues related to the bioeconomy.

It starts with the macro drivers guiding the need for bioeconomy technologies and investigates how they affect the market through individual consumers’ and citizens’ behaviour. It then focuses on individual behaviour, initially based on rather standard consumer theory, focused mostly on utility as linked to a good’s attributes.

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Medium 9780253006073

6 Production Machinery: Mathematics for Analysis and Description

Martin H. Krieger Indiana University Press ePub

Philosophical Analysis and Phenomenological Description; Machinery and Production Processes; Naming and Modeling the World; Demonstrations and Proofs as Strategies of Explanation; Understanding “The Physics”; Analogy and Syzygy; The Mathematics and The Physics.

THE ARGUMENT IS: MATHEMATICS PROVIDES MACHINERY FOR modeling Nature, physicists customizing that mathematics so that it does the work of physics and of Nature, and along the way that machinery allows us to analyze and understand physical phenomena. So, for example, in mathematically modeling and so giving specific meaning to or “naming” freezing, or diffusion, or fluid flow, physicists discover better what they mean by those notions. In viewing Ising matter from many different mathematical points of view, physicists discover that Ising matter accommodates many modes of conception. The deep question then becomes how can Nature accommodate so many points of view (much as an everyday object accommodates many aspects and uses). Correspondingly, we are led to ask how are the different mathematical conceptions related to each other – what accommodates all of them. So there is an analogy between a physical analogy and a mathematical analogy, an analogy of analogies, what is called a syzygy.

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Medium 9781780644202

27: Potato Virus Y in South Africa: Isolate Characterization and Assessment of Potato Cultivar Resistance

Low, J. CABI PDF

27 

Potato Virus Y in South Africa: Isolate

Characterization and Assessment of

Potato Cultivar Resistance

J.C. Visser and D.U. Bellstedt*

University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Abstract

Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most serious viral threats to potato production worldwide and throughout Africa, resulting in severe yield reduction. Management of this virus is key to sustainable potato production. The virus is spread by infected tuber material and aphid vectors. In South Africa, the pathology of PVY infections has changed in recent years. Disease diagnosis based on leaf symptoms became problematic, and diagnosis by means of ELISA testing was the only way to eliminate diseased mother tuber material. The PVYNTN strain has recently been found in South Africa which can cause potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) and this can lead to crop failure as tubers showing necrosis are unacceptable to the consumer.

In this study we characterized the PVY strains which are currently responsible for infections in

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Medium 9780253021021

19 Analysis of Desiccation Crack Patterns for Quantitative Interpretation of Fossil Tracks

Daniel Ma Edited by Peter L Falkingham Indiana University Press ePub

19.1. Different desiccation crack patterns as observed on Late Jurassic dinosaur tracksites excavated on Highway A16 (Canton Jura, northwest Switzerland). Differentiation of primary and secondary crack patterns (A) and different aggregate dimensions (B, C). (A) Courtedoux-Tchâfouè tracksite, level 1055 (thickness of layer 1055 around 3 cm, mudstone). Scale bar is 0.5 m. (B) Courtedoux–Bois de Sylleux tracksite, level 1040 (thickness of layer 1040 2–4 cm, mudstone), note semicircular sauropod manus and oval pes tracks partially surrounded by displacement rims and highlighted with black chalk. Scale bar is 1 m. (C) Courtedoux–Bois de Sylleux tracksite, level 1070 (thickness of layer 1070 5–6 cm, mudstone), note several tridactyl theropod tracks colored in black. Scale bar is 1 m.

Analysis of Desiccation Crack Patterns for Quantitative Interpretation of Fossil Tracks

19

Tom Schanz, Maria Datcheva, Hanna Haase, and Daniel Marty

THIS CHAPTER PRESENTS A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO interpret fossil track environments employing the progress made in soil mechanics regarding understanding and modeling of soil desiccation cracks. It must be emphasized that the thorough analysis of soil desiccation phenomena is crucial for the understanding of track formation and preservation processes and the interpretation of the paleoenvironmental setting associated with fossil track-bearing strata. The basis for the proposed method is the generally accepted fact that crack formation depends on the intrinsic state properties of the soil and on the boundary conditions the soil layer is exposed to during desiccation. Both the observations made during the experimental test series and results obtained from numerical simulation (mathematical modeling) show that it is possible to reconstruct crack patterns that are typically found in association with fossil tracks. It has to be admitted, however, that despite a vast literature on the examination, explanation, interpretation, and simulation of present-day soil (desiccation) crack patterns, fossil soil conditions and desiccation crack patterns are generally still difficult to assess. This study addresses experimental investigation of crack patterns on fine-grained to more coarse-grained soils with varying thickness and base layer roughness, exposed to drying, and experimental and numerical simulation of crack appearance in and around artificially designed impressions that resemble sauropod pes tracks. The results may be used to infer subsoil properties and boundary conditions in a given paleoenvironment at the time of track formation and during track preservation and to quantify the influence of the impression relief (track) on the crack pattern formation during desiccation.

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Medium 9781780645216

6: Biofilmed Biofertilizers: Application in Agroecosystems

Gupta, V.K.; Sharma, G.D.; Tuohy, M.G. CABI PDF

6 

Biofilmed Biofertilizers:

Application in Agroecosystems

Udugama V.A. Buddhika,1 Gamini Seneviratne,1* Ekanayake M.H.G.S.

Ekanayake,1 Dasanayake M.N. Senanayake,1 Avanthi D. Igalavithane,1

Nirodha Weeraratne,1 Asgiri P.D.A. Jayasekara,2 Wilfred L. Weerakoon,3

Amila Indrajith,3 Herath M.A.C.Gunaratne,4 Rambandi K.G.K. Kumara,1

Meragalge S.D.L. De Silva5 and Ivan R. Kennedy6

1

National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka; 2Tea Research

Institute of Sri Lanka, Hantana, Sri Lanka; 3Center for Sustainable Agriculture

Research and Development, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka; 4Plenty Foods Private Limited,

Madatugama, Sri Lanka; 5Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakelle,

Sri Lanka; 6Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, University of Sydney, Australia

Abstract

Certain soil microbiota naturally exists as surface-­attached microbial communities in a biofilm mode of growth.

They have been shown to be more effective at functioning than monocultures or mixed cultures of microbes.

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Medium 9781786395887

5 Harvesting

Kelanaputra, E.S.; Nelson, S.P.C.; Setiawati, U. CABI PDF

Harvesting

5

Abstract

The ripe bunch with red-coloured fruits can be harvested about 150 days after pollination, or when one loose fruit appears on the ground. Harvested bunches are sent to the processing area in gunny sacks, along with any loose fruit that detach during harvesting. Minimum ripeness standards are used to reduce the risk of loose fruit/seed being lost, and the use of net bags after bag removal at

21–25 days post-pollination will prevent any loose fruit loss.

5.1 Tools

Chisel – used for cutting the fruit bunch from the tree.

Net bag – used to wrap the bunch after pollination to avoid any missing loose fruits when it is harvested.

Gunny sack – used to put the bunch inside for transporting to the seed processing building.

Labels – used to record the crossing identity and date of pollination.

Bunch transporter – used to transport the bunch from the field to the seed processing area.

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Medium 9780253006455

15 The Discovery of Human Sex Chromosome Conditions

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

When Michael Frederic Guyer (1874–1959) looked at human chromosomes in 1910, he estimated the diploid number was 24 in females and 23 in males.1 He thought the sex chromosome mechanism was XX female and XO male. Two years later, Hans Jean Chrysostome von Winiwater (1875–1949) doubled that estimate and claimed the human chromosome number was 47 in spermatocytes, but he agreed with Guyer about the XO status of males.2 That changed in 1921, when Theophilus Shickel Painter (1889–1969) at the University of Texas reported a chromosome number of 48 (although he said it could be 46 or 47). Painter used testes from freshly executed prisoners or from castrated patients in mental asylums. He also said there was a definite Y chromosome in the male cells he studied and thus 48,XY was the chromosome number and sexual status of males for another generation.3

The status remained stable because techniques did not change in cytology for human cells until the 1950s, when tissue culture techniques improved, hypotonic solutions were used to increase the volume of nuclei, and colchicine was used to arrest cell division at metaphase. In 1956, when two Swedish investigators, Joe Hin Tjio and Albert Levan, combined all these procedures, they got a consistent reading of 46 chromosomes, with very clear XX females and XY males.4 From then on, the human chromosome number was represented as 46,XX for females and 46,XY for males. By 1960, a standardized way of photographing, enlarging, and clipping out chromosomes was introduced. The chromosomes were measured and aligned in size, place, and by grouping within a particular size range of the location of the centromere that separates the two arms of the chromosomes. (The shorter arm of the chromosome is called “p” and the longer arm “q.”) The resulting mounted representation of the chromosomes is called a karyotype. The X chromosome is in the C group (chromosomes of moderate size), and it is slightly submetacentric. The Y chromosome is very small, and the q arm is at least twice as long as the p arm. In 1964, Lionel Sharples Penrose (1898–1972) estimated that the X accounted for about 6 percent of the total DNA of the sperm nucleus in humans, and the Y accounted for about 2 percent.5

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Medium 9781780642895

6 UK Fruit and Vegetable Production – Impacts of Climate Change and Opportunities for Adaptation

Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J., Editors; Fuhrer, J.; Gregory, P.J. CAB International PDF

6

UK Fruit and Vegetable Production

– Impacts of Climate Change and

Opportunities for Adaptation

Rosemary Collier1 and Mark A. Else2

1Warwick

Crop Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of

Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, UK; 2East Malling Research, East

Malling, Kent, UK

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Fruit Production

Outdoor horticultural crops grown in the

UK are particularly sensitive to changes in climate due to the impact of increasing temperatures, changing rainfall patterns and increased frequency of extreme events

(Knox et al., 2010a). It is clear that climate change will offer both opportunities and threats to UK horticultural production

(Knox et al., 2010b). The complex interactions between the variables make accurate predictions of the effects of climate change on agricultural and horticultural production notoriously difficult, and recent predictions in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

(CCRA) published in January 2012 (CCRA,

2012) have stimulated much debate (e.g.

Knox and Wade, 2012; Semenov et al., 2012).

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Medium 9780253016065

4 Postdepositional Processes and Erosion of the White River Badlands

Rachel C. Benton Indiana University Press ePub

4.1. Photographs of clastic dikes. (A) Multiple crosscutting clastic dikes on Highway 240 near Pinnacles Overlook. (B) Clastic dike along the Old Northeast Road showing sheetlike morphology. (C), (D), (E) Close-up of clastic dikes showing crenulated texture. (F) Mud cracks from strata near Door and Window Overlook. Note size difference and fracture pattern compared to clastic dikes. Photos by the authors.

THE BADLANDS THAT WE SEE TODAY ARE THE RESULT OF both depositional and postdepositional processes. Our understanding of these processes and their role in the formation of the Badlands is only possible as a result of the significant erosion that characterizes this region. We discuss postdepositional features first, with the understanding that it is erosion that has allowed us to study these features.

The rock strata that comprise the Badlands were once loose sand, silt, and clay, with the occasional wind-deposited tephra and freshwater limestone. Upon burial, these sediments were turned to rock by compaction and cementation during the process of lithification. Compaction is due to the enormous overlying weight of additional sediments that are brought into the basin. As a result, the thicker the accumulation of sediments, the greater the reduction of porosity (void space) between the grains. Cementation is the process by which individual grains of sediment are bound together by the precipitation of secondary minerals, commonly calcite, quartz, or iron oxide, out of groundwaters that have moved through the sediment. Geologists refer to lithification as just one form of diagenesis, the sum of physical and chemical changes that can be induced in sediment upon burial.

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Medium 9781780644011

12: Varietal Output and Adoption in Barley, Chickpea, Faba Bean, Field Pea and Lentil in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF

12 

Varietal Output and Adoption in

Barley, Chickpea, Faba Bean, Field Pea and

Lentil in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan

Y.A. Yigezu,1* C. Yirga2 and A. Aw-Hassan1

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Amman,

Jordan; 2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1

Introduction1

The International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) was established in 1977 to undertake agricultural research relevant to the needs of people living in North Africa and

West Asia. It has a global responsibility for the improvement of barley, lentil and faba bean in the CGIAR (Consultative Group on International

Agricultural Research). Since its founding, it also has a regional responsibility for the improvement of chickpea. Even though ICARDA does not have a global or regional mandate for field peas, its former field pea programme has done some work in genetic improvement of this crop from which Ethiopia has benefited.

These five crops are also important in the

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