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Medium 9780253018328

Part Two: The Origin and Early Evolution of the Vertebrate Chassis

Matthew F. Bonnan Indiana University Press ePub

You feel it running through your bones.

THE CAESARS, Jerk It Out

THE THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION PREDICTS THAT ALL VERtebrate animals alive today and those contained in the fossil record are descendants of a single common ancestor. This implies that across all vertebrate animals we should see a deeper pattern, a hidden chassis from which all other derived traits have been built or modified.

We could simply jump to the fossil record to look for the ancestral body plan, but we need a search image to know that whatever fossil we find is indeed an early vertebrate. To understand what truly constitutes the original vertebrate blueprint, we must first turn to the living relatives of vertebrates and the relationships of vertebrates to other animals. After establishing both the undergirding and the overall blueprint of the basic vertebrate chassis, we can then turn to the fossil record to test our hypothetical model of the ancestral vertebrate.

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Medium 9781780646534

21: Intellectual Property Rights in Drug Development and Biotechnology

Singh, H.B. CABI PDF

21

Intellectual Property Rights in Drug Development and

Biotechnology

Gerard M. Raj,1* and Avinash Arivazhahan2

1

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research,

Pondicherry; 2Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India

21.1  Introduction

Biotechnology is a field of science that brings together natural processes and human interventions. It is the term used to indicate the use of genetic selection and/or engineering to produce commercially useful and/or scientifically fascinating products by living cells. The US Congress Office of Technology Assessment defines biotechnology as

‘any technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses’ (United States Congress,

Office of Technology Assessment, 1989).

Even though the field of biotechnology is gaining wide popularity in recent times, this is a field that has been present and slowly evolving for several centuries. This in-vogue field is commonly grouped under the broad category of life sciences and is concerned with the application of science and technology to living organisms so as to extract new products or knowledge. Biotechnology has come into the limelight recently owing to advances in recombinant DNA techniques, monoclonal antibodies, etc. The extent of resources that goes into developing new technology is varied and vast, making it essential to protect the interests of the scientists, in the form of patents and other intellectual property rights (IPR). Further, the return on investment may be slower as compared to other scientific

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Medium 9781845939946

18: The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Vacante, V. CABI PDF

18  The Family Diptilomiopidae Keifer

Morphological Characteristics,

Systematics and Bio-ecology

The morphological characteristics of the family Dipti­ lomiopidae are similar to those of the Eriophyidae. The pro­ dorsal shield has two or no setae, the scapular setae (sc) are present or absent, and the unpaired setae vi and ve are largely absent. The gnathosoma is sharply bent towards the base, with cheliceral stylets folded in the same way and long oral stylets. The opisthosoma frequently lacks the setae c1; the re­ maining setae are present, or sometimes any one of the setae c2 or d or setae h1 are absent. The chaetotaxy of the coxal plate is complete, plate I is sometimes without the setae 1b and rarely with the setae 1a. The leg chetotaxy is complete but may be missing the basiventral femoral setae I and II, the antaxial genual seta of genu II, the paraxial tibial seta of tibia

I and both the paraxial and fastigial tarsal setae (ft ¢) or the paraxial and unguinal tarsal setae (u¢) of legs I and II; the tibia I lacks a solenidion; the tarsal empodium may be thick and is commonly divided. The genital coverflap sometimes has one or two rows of ridges and spots or semilunar granules.

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Medium 9789351380528

Solid-Ch-01

Ajay Kumar Saxena Laxmi Publications PDF

1

Crystal Structure

1.1 CRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS SOLIDS

On the basis of structure, solids may be divided into two broad categories – crystalline and amorphous. In crystalline solids, the atoms are stacked in a regular manner, forming a three-dimensional pattern which may be obtained by a three-dimensional repetition of a certain pattern unit. When the periodicity of the pattern extends throughout a certain piece of material, one speaks of a single crystal. In polycrystalline materials, the periodicity of structure is interrupted at the so-called grain boundaries such that the structure is periodic within a single grain and the size of the grains within which the structure is periodic may vary from macroscopic dimensions to several Angstroms*. When the size of the grains becomes comparable to the size of the pattern unit, one can no longer speak of crystallinity, rather one speaks of amorphous substances. Due to regularity in structure, there is a long-range order in single crystals. There remains no periodicity in structure in an amorphous substance and long-range order diminishes to a very short-range order.

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Medium 9781576337127

Kingdom: Plantae: AP Biology

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781780645216

29: Recent Developments on Algal Biofuel Technology

Gupta, V.K. CABI PDF

29 

Recent Developments on Algal

Biofuel Technology

Rachel Long, Philip Sanderson and Pattanathu K.S.M. Rahman*

Technology Futures Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, UK

Abstract

Microalgae provide great promise for the production of biofuels as they have the highest growth rates of all photosynthetic organisms and have demonstrated high levels of desirable products required for biofuel production without competing for land or resources from the agriculture industry. It has been established that the type of algae chosen to cultivate is very important. This can affect which techniques may be best to use for harvesting and converting algae to biofuels. It is important to consider the lipid content of the algae and its growth rate as a high yield shall be needed from the process, but it must also be of high quality. The research that has been conducted so far has proven very useful, however, there is still much to learn when it comes to the best techniques to use for the production of biofuels. Any process utilizing microalgae needs to be cost-effective to be commercially viable and be able to fit into the current fuel demand without altering distribution or storage processes. In order to achieve a positive energy balance which will be important when considering cost-effective processes, a highly optimized production system is required. In recent scientific discussions, many of the environmental impacts and cost-performance points raised produce both challenges and opportunities that would require further research and the potential integration of other processes. Once a gold standard has been established for the cultivation of algal biomass and lipid extraction methods, commercialization of algal biofuel production will soon follow.

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Medium 9781576337998

Equilibrium: ACT Chemistry

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9780253356970

11 The Evolution of Mammalian Endothermy

Indiana University Press ePub

Whole body endothermy, or “warm-bloodedness,” is a major specialization that has profoundly affected the biology of both mammals and birds and sharply distinguishes them physiologically from reptiles and all other vertebrates. It provides distinct physiological and ecological benefits, and thus may well be largely responsible for the present success of mammals and birds in a wide range of aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments (McNab 2003; Ruben 1995). Elevated rates of lung ventilation, oxygen consumption, and internal heat production (through aerobic metabolism), all hallmarks of endothermy, permit the maintenance of thermal homeostasis over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This enables mammals and birds to thrive in habitats with cold or highly variable thermal conditions and in nocturnal niches generally unavailable to ectothermic vertebrates (McNab 2003).

11.1. Nasal passages of extant amniotes. Reptiles, such as crocodilians (top), have up to three simple nasal conchae, all of which are exclusively covered with olfactory epithelium. In contrast, birds (center left) and mammals (bottom left) typically possess complex respiratory turbinates in addition to olfactory conchae. Also shown are cross sections of the respiratory turbinates of representative birds (center right) and mammals (bottom right). Abbreviations: n = external nostril; rt = respiratory turbinate; ot = olfactory turbinate; ch = internal nostril. Modified from Hillenius (1994).

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Medium 9781780644011

7: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural R&D for Groundnut, Pearl Millet, Pigeonpea and Sorghum in West and Central Africa and East and Southern Africa

Walker, T.S. CABI PDF

7 

Assessing the Effectiveness of

Agricultural R&D for Groundnut, Pearl

Millet, Pigeonpea and Sorghum in West and

Central Africa and East and Southern Africa

J. Ndjeunga,1* K. Mausch2 and F. Simtowe3

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

West and Central Africa, Niamey Niger; 2ICRISAT, Nairobi;

3

CIMMYT, Nairobi (formerly ICRISAT, Nairobi), Kenya

1

Introduction1

Arable land in sub-Saharan Africa is often ­cultivated during seasonal rains in regions where the supply of rainfall exceeds the demand for rainfall for only 2–7 months of the year. These rainfall supply and demand conditions define rainfed agriculture in the semi-arid tropics (SAT). In 1972, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) was ­e stablished in India with a global mandate to i­ncrease agricultural production in the SAT, thereby enhancing poor people’s welfare in these rainfall-unassured production environments.

Technically, the SAT encompassed large areas of Australia, Latin America and Asia, but the geographic focus at ICRISAT was always on peninsular India and sub-Saharan Africa where most rural and urban poor lived. By 2020, the total population of people in Asia’s and Africa’s

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Medium 9781780645599

3: Basil

Ambrose, D.C.P. CABI PDF

3 Basil

Darach Lupton,1 Muhammad Mumtaz Khan,2 Rashid Abdullah

Al-Yahyai2* and Muhammad Asif Hanif3

1

Oman Botanic Garden, Muscat, Oman; 2Sultan Qaboos University,

Muscat, Oman; 3University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3.1  Botany

3.1.1  Introduction

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an annual herb belonging to the mint family (Lamiaceae).

It has been utilized for millennia and is an essential ingredient in many cooking traditions and practices (Agarwal et al., 2013).

The genus Ocimum contains a range of some

50 to 150 species and varieties that are native to the tropical regions of Asia and Central and South Africa (Ghosh, 1995). The uncertainty in the exact number of species within the genus is largely attributed to the enormous variation that is found among the constituent species. The variability is prevalent in the morphology, growth habit, flower colour, leaves, stems and chemical composition

(Svecova and Neugebauerova, 2010). Basil cross-­ pollinates readily, and the resulting diversity and variation has led some authors to reclassify sections of the genus (Paton, 1992).

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Medium 9781780645599

13: Mint

Ambrose, D.C.P. CABI PDF

13 Mint

Maria do Carmo Ferreira* and Aline de Holanda Rosanova

Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil

13.1  Botany

13.1.1  Introduction

The Lamiaceae or mint family is one of the most diverse and widespread dicotyledonous plant families. Several species in this family have external glandular structures that produce volatile oil and are highly aromatic

­(Giuliani and Maleci Bini, 2008). The family includes about 236 genera and 6900–7200 species, including many culinary herbs, such as mint, basil, rosemary, marjoram and thyme

(Venkateshappa and Sreenath, 2013). The genus Mentha is considered to be the most important in this family because its essential oil has a high economic value and is used in several different industrial sectors, such as food, flavouring, fragrances, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Mint species have been traditionally used in natural (or complementary) medicine and ethnomedicine against a wide variety of diseases. They are also used for culinary purposes, owing to the pleasant and aromatic flavour of their leaves (Andrews,

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Medium 9781780643786

7 Climate Change and Biological Control in Agricultural Systems: Principles and Examples from North America

Bjorkman, C., Editor CABI PDF

7

Climate Change and Biological

Control in Agricultural Systems:

Principles and Examples from

North America

Sanford D. Eigenbrode,1* Thomas S. Davis2 and

David W. Crowder3

1Department

of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, Division of Entomology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA; 2Natural

Resources and Environmental Sciences, California Polytechnic

State University, San Luis Obispo, California, USA; 3Department of

Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington,

USA

Abstract

Biological control of pests is a key feature of integrated pest management programmes in many agroecosystems. An assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on biological control is critical but challenging, because biological control depends on interspecific interactions, which are generally complex. This chapter considers the potential effects of projected climate change on the biological control of insect pests, focusing on North American agricultural systems but involving principles that apply globally.

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Medium 9780253009289

5 Making Places in Space: Miners and Collectors in Guanajuato and Tucson

Elizabeth Emma Ferry Indiana University Press ePub

5 MAKING PLACES IN SPACE: MINERS AND COLLECTORS IN GUANAJUATO AND TUCSON

Figure 5.1, a map featured in a report titled Potencial Minero de Guanajuato (Franco 1997) shows Guanajuato’s centrality in Mexico, in particular the fact that over 60 percent of the country’s population lives within a 350-kilometer radius (thus implying the density of infrastructure and services). The radiating circles on the map give an image of the mines and city of Guanajuato as a central origin point, with its subsoil resources expanding centrifugally to the rest of the country, and by extension, the world.

This image and the sensibility behind it contrast with many other views of the movement of mineral resources from mines to market, both for “regular people” and for social scientists. Within such views, for instance, mined ores such as silver, gold, or copper are quintessential raw materials, extracted from the “ends of the earth” and brought to the centers of global finance in New York and London. Likewise, mineral specimens are produced in geographically distant places and brought to Tucson, Munich, Denver, and other mineral marketplaces. In fact, even when minerals come from near these marketplaces, they are often treated as pristine emissaries of the margins of the cultural world. People also move from all over to a central meeting point at these mineral shows. Tucson, in particular, is called the “Mecca for mineral collectors,” emphasizing its role as a pilgrimage site and meeting place for the faithful all over the planet.1

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Medium 9781780641478

9: On-site testing for plant pathogens

Boonham, N. CABI PDF

9

On-site testing for plant pathogens

Jenny Tomlinson*

Fera, Sand Hutton, York, UK

9.1  Introduction

Testing for plant pests and pathogens may be done for a number of different reasons, and the criteria by which alternative methods are judged and selected are influenced by the context. In most cases, primary concerns are the accuracy of identification and the limit of detection: in other words, the specificity and sensitivity of the test. The performance characteristics of a test can be considered in terms of what levels of false positive and false negative results might be acceptable, or the required limit of detection in light of the samples to be tested. Where the number of samples to be tested is very high, additional key factors relate to throughput and the cost per sample. For applications such as surveying or routine monitoring, the preferred methods may be those that can be scaled up for large numbers of samples and wholly or partially automated, such as ELISA or real-time PCR.

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Medium 9781626562462

Seven Camp Hope

Garan, Ron Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Camp Hope

On a late starlit evening in September 2010, NASA psychologist Al Holland and his colleagues, exhausted and lost in their thoughts, were traveling in a van along dirt and gravel roads through the high-elevation Atacama Desert en route to the Chilean town of Copiapó. The group had just left the feverish activity of the dusty Campo Esperanza (Camp Hope), where hundreds of workers were laboring to free thirty-three miners trapped below 2,300 feet of hard rock. Holland had the hectic image of Campo Esperanza still fresh in his mind. The scene reminded him of something out of the movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind—a little valley sheltering huge lights that pointed at a single spot, with activity going on around the clock. That day, like every day since Holland and his group had arrived in Chile, had been insanely busy and filled with intense emotion.

As the van picked its way along the dirt roads, someone in the group noticed a couple of planets visible in the night sky and suggested they stop to take a look. As Holland and his colleagues piled out of the van and into the driest desert on Earth (also known as “the window to the universe,” for its clear night skies), the contrast between the feverish intensity of Camp Hope and the grandeur of the new scene unfolding before them was palpable. “The Milky Way was just painted over the top of low black hills at night,” Holland said. “It stretched in a great arc from a set of silhouetted hills behind us all the way across the sky to the hills in front of us. It was incredibly cool and quiet, dead quiet. This has been happening for millennia. For billions of years you’ve had this same coolness.”

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