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2 Science in the Hinterland: The Cincinnati School Of Paleontology

Richard Arnold Davis Indiana University Press ePub

Figure 2.1. Members of the Cincinnati School of Paleontology who were amateur paleontologists: A. U. P. James, publisher and owner of the James Book Store. B. S. A. Miller, attorney. C. Charles Faber, realtor. D. C. B. Dyer, who, after he retired as a maker of soap and candles, devoted himself to fossil collecting. Photograph of Dyer from an old album in the possession of Richard Arnold Davis (© Richard Arnold Davis); all others from the Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati.

 

The rocks beneath and around Cincinnati were deposited in an interval of time universally called the Ordovician Period. This time unit was proposed formally in 1879. In the second half of the nineteenth century, beginning even before the Ordovician Period was named, there was in the region of Cincinnati, Ohio, a group of paleontologists who have been called the “Cincinnati School of Paleontology.” There is no single, definitive list of the members of the Cincinnati School, and different authors have included different people as members, depending on the purposes of their compilations. Nor is there a definitive list of iron-clad criteria as to who should be considered a member and who should not. Nonetheless, the individuals included in the body of this chapter have a number of characteristics in common.

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Medium 9781780643595

13 Detection Survey Design for Decision Making During Biosecurity Incursions

Jarrad, F., Editor CAB International PDF

13

Detection Survey Design for

Decision Making During

Biosecurity Incursions

John M. Kean,1* Graham M. Burnip2 and

Amin Pathan2

1AgResearch

Ltd, Hamilton, New Zealand; 2Ministry for Primary

Industries, Christchurch, New Zealand

Abstract

13.1 Introduction

Biosecurity surveillance involves special challenges, in particular dealing with the fact that the target organism is usually absent from the surveyed area. In this context, surveys must be designed to detect small target populations and to estimate the likelihood that failing to detect the population means it is really not there. We summarize the basic formulae used to design simple detection surveys and show how they can be combined to create multilevel sample plans that are quick and easy to formulate, parameterize and optimize during a biosecurity incursion response. In particular, incursion investigators often need to assess the spatial extent of populations to evaluate whether eradication is a viable management option, but strict delimitation of the occupied area requires substantial sampling effort. Instead, we advocate a pragmatic approach whereby detection surveys are designed to address a particular data need, such as whether the population is present too widely to be eradicated. In this way key decisions, such as whether or not to attempt eradication, may be informed in the most rapid and costefficient way. This approach was used during the investigation of an incursion of an

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Medium 9781576753705

10: Playing With Matches

Bob Seidensticker Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

EXTRAORDINARY RAINS HIT HENAN PROVINCE in central China in August 1975. Dams built to handle a flood expected no more than once every five hundred years collapsed, increasing the load on downstream dams. In all, sixty-two dams failed. A flood several miles wide and racing at thirty miles per hour surged out of its river valley and across the plains, killing 85,000 people. Another 100,000 died in the aftermath due to unsafe water and famine, and a total of eleven million people were affected.

But this pales compared to China’s 1931 Huang He (Yellow River) disaster. This river frequently floods, and levees have for centuries tried to keep it within its banks. Because it gradually fills its riverbed with the silt that it carries, the levees must be frequently raised to keep it under control. Eventually, the river bottom can be higher than the surrounding countryside. In 1931 the river broke through; between one and four million people died, the deadliest natural disaster in history.

We sometimes find ourselves in a technology cage of our own making. Although we’re dependent on technology that can be unhealthy or otherwise dangerous, there is hope. After unfortunate incidents due to shortsighted, unsound practices, we sometimes see the light and change our ways. 140

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Medium 9780253000996

2 - Written Accounts of the Rodrigues Solitaire

Jolyon C. Parish Indiana University Press ePub

Introduction

The Rodrigues solitaire was first scientifically considered as a separate species, distinct from the dodo of Mauritius, by Gmelin (1788); this distinction was later reinforced by Strickland (1844, 1848).

Although Rodrigues was visited by Harmansz's fleet in 1601, no specific mention of the solitaire was made. On the morning of September 20, 1601, they were only four leagues from Rodrigues and the yacht Duyfje was sent along the north coast, where it entered the lagoon and landed at what is now Port Mathurin (North-Coombes 1971).

On the 21 September Anno 1601 we followed the yacht. Then it [the weather] was calmed to the 23 ditto. In the morning [the] yacht came again to us bringing also all kinds of birds which were distributed over the fleet with all that [the] yacht had also brought and brought us tidings that on the island Diego Rodrigus [there] was good refreshment to obtain. (Overige Stukken no.9, no.135, Archieven van de Compagnieën op Oost-Indië, 1594–1603, Nationaal Archief, The Hague, fol. 27v; Moree 2001, 78)

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Medium 9780253000804

3: A Black Gold Rush Sets the Stage for Discovery in Alaska

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

If you have seen the icon for the Sinclair Oil Company, a silhouette of a four-legged long-neck dinosaur, then you may have concluded that petroleum and dinosaurs go hand in hand. The misconception that petroleum is derived from dinosaurs is still quite prevalent even among those who are not familiar with the Sinclair symbol. Physicists and chemists in the 1800s considered petroleum to be nonbiogenic and concluded that petroleum was a residue of the formation of the Earth. This hypothesis was discarded by the 1950s and replaced with a theory that petroleum had a biogenic origin, but there was no consensus on the specific types of organisms that were transformed into oil. Geochemical research over the last three decades has focused on plankton and microorganisms as the biomass that combines with rock-forming processes to end up as the flame on your stove or the gas in your tank. It is now clear that most petroleum is derived from ancient planktonic microorganisms rather than dinosaurs and their vertebrate kin.1 Still, interestingly, there is an important and valid connection between the discovery of oil and dinosaurs—especially in Alaska.

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Medium 9781780646138

38: Impact of the Genetic Resources Policy Landscape on Food Security: An Assessment of the Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights Programme

Maxted, N. CABI PDF

38 

Impact of the Genetic Resources

Policy Landscape on Food Security: An

Assessment of the Genetic Resources and

Intellectual Property Rights Programme

E. Thörn,1* C.-G. Thornström2 and I. Virgin3

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden;

2

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden;

3

Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

1

38.1  Introduction

The focus of the United Nations Millennium

Development Goals is to reduce poverty and hunger while at the same time improving health and education and ensuring environmental sustainability (United Nations Millennium Declaration, 2000). The challenge of securing an ample supply of food is enormous, and will remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future.

A sustainable increase in global agricultural production based on increased productivity with reduced resource consumption is, therefore, urgently needed. Improved crop and livestock breeding programmes based on old and new technologies and continuous innovations through strengthened scientific and technological developments are key in this regard. In addition to resource scarcity (including water, nutrients and arable land), climate change is one of the most serious threats facing the human race (FAO, 2011). Climate change will most likely cause dramatically changed conditions for agriculture worldwide, and this is expected to be particularly severe in the southern hemisphere. Drought will become more frequent and severe in many parts of the

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Medium 9781780645377

3 Climate Change and the New Dynamics of Urban Pest Management in North America

Dhang, P. CABI PDF

3

Climate Change and the New

Dynamics of Urban Pest

Management in North America

Steven R. Sims1* and Arthur G. Appel2

1Blue

Imago LLC, Maryland Heights, Missouri, USA; 2Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn,

Alabama, USA

3.1  Introduction

It’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future.

(Yogi Berra)

There is nearly unanimous agreement in the scientific community that the temperature of the Earth is increasing. This is confirmed by ocean warming, sea level rises, glacial melting, sea ice receding in the Arctic, land ice loss in the Antarctic, and diminished snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere.

Since 1970, temperatures across North

America have warmed by approximately

0.25°C per decade (IPCC, 2007). The average rate of warming over inhabited continents in the 21st century is likely to be at least twice as much as that experienced during the 20th century. Advanced climate prediction models suggest that by the year 2100, annual surface temperatures will be 3–5°C warmer than they were in the 1960s. This seemingly minor warming translates to an increased growing season of 4 to 6 weeks, with a corresponding increase in the number of high temperature days and decrease in the number of low temperature days.

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Medium 9781780643137

9: Trade in Wildlife and Exotic Species

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Wildlife and Exotic

Species

9

9.1  Introduction

Wildlife animals have been traded for millennia, probably even before the

­domestication of animal species for the production of food and clothing. Yet despite the development of a small number of domesticated species to provide for most of our needs, we have continued to harvest and trade in wildlife and exotic species. Exotic species are those that are not indigenous to the region, which usually precludes the domestic livestock species. These are kept by zoos, for the entertainment of the public and increasingly for conservation and for scientific purposes. Their use for entertainment in circuses is diminishing as public recognition of associated cruel practices in training and transport between venues has increased, creating public pressure for legislative control. They are also kept by a growing number of members of the public for display and a variety of other reasons that will be outlined later. Wildlife animals are harvested for food as well and may be traded with other regions because their exotic and novel nature encourages people to try eating them. The biggest harvest of wild animals, indeed the biggest of any food animals, is that of fish from the oceans. However, many other animals are harvested from the oceans and our scant knowledge of populations in the past has led to many manmade catastrophes, with populations decimated because of high demand for the products and mechanized harvesting of ever ­increasing efficiency.

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Medium 9781780643540

19: World Almond Market

Rafel Socias i Company CABI PDF

19 

World Almond Market

Ned T. Ryan*

Former Chairman, Almond Board of California, Modesto, California, USA

19.1 Introduction

In order to make good almond marketing decisions, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the world almond market and how it works. In this chapter, we will look at the history and growth of the almond market, its structure and behaviour, then some of the specific decisions a grower or processor makes within this context, and finally ways to minimize risk in an almond market known for volatile prices.

19.2  History and Growth

One of the most remarkable features of the world almond market is the growth over the past 35 years. California production grew from an average of 155,000 metric tonnes (t) in the period

1979–1982 to 909,000 t in 2011 – a six-fold increase, and an annual growth rate of 6%. The annual growth rate from the 1997 crop to the

2011 crop is 7%. Shipments showed similar increases over the same periods, keeping carryover inventories low. Another remarkable feature of the world almond market is the concentration of production – California produces two-thirds of the world supply and exports 70% of its crop.

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Medium 9780253357212

30 The Late Cretaceous Continental Vertebrate Fauna from Iharkút (Western Hungary): A Review

Pascal Godefroit Indiana University Press ePub

Attila Ősi*, Márton Rabi, László Makádi, Zoltán Szentesi, Gábor Botfalvai, and Péter Gulyás

The composition of the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) continental vertebrate fauna of Iharkút (Csehbánya Formation, Bakony, western Hungary, Central Europe) is reviewed here. In the last decade, fieldwork has produced almost 5,000 associated and isolated bones and teeth belonging to at least 24 different genera, represented by pycnodontiform and lepisosteid fishes, albanerpetontid and anuran amphibians, dortokid, bothremydid and cryptodiran turtles, scincomorphan and mosasauroid lizards, mesoeucrocodylian and eusuchian crocodilians, nodosaurid ankylosaurs, rhabdodontid ornithopods, basal tetanuran, abelisaurid, paravian, and enantionthine theropods, and azhdarchid pterosaurs. Remains of mammals are still unknown from the locality. Because of its Santonian age, the discovered fauna fills an important and still underrepresented temporal gap in the Cretaceous vertebrate record of Europe. The fauna is a mixture of Euramerican and Gondwanan forms. The first group consists of numerous taxa (e.g., hylaeochampsid crocodilians, nodosaurid ankylosaurs, rhabdodontid ornithopods, basal tetanurans), the closest relatives of which are stratigraphically much older (Late Jurassic–late Early Cretaceous) forms. These members of the fauna are suggested to be relict forms surviving in an insular habitat of the Iharkút area within the western Tethyan archipelago. At least bothremydid turtles further strengthen the immigration of Gondwanan forms into Europe during the Late Cretaceous. The supposed insular habitat of the Iharkút fauna is also supported by the presence of a peculiar small-bodied heterodont crocodilian with specialized feeding preference, and of pycondontiform fishes and mosasaurs that colonized freshwater environments.

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Medium 9781607320692

NINE The Society for General Systems Research: Establishment and Development

Debora Hammond University Press of Colorado ePub

The Society for
General Systems Research:
Establishment and Development

Approaches to management of problems that affect people can be broadly described under two categories. One is adherence to top-down, expert-designed projects, and the other is the involvement of people in the analysis of problems that affect them and in the design of potential solutions. In the latter participatory approach all those involved contribute both to the creative thinking that goes into problem solving and planning.

—Nilamadhab Kar and Brajaballav Kar, “Social Cognition and the Participatory Planning Process”1

ORIGINS: THE CENTER FOR ADVANCED STUDY IN THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES

In statements describing their research interests for the year at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS), Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport each discussed their concern with the development of integrating theories for the biological, psychological, and social dimensions of human behavior. Boulding wrote: “My main interest at the moment is working toward the development of a body of ‘general empirical theory’ or ‘general system theory’ which will consist of an orderly arrangement of theoretical models which are useful in the interpretation of more than one of the ‘empirical universes.’ ” In his correspondence with Ralph Tyler, he emphasized the importance of biology for an understanding of social processes. Boulding goes on to write, in his “Suggested Program for Work at the Center,” that “it is clear that something like a general model of organization and behavior theory is emerging from many different fields, based on the notion of a servo-mechanism control system, information flows and knowledge structures, and the selective mutation of systems.” In addition to such biological and technological models and concepts, all except Gerard highlighted their concerns with values and the symbolic dimensions of human behavior.2

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Medium 9781780645346

Chapter 13 Family Poaceae

Welbaum, G.E. CAB International PDF

13

Family Poaceae

SWEET CORN, POPCORN, AND

ORNAMENTAL CORN

Origin and History

Sweet corn, also known as green maize or sweet maize in many parts of the world, is a crop of New

World origin. Scientists believe that sweet corn was domesticated in southern Mexico very long ago

(Ranere, 2009). The progenitor of modern corn was a wild, annual grass, perhaps with a terminal flowering structure with male flowers above and female flowers below. Another theory suggests that the original plant had a terminal male spikelet with several small female spikelets at the nodes immediately below the male flower cluster (Goodman,

1988). Pollen samples collected near Mexico City were estimated to be 60–70,000 years old, illustrating how old corn is (Beadle, 1981; Sears, 1982).

Deliberate cultivation of corn began approximately

7,000 years ago. Teosinte (Zea mays spp. mexicana) may be similar to the wild plant from which corn was developed (Matsuoka et al., 2002). From the original

2.5 cm (1 in) wild pod, human selection has created a pod many times larger than the wild form (Galinat,

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Medium 9781780643946

8 Modelling the Spread of Invasive Species to Support Pest Risk Assessment: Principles and Application of a Suite of Generic Models

Venette, R.C. CABI PDF

8

Modelling the Spread of Invasive

Species to Support Pest Risk

Assessment: Principles and

Application of a Suite of Generic

Models

Christelle Robinet,1* Hella Kehlenbeck2 and Wopke van der Werf3

1INRA,

UR633 Zoologie Forestière, Orléans, France; 2Julius KühnInstitute, Institute for Strategies and Technology Assessment,

Kleinmachnow, Germany; 3Centre for Crop Systems Analysis,

Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Abstract

The estimation of rates and patterns of spread is one of the key steps in a pest risk assessment. Pest risk analysts across the world wish to make quantitative, scientifically defensible assessments of likely spread by invasive alien species.

However, data and time to develop detailed models for pest invasions are usually lacking and the resources to test those models in practice are not available. Therefore, generic and simple models are needed. A generic spread module composed of four models has been developed to assess the spread of plant pests. Four different models were developed to represent differences in objectives, available data and assumptions underlying the assessment of spread. The most complex of the models simulates spread in time and space and has four biological parameters, representing population growth and dispersal. The simplest of the models has only one parameter and considers only geographic range expansion. A third model assumes logistic growth of invaded area and

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Medium 9781780644264

15: Rice Tungro

Tennant, P.; Fermin, G. CABI PDF

15

Rice Tungro

Indranil Dasgupta*

Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi,

New Delhi, India

15.1  Introduction

Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and

Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) are two viruses responsible for the rice tungro disease (RTD). The disease has been known for almost a half a century and has been intensively investigated across various countries in Asia. Today, a large volume of information is available on the viruses, their transmission by insect vectors, their gene functions, the pathological response in rice plants upon infection, and the rice genes that mediate resistance to the viruses. This chapter summarizes what is known about the pathogens and the disease, and discusses the prospects of conventional and biotechnological approaches to controlling RTD − mainly by strengthening the RNA-based defence pathway in rice.

15.2  Disease Symptoms

RTD is characterized by orange–yellow foliar discoloration and stunting of plants to

­almost half the normal size upon maturity

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Medium 9780253002358

5 In the Natural World

Rudolf A. Raff Indiana University Press ePub

I was an inveterate naturalist. Each year I anxiously awaited the return of spring (and, truthfully, the end of the time-crawling endless school year). I felt a strong curiosity and an intense attraction for the look and feel of natural forms and creatures, the stranger the better. At various times my interests settled on hunting salamanders, insects, turtles, snakes, and fossils in the forested hills near our house. I had read that snakes had no eyelids, so I had to look a snake in the eye. Sure enough, their eyes are covered by the clear window of a single modified scale and can’t be closed even in sleep. All snakes are carnivores. I kept snakes and watched them feed using independently attached lower jaws armed with sharp, curved teeth. A snake engulfs its prey by walking each jaw alternately down its victim’s body, and there is no escape once a snake begins to swallow. It happened to me. I was handling a middling sized garter snake, about eighteen inches long and about as thick as my index finger. It bit the tip of that finger and held on. This posed a quandary to both of us. The snake couldn’t let go because of its recurved teeth, so it began to work its jaws up my finger, committing itself to swallowing a nearly full-sized human – a new frontier for a garter snake. I carefully disengaged its independently movable lower jaws, and slid my finger free without hurting the snake. Fortunately, its upper jaws hadn’t secured much of a hold because my fingernail was in the way. I got to keep a few tiny punctures as souvenirs.

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