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10. Creation and the Conceptual Order

Hugh J. McCann Indiana University Press ePub


In Chapters 8 and 9 we have seen two significant reasons for claiming that God is the creator not only of concrete entities and events that make up our world—things like trees, tornados, sunsets, and persons—but also of the natures of those things. First, such a claim is demanded if we are to hold that God truly creates the world, rather than simply manufacturing it from a plan that is not of his own making or is produced via some rote exercise on his part. Second, although there are good reasons for treating the injunctions of morality as commands that emanate from God, fending off charges of arbitrariness requires that those commands supervene on the nature of rational agents, and the relationships and circumstances in which they find themselves. If this is so then God can be the author of morality only if he is also the author of our nature, and the nature of all that surrounds us. But there is a third and much more important reason for holding such a view: if it is true, then not just the realm of the concrete but also that of the abstract owes whatever being it has to the creative activity of God. This furnishes a provenance for abstracta, whose origin is otherwise liable to have no accounting, and at the same time places God in a transcendent position even with respect to logical and mathematical reality—exactly what we should expect of an absolutely perfect being who is the foundation of all that is. In these final chapters, then, I wish to defend as fully as possible the claim that God is indeed the author of the natures of things—that is, what are usually called universals—along with the rest of what Alvin Plantinga has called the Platonic horde, the entire panoply of entities that compose conceptual reality. It is best to address this issue in two stages. The present chapter will focus on God's relationship to abstracta exemplified in the products of creation, and the implications of claiming they owe their being to him. Chapter 11 will take up the relationship between God and those properties exemplified in his own nature, about which special problems arise.

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16. There Is No Substitute for the Fire

Mary Beth Rogers University of North Texas Press PDF

184 I There Is No Substitute For The Fire

another, reflecting a comfortable camaraderie that has built up among them over the years.

Most of the Texas organizers served an apprenticeship with

COPS in San Antonio where they developed their vision of what a community organization should be. Part of their training was to hold as many as 10 one-on-one meetings a daymeetings with community people, business leaders, government officials, or church leaders. Then, they were to reflect on what they heard.

"In COPS the organizers didn't have to make many phone calls to get a turnout for an action. People did it for themselves," Robert Rivera says. 1

"Yeah ... we taught them the right way in San Antonio,"

Cortes jokes.

"Well, they were raised with action in COPS," Rivera retorts.

"That was the culture in COPS. It's harder to build that into the other organizations, but we try."

The way to develop the culture, Cortes explains, is to get a taste for victory. "COPS had a taste for victory from the beginning," he says. "When we went into Houston and El Paso, before we had a chance for victory, the other side nearly killed us.

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13. Adventism and America

Malcolm Bull Indiana University Press ePub

IN ADVENTIST ART, a dominant motif is the incongruous presence of an alien figure in familiar surroundings. The viewer realizes that the alien is displaced in time, but his interlocutors do not. The objects of everyday life are transmuted by the gaze of the stranger, who, in turn, is domesticated by the homeliness of his setting. The reassuring becomes threatening, and the startling becomes mundane. It is a vision of the world precisely aligned with Adventist eschatology in which today’s newspaper is a fulfillment of yesterday’s prophecy, and future salvation is an imminent reality. It accurately reflects a perspective from which American society seems foreign and Adventism is Americanized.

In early Adventist apocalyptic, the church was placed in opposition to the American nation. In the nineteenth century, many Americans believed that their country would be the vehicle through which a millennium would be realized on earth. Adventists came to believe that there would be no earthly millennium and that America would become an agent of the antichrist before its destruction at the Second Coming. Those who survived the final cataclysm would be identified by their adherence to the seventh-day Sabbath; those who gave allegiance to the American Sunday would perish. In this scenario, the division between the saved and the damned hinges on which day of the weekly cycle is considered more important. The essential criterion of salvation is a correct apprehension of temporal sequence. Time, the least visible of divisions, is the basis for an irreversible separation of good and evil. Access to eternity is gained through synchronizing weekly routines with those of heaven and enduring the difficulties created by being out of synchronization with the rest of the world.

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4 A Question of Identity: Different Ways of Being Malay and Muslim in Malaysia

KATHLEEN M ADAMS Indiana University Press ePub

Judith Nagata

For more than two millennia, Island Southeast Asia, which is connected as much by sea as by land, has been open to migration and trade across and beyond the region. It has shared connections with China, South Asia, the Near East and, more recently, Europe. The original populations were sparse and geographically mobile, augmented by itinerant merchants and bearers of new religions, many of whom settled and intermarried locally. Contacts with outside cultures, openness to immigration, and social fluidity have been features of this part of Southeast Asia almost until the present, when the emergence of colonial and later, independent national states began to limit these flows.

During the first millennium, the region was in continuous contact with South Asia. The connections facilitated trade, migration, and early forms of Hindu-Buddhist religion, some of whose elements survive today. Many immigrant Indian merchants married locally, and several Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms were founded, including Srivijaya (in present-day Sumatra), whose leaders presided over an expanded political and economic domain. Traders arrived from different parts of India, speaking various languages of the subcontinent: language labels then often became social identity labels (Tamils, Bengalis, Gujeratis, Parsees). From the seventh century CE, the common trading language of this maritime area was Malay (Andaya 2001; 2008), whose vocabulary borrows heavily from Sanskrit and other Indian languages. That many of these loanwords concern trade, social, ceremonial, royal, and religious life, suggests the major domains of contact and influence: to this day, the Malay term for religion is an Indian word, agama (even for Islam) while modern Malaysian politicians use Indian honorifics such as the title, Sri.

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45 Operation Erntefest

Yitzhak Arad Indiana University Press ePub

The uprising of the Jews in Treblinka and, to an even larger extent, the uprising in Sobibor and its aftermath shocked the German authorities in the General Government and throughout the higher echelons of the SS. They became especially alarmed when they realized that what happened in Sobibor, with less than 1,000 Jews, might happen in other camps in the Lublin district, where 42,000–45,000 Jews were still being kept as slave workers in German industrial enterprises. Labor camps under the command of the Operation Reinhard staff were located in Trawniki, Poniatowa, and other places in the Lublin district. There were also Jewish prisoners in the Majdanek concentration camp.1

In a conference held by Hans Frank in Cracow on October 19, 1943, five days after the Sobibor uprising, the issue of the Jews in the labor camps was raised. From the minutes of this conference:

Police Major-General Hans Grünwald [the commander of the Order Police in the General Government] confirmed the data about the security situation given by SS Oberführer Bierkamp [the commander of the Security Police in the General Government]. . . . The camps with Jews in the General Government constituted a great danger, and the escape of the Jews from one of these camps [Sobibor] proved it. It was followed by a debate on that same problem. In connection with this, the Inspector of the Armament, General Schindler, SS Oberführer Bierkamp, and Major-General Grünwald were instructed by the Governor-General to inspect all the Jewish camps in the General Government in order to determine how many of the Jews there are used as a work force. The remainder were to be removed from the General Government.2

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