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4 The Holocaust

Zvi Gitelman Indiana University Press ePub

By 1939 the purges seemed to be winding down. The dreaded Ezhov had been replaced by Lavrentii Beria as head of the secret police, and that institution was purged once again. Mass arrests waned as the country was completely subjugated. But the respite was an illusion, and new dangers appeared from without. The Soviet Union had attempted to mobilize a united front against fascism with the capitalist democracies of Western Europe since they shared a common fear of Nazi Germany and her allies. In August 1939 Stalin stunned his own people, as well as the antifascist front, by signing a nonaggression pact with Hitler’s Germany. He had dismissed his Jewish foreign minister, Maxim Litvinov, in order not to offend Nazi sensibilities. Whether the pact was designed simply to buy time to prepare for a likely German attack on the USSR (as most Soviet historians would have it) or whether it was Stalin’s attempt to divert Hitler’s aggression toward Western Europe (as Western historians see it), the agreement was not taken seriously by either party; but a series of secret agreements accompanying it were to have far greater consequences. Those agreements provided that the Baltic republics—Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania—would come under Soviet influence, that eastern Poland would be annexed by the Soviet Union, and that the same would happen to Romanian-controlled Bessarabia. On September 17, 1939, at five o’clock in the morning, Soviet troops crossed the Polish frontier on the pretext that they were needed to protect “our brother Ukrainians and brother Belorussians who live in Poland.” Having been invaded by Germany on September 1, Poland was now caught between her two more powerful neighbors, as so often in her history, and her resistance was soon crushed. The Soviet Union now controlled an additional population of nearly thirteen million people, including about a million Jews.

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6. Winner Takes It All

Joseph E. Early, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF




ALTHOUGH TROUNCED AT MARSHALL, Hayden refused to give up. To his call for reform he now added sensational charges: J. B. Cranfill was an embezzler, B. H. Carroll was an autocrat,

R. T. Hanks was an adulterer, and J. M. Carroll was preoccupied with the love of money.1 In addition, President Buckner was under the Board’s control. Hayden rarely said anything negative about the Board system itself, but rather continually questioned the honesty of several of its perpetual members. During the next six years

Hayden intensified his attack, contending that Board members rather than the churches were making all of the decisions for the

BGCT. This argument now became a crusade for “Baptist polity.”

Although the Hayden Controversy was largely founded on old personal grievances, it increasingly revolved around ecclesiology.

Hayden made his position clear through the columns of his paper. On the one hand, he suggested that those who supported the Board party were in fact supporting an episcopal hierarchy that closely resembled Roman Catholicism. On the other hand, he argued that those who supported his own claims were not against the Board system but rather against an episcopal hierarchy that

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Organizational Change Everything Changes; Nothing Remains without Change

Franz Metcalf Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Everything Changes; Nothing Remains without Change


Do not chase the past.
Do not pine for the future.
What is past is gone.
What is future is not yet.
What is here, what is there,
Looking, you see clearly
Unfooled, unshaken,
you expand the heart
Urgently do your dharma today,
because tomorrow may be too late.
There is no bargaining with death
If you live thus mindful,
through the light and through the dark,
the sage will say, His was a good day!

—Majjhima Nikaya 131

IF YOU’VE READ the first two sections of this book before coming to the third, we think you just might know what the Buddha would say about reorganizations, mergers, and acquisitions: they’re perfect embodiments of change. They’re anicca, impermanence in action. Nothing is solid, even if it appears to be so, even if we wish it were. New things come into existence; old things go out of existence. Things fall apart and come together in new configurations. This is as true of jobs and organizations as it is of trees, fish, clouds, atomic particles, islands, and human beings.

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Various Brethren Press PDF

A DUNKERG U I D E TOSalvationWe are justified by faithRomans 5:1-2; Ephesians 2:8-10Jay D. WeaverTChristians referred to themselves as people of “theWay” (Acts 9:2; 19:23). When Emperor Constantine legitimizedChristianity in AD 313 with the Edict of Milan, primitive Christianity faded into the background. The dividing line between the church and the empire became blurred. Beliefs were codified into various creeds—including theNicene Creed, which was first adopted in AD 325. It summarized very succinctly—“for us and our salvation”—the person and work of Jesus Christ. The meaning of salvation, however, has been debated ever since.There are differing interpretations of salvation among Christian denominations. Each of these traditions—from Lutheran to Baptist to RomanCatholic to Eastern Orthodox—emphasizes the salvation of the individual, particularly as it relates to an afterlife. They differ, however, in how they define the roles God and humans play in the drama of salvation.The concept of salvation is found throughout the Hebrew Scriptures, where the emphasis is usually on the salvation of the particular nation of Israel as God’s chosen people. However, in Isaiah 2:2, the prophet explores the future redemption of all nations of the earth. He writes, “In days to come the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established as the highest of the mountains, and shall be raised above the hills; all the nations shall stream to it.”

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5 The Vernacularization of Shiʿi Islam: Competition and Conflict

Mara A. Leichtman Indiana University Press ePub

Placing West Africa’s past connections to the Mediterranean world and its Islamic legacy right at the center of our conception of Africa is crucial to overcome this microcosmic vision and broaden our horizon.

—Mahir Şaul, “Islam and West African Anthropology”

IF WE EXPAND emphasis on the Mediterranean world to the Middle East as a whole, Şaul’s statement, which reflects Launay’s (2004) insistence that the study of Islam in Africa should not be viewed as the periphery to the Middle Eastern core, can be taken as a starting point for examining the complex relationship between Senegal, Lebanon, and Iran. While on the rise, studies of Islam in Africa remain secondary to scholarship on Islam in the Middle East and even Asia, and anthropology continues to perceive of Islam as extrinsic to indigenous African cultures. Anthropologists initially took little interest in Islam in Africa, seen as insufficiently exotic by comparison with other, more “authentic” African beliefs, such as “witchcraft” and “traditional” religion. They preferred instead to romanticize the era before the spread of Islam, thereby ignoring Africa as part of Islamic heritage. As a result, few studies have fully investigated religious linkages between Africa and the Middle East.

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