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Part 2: Yoga

Patricia Monaghan New World Library ePub

T he origins of yoga are lost in prehistory. Archaeologists have found yogalike postures carved on stone artifacts created approximately four thousand years ago in the Indus Valley in what is now Pakistan. But the first writings that describe the path of yoga came from about 200 BCE in the form of the aphorisms and sutras of the Hindu sage Patanjali. These sutras, which give instructions on how to quiet the mind, codified information that had been transmitted orally for a long time.

Both Patanjali and the Buddha, who lived several hundred years earlier, believed that the source of human suffering is the craving for permanence in a universe of impermanence. However, they differed in their belief in the existence of a permanent reality. Patanjali’s yoga holds that there is a material reality, called prakriti in Sanskrit, and a spiritual reality, called purusha. Buddha taught that everything, including what appears to be the spiritual realm, is impermanent.

Yoga is a rich, variegated tradition that appeals to people with a wide range of temperaments and aptitudes. According to yoga, we can never escape the influence of the unconscious by mere intellectual understanding of its contents. The path of enlightenment, or liberation, requires more than an intellectual mode of cognition. It requires the combination of the intellect and the intuitive or other sensory modes of knowing.

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Medium 9780253020475

5 Counting People: The Co-production of Ethnicity and Jewish Majority in Israel-Palestine

Edited by Michal KravelTovi and Deborah Indiana University Press ePub

Anat Leibler

We beg them [the king, his family, and his chief minister] to join with us in checking the abuses being perpetrated by tyrants against that class of citizens . . . and we call on the king to mete out justice, and we express our most sincere desire for but one king, one law, one weight, and one measure.

Quoted in Witold Kula, Measures and Men

TWO POLITICAL PECULIARITIES distinguish Israel from many democratic states. First, it rests on a duality of being both a liberal democratic state under the rule of law and the homeland of one exclusive ethnic group that rules militarily over another ethnic group. Other states with separate ethnic groups have managed to reconcile this contradiction by creating separate polities and territories for the group segregated from the political system, but Israel has never systematically implemented such a system. Leaving the ethnic conflict unresolved fosters a coexistence of several civic incorporation regimes in one society or an ethnocracy, a regime motivated to maintain Jewish supremacy.1 Second, Israel is a state whose geographic borders with Arab neighboring countries are unsettled and continuously contested. In fact, some scholars see in Israel’s ongoing tendency to expand its borders a “spatial nationalism” and a constitutive element of the country’s identity.2 These two peculiarities are rooted in the early years of the Jewish-Palestinian conflict.

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Medium 9781577311218

Chapter 5: Confucianism

New World Library ePub

“The moral law begins in the relationship between man and woman, but ends in the vast reaches of the universe.

The Doctrine of the Mean, 12

“If you want to nourish a bird, you should let it live any way it chooses. Creatures differ because they have different likes and dislikes. Therefore the sages never require the same ability from all creatures ... concepts of right should be founded on what is suitable. The true saint leaves wisdom to the ants, takes a cue from the fishes, and leaves willfulness to the sheep.”


Dr. Douglas K. Chung

Professor, Grand Valley State University School of Social Work

Confucianism is a philosophy of a way of life, although many people also consider it a religion. The tradition derives its name from Kung Fu Tzu, or Confucius, (551–479 B.C.) who is renowned as a philosopher and educator. He is less known for his roles as a researcher, statesman, social planner, social innovator, and advocate. Confucius was a generalist with a universal vision. The philosophical method he developed offers a means to transform individuals, families, communities, and nations into a harmonious international society.

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Medium 9780253015846

2 An Hour for Your Heart and an Hour for Your Lord

Samuli Schielke Indiana University Press ePub


One of the most important and powerful of hopes is the hope invested in the possibility of living a morally sound, good, and God-fearing life. While the moral aims that people strive for may appear clear, and even grand, the actual pursuit of those aims is far from straightforward. The same young men who think that hashish is the best way to escape boredom and who resort to shortcuts in order to kill time and make money also believe in revivalist Islam’s promises of a meaningful life now and paradise in the hereafter, and they strive to act as respected and successful members of their family and society. As we look at the actual ways in which ideological grand schemes are made use of in everyday life, ambivalence is essential and often necessary. These uses may evoke a comprehensive discipline, whereas what they actually accomplish is something at once more complex and simple: an instantaneous sense of direction in a confusing and dull reality.

It is common knowledge that religious, moral, and other ideals are never fully realized in everyday life. A frequent explanation for this is the tension between moral ideals, on the one hand, and desire, interests, and power, on the other hand. In other words, people are either weak (from a more sympathetic perspective) or hypocritical (from a less sympathetic perspective). A more sophisticated version of this would point out that people are subjected to regimes of power that may contradict the ideals of moral personhood they hold, thereby leaving them suspended in between different moral traditions. In any version, this explanation is based on the assumption that people have a consistent idea on their own about what is good and right. This, however, is seldom the case in practice.

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Medium 9780253013125

2 Christian “World-Activity” and the Historical Reconciliation of Soul and World: Rosenzweig’s (Near-)Conversion

Benjamin Pollock Indiana University Press ePub


Christian “World-Activity” and the Historical Reconciliation of Soul and World

Rosenzweig’s (Near-)Conversion


On February 6, 1917, Rosenzweig writes to his parents from the war front, musing over the “strange parallels to Hegel” he has “experienced in [his] life.” He proceeds to explain that “1913 and 1797 is the most peculiar,” “‘the 27th-year of life,’ insofar as Hegel made a theory . . . precisely out of this ‘year of life.’ Compare the beginning of ‘Jena I’. I myself am thus an example for it.”1

Rosenzweig’s comments suggest that he understood the crucial transformation he underwent during the summer of 1913, in the midst of the twenty-seventh year of his life, to mirror a parallel transformation that Hegel underwent in 1797, in the midst of his own twenty-seventh year. In Hegel und der Staat, Rosenzweig had in fact described the period in which Hegel lived in Frankfurt, between 1797 and 1800, and which immediately preceded his move to Jena, as the “decisive moment” of Hegel’s personal and intellectual development, and he claimed that it was “out of the overcoming” of the struggles of these years that Hegel “goes forth completely ripe as a human being.”2 If we seek to understand the nature of Rosenzweig’s own transformation during the Leipziger Nachtgespräch and its aftermath, it behooves us to attend to Rosenzweig’s account of the transformation Hegel underwent beginning in 1797. As he suggested to his parents in February 1917, Rosenzweig understood his own 1913 transformation to be exemplary of the theory Hegel himself had offered regarding the significance of a person’s twenty-seventh year.

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Medium 9781442229136


Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Paul J. Griffiths

In her fine book, Light in Darkness, Alyssa Pitstick undertakes two enterprises.2 The first is a retrieval and formulation of what she calls the traditional doctrine of the descent, by which she means the church’s constant teaching about what Christ did between his death on Good Friday afternoon and his Resurrection on the morning of Easter Day. And the second is exegesis of and commentary upon Hans Urs von Balthasar’s teaching on the same matter, whose upshot is to show that the two bodies of teaching are irreconcilable. Her work, as she presents it, is thus partly reconstructive in positive-theological mode, and partly polemical: she wants to establish the bounds of orthodoxy on her topic and to show that von Balthasar’s view of it stands outside those bounds. In the comments that follow I shall assume that her interpretation of von Balthasar is correct, and will engage her critically only on the question of whether there is a traditional doctrine of the descent and, if so, what it is. This is not to say that I take her to be correct about von Balthasar. I have insufficient expertise to make it proper for me to venture an opinion one way or another on that question. It is only to say that I bracket altogether the question about von Balthasar, addressing Pitstick instead only on the question of her understanding of the authority she attributes to what she calls the traditional doctrine of the descent. I shall try to show that what she says about this drastically overestimates the extent to which there is settled doctrine on this topic, and therefore also misconstrues the nature of her own enterprise.

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Medium 9781442229204

Tradition, Priesthood, and Personhood in the Trinitarian Theology of Elisabeth Behr-Sigel

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Tradition, Priesthood, and Personhood in the Trinitarian Theology of Elisabeth Behr-Sigel

Sarah Hinlicky Wilson

In the 1950s, when the French Orthodox lay theologian Paul Evdokimov suggested that “woman” could not become a priest without betraying her ontological alignment with the Holy Spirit, no one in the Orthodox Church was actually entertaining the possibility of female priests.1 He answered the question in passing, a small part of his larger project to illuminate the spiritual dimension of femininity against the tradition’s tendency to demean women. Likewise, Orthodox theologians Nicolae Chitescu and George Khodre could answer a simple “no” to the hypothetical question of women in the priesthood at a Faith and Order conference in 1963; the idea was not worth a second thought.2 At the first-ever international gathering of Orthodox women at the Agapia convent in Romania in 1976, the ordination of women was not on the agenda for discussion. Only one woman brought it up at all, in her keynote address. Even her answer was a provisional “no”—but also a charge to engage in better and deeper reflection on the issue. She called upon the Orthodox Church to “internalize” the question.3

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Medium 9780253006844

5 The Brazilianization of New York City: Brazilian Immigrants and Evangelical Churches in a Pluralized Urban Landscape

RICHARD CIMINO Indiana University Press ePub

Donizete Rodrigues

In the last two decades, Brazilian immigrants and their evangelical churches have become more visible in the New York Metropolitan Area. Their congregations and small businesses have provoked important changes in several neighborhoods and in the larger pluralized ethnic and religious landscape. As Tony Carnes and Anna Karpathakis (2001) point out, “New York . . . is attracting one of the most diverse concentrations of religions that the world has ever seen . . . and is increasingly being transformed into a city of faiths” (3).

Given this context of religious pluralism, the main theme and purpose of this chapter is to discuss the process of Brazilianization caused by the increasingly significant presence of Brazilian immigrants and their evangelical churches in the New York Metropolitan Area (Rodrigues 2010). By “Brazilianization” I mean the increasingly visible and expressive presence of Brazilian immigrants (and also tourists) in New York City. A significant influence of Brazilian culture also pervades multicultural American society, including music, books, movies, soap operas, food (açai), drink (guarana, coconut juice), and clothing (Havaianas flip-flops). Events like the Brazilian Day Celebration, which has taken place since 1984 in the first week of September in Midtown Manhattan, attracts more than a million people and heightens the visibility of Brazilian culture. “Brazilianization” further refers to the strong presence of Brazilian evangelical churches, whose congregations are in prominent locations and are adorned with cultural names and the country’s flag, contributing to ethnic succession and the subsequent creation of Brazilian religious ethnic enclaves.

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Medium 9780971435223

A Brief Review

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF

The reality we seem to be experiencing and sharing is consensual reality. In no respect can it be distinguished from a dream...........

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Medium 9780253347046

9. Back to the Future: Peter Damian on the Remission of Sin and Changing the Past

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub

… and send away our debts …

(Matt. 6:12, my translation)

Axiom 1: What’s done is done.

Axiom 2: With God, everything is possible, even the impossible.

Aporia: Can God make it to be that what’s done is undone? That, of course, is impossible, the doing of which, however, in a way of speaking, is God’s very job description, or what we mean by the name of God, and something that touches close to the nerve of the “event” that stirs in the name of God.

That is the aporia posed by the theology of the event as it was framed back in the eleventh century by Peter Damian (1007–1072). Damian wants to know how hard a hard fact is, whether time is hard, fast, and unyielding, or whether God, for whom nothing is impossible, can make time yield and release the event, whether God can change the past, making it to be that what was done was never done. This was not simply a bit of speculation for Peter Damian, but a question about forgiveness and the healing of wounded souls. Damian represents a telling case study in this poetics of the impossible, both a hero and an anti-hero. For Peter Damian was one of Christianity’s first gay-bashers, who coined the word sodomy, and he was also a most unforgiving ecclesiastical authoritarian, who had no compunction about torching heretics. But even here the situation is complicated. It cannot be forgotten that his critique of sodomy occurred in the context of an outspoken and courageous campaign for clerical reform on his part. While we today on the left cannot countenance his homophobia, that should not prevent us from seeing that Damian was out to put an end to the sexual abuse of women and children by the clergy, and of junior clergy by senior clergy, in a time when clerics were not subject to civil law. He forthrightly pinned a lot of the blame for this problem on the hierarchy of the day, on the bishops and the pope himself, for looking the other way and for refusing to root out the offenders by strictly enforcing church discipline. Indeed, he looked to women and the laity for help in setting things straight. Is there nothing new under the sun?1

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Medium 9781574414363

5. The University of COPS

Mary Beth Rogers The University of Chicago Press ePub


The University of COPS

San Antonio, 1986

The doors to the old elementary school on the grounds of the Immaculate Heart of Mary parish on the West Side of San Antonio are locked. Only the small red, white, and blue lapel button taped over a doorbell gives me any assurance that I am where I want to be: at the office of the neighborhood organization COPS. A hand-lettered sign lets me know I must ring the bell to gain entrance. The parish and the West Side neighborhood are so poor and devastated by urban renewal that they can no longer support the school. So the 70-year-old building is locked, boarded up, and used only for periodic sessions of an adult literacy class—and for the COPS headquarters, located on the second floor and accessible to the West Side leaders who run the organization. After my first visit, I understood the necessity of the locked doors. There are hazards in the old building and in the neighborhood. One day I lost my footing and fell on a chipped cement stairway that had no railings. Another time, a mentally retarded man exposed himself to me in the parking lot.

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Medium 9781608682652

7. Depth Psychology: Meister Eckhart Meets Carl Jung

Matthew Fox New World Library ePub

Meister Eckhart Meets Carl Jung

Only in Meister Eckhart did I feel the breath of life.


The art of letting things happen, action through non-action, letting go of oneself, as taught by Meister Eckhart, became for me the key opening the door to the way.


God, who is without a name — He has no name — is ineffable, and the soul in its ground is also ineffable, as He is ineffable.


Psychology offers much healing and insight to individuals and to human circles striving to be healed and liberated or to bring healing and liberation to others. Since its proper study is human beings, their feelings and their experiences, inner and outer, psychology is sure to overlap with the terrain that the great mystics travel. As Carl Jung put it, speaking of his own calling, “The main interest of my work is not concerned with the treatment of neuroses but rather with the approach to the numinous. But the fact is that the approach to the numinous is the real therapy and inasmuch as you attain the numinous experience you are released from the curse of pathology.”

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Medium 9780253342485

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course summer Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Afterword of the Editor of the Lecture Course Summer
Semester 1921 and of the Outlines and Sketches 1918–19

The bibliographical main title of volume 60 is taken from a school binder in which Heidegger had bound his 1918–19 studies of the phenomenology of religion. On the second page is found the original title: “Phenomenology of Religious Consciousness.” Later the word “consciousness” is crossed out by Heidegger and replaced with the word “life.” This earlier title is also found in his letter of May 1, 1919, to Elisabeth Blochmann: “My own work is very concentrated, basic and concrete: basic problems of the phenomenolog[ical] method, becoming free from the last shackles of acquired positions—constant new progress toward the real origins, preparations for the phenomenology of religious consciousness—firmly geared up for intensive, high-quality academic effectiveness, constant learning in the company of Husserl” (Martin Heidegger–Elisabeth Blochmann, Letters 1918–1969, edited by Joachim W. Storck, Marbach on the Neckar, 1989, p. 16). That Heidegger speaks of “preparations” in respect to his studies of the phenomenology of religion probably refers to the announcement of Heidegger's planned lecture course of Winter Semester 1919–1920, “The Philosophical Foundations of Medieval Mysticism.” But beyond that it seems to indicate in general a longer-standing project, for, next to the basic problems, the phenomenology of religion is the only concrete problem that Heidegger seems to “approach” at this time.

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Medium 9781931018234

Chapter XII - The Rosary

Leon J Jr Suprenant Emmaus Road Publishing ePub

Jeffery Cavins explains the beauty of the Rosary as a
“compendium of the Gospel,” illuminating its Biblical origins and its profound
link to the mystery of the Incarnation. Because the Rosary involves both our
bodies and our souls, it focuses us and allows us to enter into deeper
meditation on the mysteries of our faith. Cavins also speaks about Mary’s
unique role as the “mediatrix,” who intercedes to Christ for us.

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Medium 9780253342935

12 Reorganization in Treblinka

Yitzhak Arad Indiana University Press ePub

In the second half of July 1942, the three death camps were in operation; however, serious administrative problems were involved in keeping them active. It became necessary for Globocnik to establish an authority within Operation Reinhard headquarters that would be directly in charge of the camps. Himmler’s order of July 19, 1942, which stated that by the end of December 1942 all the Jews within the General Government, with a few exceptions, should be liquidated, set a time limit for the entire operation. This made the need for a commanding authority to supervise and guide the activities in the camps even more urgent. The main problem was to accelerate the extermination process by shortening the time it took to liquidate a transport after its arrival at the camp. This required streamlining the extermination process and increasing the absorptive capacity of the gas chambers. To carry out this improvement and to achieve more control and more efficient supervision over the activities in the camps, Christian Wirth was appointed inspector of the three death camps at the beginning of August 1942. This was after he had completed the reconstruction of the gas chambers in Belzec and had been replaced there by SS Hauptsturmführer Gottlieb Hering. Wirth took with him from Belzec Oberscharführer Josef Oberhauser, who became his aide-de-camp. Wirth’s new headquarters were in Lublin in the “old airport” camp.

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