1112 Chapters
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Medium 9780253342485

Introduction to the Phenomenology of Religion Winter Semester 1920–21

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub


Winter Semester 1920–21

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10: The Social Self on Pilgrimage: Intercession and Mediation

McIntosh, I.S.; Harman, L.D. CABI PDF


The Social Self on Pilgrimage:

Intercession and Mediation

Steven Muir*

Concordia University of Edmonton, Canada


Scholars of pilgrimage often define the practice according to personal aspects. This chapter examines a less discussed aspect of pilgrimage: its interpersonal side. An example is when someone undertakes a pilgrimage on behalf of another person, and receives a benefit for that person. This sort of pilgrimage suggests an important issue: persons do not exist in isolation or act only for personal gain. The life of the individual is woven into the fabric of their family, friends and community. People are in social networks, they may be familiar with mediators and go-betweens interacting on their behalf and thus one person’s intervention benefits others. I use ancient Greece and

Rome as a case study of this issue. In that setting, we see highly developed cases of social networks and social identity in pilgrimage to healing sites.

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17. Medicine

Malcolm Bull Indiana University Press ePub

IT WAS NOT ANTICIPATED that the church’s ministers and doctors would come to represent alternative interpretations of the Adventist tradition. The two groups were to work in tandem. Like harnessed horses, they were to pull the Adventist carriage at the same speed, along the same route. Perhaps for a time they did. Until the 1890s, Ellen White did not find it necessary to discuss the relative status of ministers and doctors. They were both equally vital in disseminating the church’s message, which concerned, on the one hand, a distinctive theology, and on the other, an unusual emphasis on health. But ever since Dr. Kellogg had taken over the Battle Creek Sanitarium in 1876, he had slowly been redefining the nature of Adventism. He presented a reinterpretation that challenged both the church’s internal management and the way which Adventism related to American society. Ellen White’s implicit rebuke of Kellogg was not simply an attempt to put the Adventist doctor in his place. It can also be seen as an effort to stem a form of Adventism that, by the 1890s, threatened to upset the balance of the church’s relationship with the republic.

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Medium 9780253006844

5 The Brazilianization of New York City: Brazilian Immigrants and Evangelical Churches in a Pluralized Urban Landscape

RICHARD CIMINO Indiana University Press ePub

Donizete Rodrigues

In the last two decades, Brazilian immigrants and their evangelical churches have become more visible in the New York Metropolitan Area. Their congregations and small businesses have provoked important changes in several neighborhoods and in the larger pluralized ethnic and religious landscape. As Tony Carnes and Anna Karpathakis (2001) point out, “New York . . . is attracting one of the most diverse concentrations of religions that the world has ever seen . . . and is increasingly being transformed into a city of faiths” (3).

Given this context of religious pluralism, the main theme and purpose of this chapter is to discuss the process of Brazilianization caused by the increasingly significant presence of Brazilian immigrants and their evangelical churches in the New York Metropolitan Area (Rodrigues 2010). By “Brazilianization” I mean the increasingly visible and expressive presence of Brazilian immigrants (and also tourists) in New York City. A significant influence of Brazilian culture also pervades multicultural American society, including music, books, movies, soap operas, food (açai), drink (guarana, coconut juice), and clothing (Havaianas flip-flops). Events like the Brazilian Day Celebration, which has taken place since 1984 in the first week of September in Midtown Manhattan, attracts more than a million people and heightens the visibility of Brazilian culture. “Brazilianization” further refers to the strong presence of Brazilian evangelical churches, whose congregations are in prominent locations and are adorned with cultural names and the country’s flag, contributing to ethnic succession and the subsequent creation of Brazilian religious ethnic enclaves.

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Medium 9781780647388

CH 9 Logistics at Holy Sites

Leppakari, M.; Griffin, K.A. CABI PDF


Logistics at Holy Sites

Anna Trono*

University of Salento, Lecce, Italy


The rapid transformation of modern society has led to radical developments in the ancient practice of pilgrimage. While conserving distinctive characteristics of a religious nature concerning visits to holy places and the experience of pilgrimage itself (Belhassen et al., 2008), pilgrimage is now undertaken for a new set of reasons linked to the search for authenticity, spirituality and cultural enrichment. However, this also means that destinations require complex organization in the provision of structures, infrastructure and services, and the active involvement of public and private sectors, as well as secular and religious authorities.

These changes, which partly reflect the parallel sociocultural transformation of the average visitor, have led to a profound reorganization of the places involved, with consequent socio-economic and environmental impacts. While conserving the spiritual meaning of pilgrimage, sites of religious interest have adapted to the new visitors’ needs by acquiring infrastructure and structures for providing transport (car parks, low-cost flights, coach lines), catering and accommodation for the pilgrims/tourists. The latter also generate demand for tourist goods (religious souvenirs, local food and craft products) and services (travel agencies, specialized tour operators). There is a proliferation of promotional activities (creation of foundations, tourism bourses) and complementary initiatives of a cultural nature (concerts, festivals, shows). These generate interest while consolidating and strengthening the image of the place, diversifying tourist demand with potential socio-economic effects on the region (Herrero et al., 2009).

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Medium 9780253346735

1. “O God, is it all!”

Stephen Gottschalk Indiana University Press ePub

The Next Friends Suit was the culminating ordeal of Mary Baker Eddy’s life and in some ways the most threatening. She was ultimately vindicated and even rose in public esteem. Yet if the Next Friends had prevailed, the “insanity” imputed to her would inevitably have colored public perceptions of the religion she had founded. She would have lost control over her own person and property, and the movement she led would have suffered a severe and perhaps insurmountable setback.

Yet in Eddy’s view there was a kind of glory to this experience—not the glory the world gives, but the glory that comes from enduring the malice that she saw as always threatening to extinguish spiritual light. This is the glory of the sacrificial love that Eddy felt made possible Jesus’ triumph over hatred and death. In the chapter “Atonement and Eucharist” in Science and Health, she spoke of his “treading alone his loving pathway up to the throne of glory,” of “the great glory of an everlasting victory” that overshadowed the Last Supper, of “his night of gloom and glory in the garden” of Gethsemane, and of his meeting with his disciples by the Sea of Galilee after the Resurrection, when “his gloom had passed into glory.”1 All Christians must share his suffering to some degree, she felt, in order to follow their Master and partake in some measure of that glory.

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Medium 9781609940041

Introduction: A Call to Wise and Compassionate Leadership

Manz, Charles C. Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

When you are called upon to lead, in any capacity, are you effective? Is your leadership ethical and just? Are you able to provide positive influence for others that benefits them as well as the end that is being served?

Now let’s go even deeper. Are you able to lead yourself effectively? Do you serve as an ethical, moral, effective example for others? Do you lead with humility? Do you lead with compassion? Have you mastered the arts of forgiveness and service? Can you be like a child when that is required? Do you understand and put into practice the Golden Rule? Do you know the secret of mustard seed power?

There is a powerful and informative literature dating back hundreds of years that addresses historical thinking on wisdom. It is especially centered on the writings and teachings of mostly ancient, and usually religious, leaders. A number of historical leaders and thinkers have achieved a special level of greatness and wisdom. King Solomon, Moses, Confucius, Lao Tzu, Buddha, Gandhi, Muhammad, and many others have struck a chord with multitudes in an unusually powerful way. As our contemporary knowledge continues to expand dramatically, it would be a grave mistake to forget the vast wisdom of such key historical figures.

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Medium 9780253338112

7 The Other Jews of the Former USSR: Georgian, Central Asian, and Mountain Jews

Zvi Gitelman Indiana University Press ePub

Non-European Jews constituted less than 10 percent of the total Jewish population of the Soviet Union. Their history has been different from that of their European co-religionists, as their territories came under Russian rule only in modern times, and even in the Soviet period they maintained differences in family structure, religious tradition, language, culture, and social structure. While each of the major non-Ashkenazic (non-European) communities—Georgian, Central Asian (“Bukharan”), and Mountain Jews—has a distinct culture and history, they have some common features that set them off from the Ashkenazim. Through the twentieth century they maintained patriarchal families, especially in rural areas and smaller towns. The head of the family, usually an older man, made many decisions for all the rest, or at least was consulted about them. The families were both larger and more extended than European ones. Cousins several times removed would know each other, and in Central Asia they were likely to live near each other, even within the same group of connected houses surrounding a courtyard. These patterns and many others were shared with the non-Jewish populations among whom these communities lived for centuries. Tradition and custom were highly respected, as they were in the Georgian Christian and Central Asian Muslim communities. The kind of collective revolts against tradition represented by the Haskalah, the socialist movements, and the enthusiasm for building Communism that have been observed among European Jews never appeared in the non-Ashkenazic communities. The one modern movement that did enjoy great popularity was Zionism, especially among the Georgian and Mountain Jews. This exception is explained by the fact that it fit into the religious tradition of praying for a return to Zion, which was always taken seriously by these communities. In the nineteenth century, both independently of the modern Zionist movement and as part of it, Jews from these areas emigrated to the Holy Land, usually settling in Jerusalem but in some cases founding new agricultural settlements such as Beer Yaakov, established by Mountain Jews.

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Medium 9780253204226

2. Medieval Witches

Joseph Klaits Indiana University Press ePub

Witch trials were virtually unknown until the final centuries of the Middle Ages. Through most of the medieval era, churchmen generally held that anyone who believed women went flying about at night was a victim of superstition. But, even as these assertions became formalized in influential collections of the church’s canon law, the foundation on which they rested was slowly eroded in the course of the medieval Catholic encounter with nonconformists whom the church perceived to be dangerous deviants.

Jews, heretics, homosexuals, and magicians were among the most important of the nonconforming groups. From the twelfth century on, outsiders came under increasing verbal and physical attack from churchmen, allied secular authorities, and, particularly in the case of Jews, from the lower strata of the population. In the early Middle Ages, a more easygoing acceptance of social diversity had usually been the norm. After 1100, however, new patterns of enmity quickly emerged, and a climate of fear and hostility became frozen into place. Not until the end of the seventeenth century, when ancient hatreds receded somewhat, did a few areas of Western culture temporarily abandon the stress on social conformity and unanimity of belief. But, by the time of this decline in preoccupation with unconventional behavior, the witch craze had run its course.

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8. The Patterns of Growth

Malcolm Bull Indiana University Press ePub

AN APPRECIATION OF Adventism’s relationship to the United States helps explain the church’s development as a social system. But it does more than inform an understanding of the denomination’s vast institutional structure, hierarchical government, and collectivist ethic; it also provides insights into the nature of the denomination’s missionary appeal and rapid expansion. But before this phenomenon is examined in detail, it is useful to review the general trajectory of Adventist growth, both in America and overseas.

The preaching of William Miller and his associates was intended to warn as many people as possible of the impending Second Advent. Since Miller’s active ministry began only twelve years before the date of the anticipated Judgment, there was obviously little hope that every individual could be warned before the event. Although the Millerites were zealous evangelists and the movement grew to number approximately 50,000, the shortage of time meant that their missionary activity was understood as a symbolic “witness to all nations” rather than an attempt at world evangelism.1 After the humiliation on October 22, 1844, the movement fragmented. Its Sabbatarian wing was a small minority, and in 1849 probably numbered less than 100.2 Most of these people were located in the area between New Hampshire, where the practice of Sabbath-keeping seems to have emerged, and Maine and Connecticut, where James and Ellen White founded the church’s initial publishing operations. But there were already a few believers outside this northeastern corner of the republic. In Michigan, a handful of former Millerites had accepted Adventist teachings after a visit by Joseph Bates, Adventism’s first evangelist.3 There was, however, no real growth in the period 1844 to 1851, not only because the public was unlikely to sympathize with a group whose predictions had so recently been discredited, but also because the Great Disappointment had “terminated all mission efforts of Adventists because of their general understanding that the door of mercy was closed for humanity.”4

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Medium 9780253019622

7. Imagining the Wandering Jew in Modernity: Exegesis and Ethnography in Leon Feuchtwanger’s Jud Süss / Galit Hasan-Rokem

Edited by Andreas Kilcher and Gabriella Indiana University Press ePub

Exegesis and Ethnography in Leon Feuchtwanger’s Jud Süss


Folklore as a mode of human creativity and behavior has existed since humans have communicated amongst themselves, but the study of folklore as a category of intellectual pursuit and systematic research is modern. In their awareness of continuous traditions and the changes that they undergo, moderns have distinguished their cultural situation precisely as moderns: in a judicious relationship to tradition.1 Rather than thinking of modernity as a sequence of premodern and then modern, I suggest that it may be more adequate for our multimigrating and pluricultural era to recognize the parallel existences of multiple modernities, postmodernities, and post-post-modernities. Combining research methodologies developed in folklore studies and the study of literature, I interpret Leon Feuchtwanger’s novel Jud Süß’s engagement with the figure of the Wandering Jew as grappling with threatening forms of modernity growing out of medieval traditions, while I demonstrate the role of cultural imagination as the weaver of tradition, as well as what unravels it. Imagination is here conceptualized as a cultural construct characterizing a period or a place,2 and as a creative capacity characterizing groups or individuals.3 The two aspects of imagination shown here to be of special relevance to the study of the figure of the Wandering Jew in general, and particularly in the case of this novel, are the exegetic imagination and the ethnographic imagination.4 The exegetic imagination is best defined as a hermeneutic and semiotic potential, active in creative performances in cultural media of various reflections, elaborations, and interpretations of texts, especially of sacred and canonical texts.5 The ethnographic imagination, a concept that has been developed in the context of the present work, draws on the sphere of experience, reflection, and action best understood under the phenomenological concept of Lebenswelt;6 its presence in a work of fiction is characterized by reference to details of everyday life, of ethnically and culturally identifiable mores, and sometimes by descriptive elements of a recognizable historical and cultural context.

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Medium 9780253009661

9 Stagnation and Segregation: Northern Ireland, 1971 to 2001

Ian N. Gregory Indiana University Press ePub


The late twentieth century saw a stark contrast between the experiences of the Republic of Ireland, described in the previous chapter, and those of Northern Ireland over the same period. While the Republic saw rapid economic progress and a decline in religious divisions, the situation in Northern Ireland was almost the reverse. Between 1971 and 2001 Northern Ireland saw rapid economic change as its traditional industries declined. At the same time it experienced a prolonged sectarian conflict in the form of the Troubles, during which more than three thousand people died. The complexity of the situation means that the next three chapters will be devoted to covering Northern Ireland over this period. chapter 9 looks at demographic, economic, and social change, stressing that in many ways Northern Ireland’s experience was typical of declining heavy industrial regions, albeit with a unique spatioreligious undertone. chapter 10 then moves to exploring the patterns of violence that occurred during the Troubles, which started in the late 1960s and ended with the various ceasefires of the late 1990s. chapter 11 draws these two threads together, focusing on Belfast, the area in which these themes had their largest impacts.

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Medium 9780253177247


Jean Amery Indiana University Press ePub

Whoever visits Belgium as a tourist may perhaps chance upon Fort Breendonk, which lies halfway between Brussels and Antwerp. The compound is a fortress from the First World War, and what its fate was at that time I don’t know. In the Second World War, during the short eighteen days of resistance by the Belgian army in May 1940, Breendonk was the last headquarters of King Leopold. Then, under German occupation, it became a kind of small concentration camp, a “reception camp,” as it was called in the cant of the Third Reich. Today it is a Belgian National Museum.

At first glance, the fortress Breendonk makes a very old, almost historic impression. As it lies there under the eternally rain-gray sky of Flanders, with its grass-covered domes and black-gray walls, it gives the feeling of a melancholy engraving from the 1870s war. One thinks of Gravelotte and Sedan and is convinced that the defeated Emperor Napoleon III, with kepi in hand, will immediately appear in one of the massive, low gates. One must step closer, in order that the fleeting picture from past times be replaced by another, which is more familiar to us. Watchtowers arise along the moat that rings the castle. Barbed-wire fences wrap around them. The copperplate of 1870 is abruptly obscured by horror photos from the world that David Rousset has called “l’Univers Concentrationnaire.” The creators of the National Museum have left everything the way it was between 1940 and 1944. Yellowed wall cards: “Whoever goes beyond this point will be shot.” The pathetic monument to the resistance movement that was erected in front of the fortress shows a man forced to his knees, but defiantly raising his head with its oddly Slavic lines. This monument would not at all have been necessary to make clear to the visitor where he is and what is recollected there.

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Medium 9780253012104

3 Scrambling for the Right: Disestablishment and the Town Church

Shelby M. Balik Indiana University Press ePub


The First terrain that Congregationalists and itinerant denominations fought over was the established town church. For many—particularly Congregationalists—publicly funded worship in a town church had been the bedrock of a system that ensured a moral and pious society. With religious taxation came automatic membership in a spiritual community, even for those who had not joined a church in full communion, along with all of the privileges and obligations that membership entailed. Among the most important privileges were access to regular worship and the spiritual and moral edification that religious observance could foster; obligations included the submission to the community’s religious and moral standards, which in turn ensured public peace and order. But to the upstart religious movements, the town church looked very different; hardly a basis for cohesive community, it was more like a restrictive spiritual mold, which they would need to break to achieve true religious liberty. As Congregationalists and the new evangelical groups competed for churchgoers and funds, the town church (especially its power to demand religious taxes) became the battleground where their rivalries played out.1

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Medium 9780253012531

6. Citing the Medieval: Using Religion as World-Building Infrastructure in Fantasy MMORPGs · Rabia Gregory

HEIDI CAMPBELL Indiana University Press ePub

Rabia Gregory

A BETRAYAL. A CURSE. THE AGE OF STRIFE BEGINS. . . . WARRIORS, heroes, and adventurers begin the restoration. . . . What role will you play? Join the battle for supremacy or let chaos rule. Shadowbane.” This resonant baritone voiceover to the cinematic introduction to Wolfpack’s 2003 massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) lists dualistic clichés of fantasy role-playing games as the camera pans over scenes of armed three-dimensional male bodies engaged in combat, shooting arrows, casting spells, wielding siege engines, and arguing over strategy at campaign tables. As the only opportunity for cinematic narrative in the game, this opening video informs each new player that the game loading on their screen offers more than the realistic mechanics of premodern warfare. The conflict they are about to join is purposeful, each player a participant in a tragic battle originating in religious violence, which will frame their game experience as part of a war-torn world’s history. The cutscene’s camera slowly pans over the runes etched on the blade of a bloody sword thrust into the shattered trunk of a dying tree, capturing a moment of tragic betrayal when Cambruin, a mighty human king, was transfixed to the World Tree. As his blood ran down the tree’s trunk, the Shadowbane blade petrified the tree, shattering creation.

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