1809 Chapters
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Medium 9780871781796

Believers Baptism

Various Brethren Press PDF

A DUNKERG U I D E TOBelievers BaptismWalking in newness of lifeMatthew 28:19; Mark 1:9-11; Romans 6:1-4Allen T. HansellAMack (1679–1735), the first minister and organizer of the first Brethren in 1708, wrote more about baptism than any other sub35 ject. The Church of the Brethren continues to affirm and follow Mack’s understanding of baptism.Jesus was baptized by John in the Jordan River (Matt. 3:13; Mark 1:9), setting an example for his followers in all generations. Moreover, Jesus commissioned his disciples to baptize others: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of theHoly Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you” (Matt. 28:19).For Brethren, baptism has no inherent sacramental value. The act of baptism is simply an outward expression of an inner transformation that occurs in one’s heart prior to baptism. Mack underscored this belief by pointing to Paul’s understanding of circumcision. Paul argued that Abraham was reckoned as righteous before he was circumcised (Romans 4:10). Circumcision was “a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised” (Romans 4:11a). Likewise, baptism is a public testimony that one has already acknowledged and responded to God’s saving grace. Baptism marks God’s blessing on a new beginning.

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Medium 9781574411959

3. Bad Blood in Dallas Leads to Ill Will Across Texas

Joseph E. Early, Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF





DURING THE 1880S, UNIFICATION was an important concept not only in the Baptist General Convention of Texas, but also in the many different areas of the secular world in Texas. The railroad in particular was a unifying force and Texas experienced significant growth in this industry. Prior to the Civil War there had been less than 500 miles of track in Texas. By 1890 there were

8,710 miles of track crisscrossing the Lone Star State connecting the smaller cities with the larger.1 The development of the railroad shortened the great distances between cities and allowed all areas of the state to prosper financially. Perhaps nowhere in Texas did the railroad have a more positive financial impact than in the Baptist cities of Dallas and Waco.

The development of Dallas as a major city was closely tied to the development of the railroad. The Houston and Central Railroad opened a station in Dallas in July of 1872. The following year the

Texas and Pacific Railroad set up operations. Just before the arrival of the Houston and Central, the population of Dallas was 1,200.

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Medium 9781442252189

One Body, One Spirit, One Hope: Theological Resources for Those Who Struggle to Hope

Mangina, Joseph Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

One Body, One Spirit, One Hope: Theological Resources for Those Who Struggle to Hope

Barbara K. Sain

In a recent essay Margaret Adam describes how emphasis on certain ideas about hope in theological discussions can result in the neglect of other valuable ideas about hope from the Christian tradition.1 For example, focus on the revelatory character of human suffering can diminish the importance of a God who transcends suffering, and determination to fight injustice in this world can overshadow longing for eternal life beyond this world. The oppositions Adam describes reveal a characteristic of the larger discussion of Christian hope. The current conversation about hope is actually multiple conversations, with different presuppositions and focal points, that have surprisingly little engagement with each other. In addition to writers who focus on the classical topics of eschatology, such as the afterlife and the end of time, there are theologians who emphasize the social and historical character of hope, others who maintain the traditional understanding of hope as a theological virtue, and pastoral theologians who draw on psychology. To some extent the variety of approaches reflects the richness of the Christian experience of hope. However, the lack of engagement among different schools of thought results in disjunctures and omissions in the conversation. Some situations for which hope is important are not well addressed in the literature.

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Medium 9780253008145

NINE Vulnerability Unveiled: Lubna’s Pants and Humanitarian Visibility on the Verge of Sudan’s Secession • AMAL HASSAN FADLALLA

Edited by Elisha P Renne Indiana University Press ePub

Journalist Lubna Ahmed Al-Hussein traveled to France to sign a book based on her story on the 23rd of November, 2009. Internet sales of her book . . . reached half a million copies, each selling for 18 Euros, 6% of which will go to Lubna. Lubna told reporters that the book will be translated into various languages.

—Reuters (Paris), 2009

In July 2009, the transnational media circulated news about yet another grave human rights violation perpetrated by Sudan’s Islamist regime, the latest in a series of violent crimes against humanity.1 Lubna Al-Hussein, dubbed “the pants journalist” for wearing pants in public and hence countermanding the prevailing dress code of modest body covering, was sentenced to flogging after an arrest by the public order police in Sudan. This case became one of the most widely reported narratives about the subordination of Muslim women in the world.2 Lubna was arrested, along with twelve other women, in a public restaurant in Khartoum and charged with disturbing public order by dressing indecently. Lubna contested the immodesty charge by addressing the media and arguing that at the time of her arrest she was wearing baggy pants, a long blouse with long sleeves, and a headscarf.

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Medium 9781538113998

Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Grace and Gratitude: A Reply to Bruce Marshall

Michael Allen

“The spirits divide in manifold ways, and the division reaches even to the description of Protestantism’s iconic founding incident.” These words of Professor Bruce Marshall not only help us realize the challenge as we assess the events of October 1517, but, more broadly, as we consider the persona and witness of Martin Luther. Some take Luther’s significance to be political, and Marshall alludes to the significance of his support by “the Elector of Saxony Frederick the Wise” for turning him from a mere reformer to a founder of German Protestantism. Others highlight the ways in which Luther confronted the economic exploitation of German peasants for the aristocrats and the foreign powers of Rome, to which Marshall also nods in his comments on the popular awareness of the ways in which indulgences could fleece the least of these. While treating the political and the economic aspects of reform as bearing significance, however, Marshall reminds us of the abiding theological character of his witness and the specifically pastoral shape of his reforms.

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Medium 9780253019622

12. From Custom Book to Folk Culture: Minhag and the Roots of Jewish Ethnography / Nathaniel Deutsch

Edited by Andreas Kilcher and Gabriella Indiana University Press ePub

Minhag and the Roots of Jewish Ethnography


In 1891, Rabbi Abraham Sperling (1851–1921) of Lemberg—now Lviv in Ukraine and then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire—published his Hebrew language magnum opus, Sefer Ta’amei ha-Minhagim u-Mekorei ha-Dinim (Book of Reasons for Customs and Sources for Laws).1 The book rapidly became the rabbinic equivalent of a bestseller. During Sperling’s lifetime alone, at least six editions of the book were published, including a Yiddish translation in 1909; after his death, numerous official and bootleg versions were also published in various parts of Eastern Europe as well as in Germany, Hungary, the United States, and, most recently, Israel, likely making it the most widely produced book on Jewish custom in the modern period. Sperling’s decision to write the book and its subsequent popularity reflected historical and ideological developments within Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism, writ large. Indeed, as we will see, Sefer Ta’amei ha-Minhagim is notable for its catholic approach to Jewish customs, including material drawn from the responsa of leading rabbis such as Moses Sofer (also known as the Ḥatam Sofer) of Pressburg, generally considered the ideological father of the Haredi movement, as well as multiple Hasidic sources. Yet, as I will argue in this essay, the book was also connected to more secular currents in turn-of-the-century European Jewish culture, including the kinus (ingathering) phenomenon and the creation of Jewish ethnography and folklore studies, in which minhag (custom) became a central, if theoretically problematic, category.2

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Medium 9780253342935

5 Construction of Treblinka

Yitzhak Arad Indiana University Press ePub

The construction of Treblinka death camp began after Belzec and Sobibor were already operational. The expertise gained in the building and in the killing operations in the other two camps were applied in the planning and construction of Treblinka. It became the most “perfected” death camp of Operation Reinhard.

The Treblinka death camp was located in the northeast section of the General Government, not far from Malkinia, a town and station on the main railway, Warsaw-Bialystok, and close to the railway Malkinia-Siedlce. It was built in a thinly populated area near the village of Wolka Okranglik, some 4 km from Treblinka village and train station. The site chosen for the camp was wooded and naturally concealed from both the Malkinia-Kosov road to its north and the Malkinia-Siedlce railway, which ran to its west. Near the camp’s southwest boundary, a rail spur connected Treblinka station with a gravel quarry in the region that had been worked before the war. In the spring of 1941, the Germans decided to exploit the quarry for raw materials for the fortifications then being constructed on the Soviet-German line of demarcation, and in the summer of that year they established Treblinka I penal camp, to which they brought 1,000–1,200 Polish and Jewish detainees for forced labor. This camp, like the entire region, was under the authority of the Warsaw area SS and Police Leader (SSPF).

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Medium 978087178064x

New Testament Symbols

Dale W. Brown Brethren Press PDF

another way body.qxd6/8/051:17 PMPage 140a peasant people simply desiring to be a New Testament church, the question became what commandments do we keep, and what do they mean?We have noted that a nineteenth-century Brethren’s Card modestly boasted to be little children who “. . . teach all of the doctrines of Christ, peace, love, unity, faith and works.” Obviously, the fourth one comes fromJames: “So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead” (2:17). Biblical commentators note that James is somewhat at odds with other epistle writers who maintain we are saved by grace through faith, not by our deeds. MostBrethren would agree with our forebears and those who cite James in advocating desirable moral imperatives of Christian identity for communities of faith. Although Luther had problems with James, calling the book “an epistle of straw,” he did not reject the book in his exegetical works. He agreed that James did say some good things. Pietist leaders, who led what has been called a second reformation, loved to quote Luther’s affirmation that true faith becomes very busy and active in love. Brethren have believed this.

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Medium 9780971435223

Big Mac Attack

Jed McKenna Wisefool Press PDF

A late lunch is my main meal of the day and I do the same thing every day......

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Medium 9781780647388

CH 4 Christian Pilgrimage to Sacred Sites in the Holy Land

Leppakari, M.; Griffin, K.A. CABI PDF


Christianity – Christian

Pilgrimage to Sacred Sites in the Holy Land: A Swedish


Göran Gunner*

Church of Sweden Research Unit, Uppsala, Sweden


Through centuries, Jerusalem and the Holy Land has been a goal for pilgrims, researchers, travellers, and more recently for tourists. Whatever the purpose of the tour has been, a visit to the sacred places has been part of the journey. This chapter will use Swedish travellers – predominantly Protestant Christians – to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, (to Palestine and Israel) to explore the idea of Western pilgrimage to sacred sites, and uses historical as well as present day examples in order to discuss what a pilgrim may face and react to when visiting a sacred place like Jerusalem.

An inquisitive traveller in the Holy Land was and is usually dependent on a tour leader or a tour guide showing attractions and places of interest. Possibly, the traveller can make the trip with the help of a guidebook. Whether the trip is made with a guide or more independently, preparations have to be done at home, in advance, reading guidebooks and previous travel books. Once the traveller reaches the destination, experiences at sites and encounters with people blend with what was written in the travel books. The nature of the landscape, the villages and towns offer not only a journey in what is seen, but also an experience which is mediated by what is contained in the guide or guidebook’s narratives. Through these interpretations, a place, a building or an outdoor experience often becomes a journey through time. As often as possible, the guides (written and oral) link a site to the events that occurred at the site throughout time, and in particular connections to scripture are emphasized.

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Medium 9781442229129


Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A. G. Roeber*

In the stimulating collection of essays dedicated to the late Jaroslav Pelikan on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, one of the most hopeful signs occurred by virtue of its absence. None of the authors chose to highlight the controversial role Saint Augustine of Hippo has been forced to play upon the stage where often tense and acerbic Orthodox/non-Orthodox declamations proclaim very different histories of Christian doctrine.1 Pelikan himself, in reviewing his intentions in delivering the Gifford Lectures on Natural Theology for 1992–1993, pointed out that in examining Saints Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Macrina the Younger, he hoped to present “the systems of thought which, taken together, do for the Christian East much of what the theology and philosophy of Saint Augustine of Hippo do for the Latin West.”2

It would be unfair even to leave the impression that only a “convert” to Orthodoxy with such impeccable credentials of expertise on the Latin Fathers such as Pelikan possessed could exhibit such a sophisticated perspective. Twenty years ago, Father Theodore Stylianopoulos already raised his doubts about disputes over the filioque as “the” issue dividing Orthodoxy and the separated Latins. As he noted, Augustine was perhaps unfortunate in not having adopted the preposition “through” rather than the conjunctive “and” in his investigations of immanent Trinitarian relations. But despite the “headaches” caused to Christianity, Stylianopoulos still argued that a wholesale charge leveled against Augustine and all Latin theologians of depersonalizing the Trinity can no longer be sustained. However awkwardly Augustine’s language seems to jar on Cappadocian ears, within the context of his own theology, his usage neither compromises the monarchy of the Father nor leads to a “depersonalized” Trinitarian theology. The language, Stylianopoulos concludes, “marks not a decisive difference in dogma, but an important difference in the interpretation of dogma due to the differing Cappadocian and Augustinian approaches to the mystery of the Trinity.”3

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Medium 9781523093984

13. The Servant Leader’s Focus

Blanchard, Ken; Broadwell, Renee Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I’ve never met James Ferrell, but I’ve admired Arbinger Institute from a distance—and their books up close. I think when you read James’s essay, you’ll realize why I was excited to have him participate in this book—and why I’m thinking of giving a copy of the book to my garbage man! —KB

I DISLIKE THE word “service.”

There, I said it. And I believe it needs to be said in a book about servant leadership. As odd as it might sound, I believe that a focus on service is incompatible with servant leadership. True servant leaders don’t focus on service; they focus on something else entirely. In this chapter, I will explore the kind of nonservice focus that forms the foundation of servant leadership.

Years ago, I recorded a podcast for Arbinger Institute in which I drew an analogy between tonal spoken languages, such as Chinese, and life itself.

When speaking Chinese, the speaker’s intonation determines the meaning of every word and phrase. In Cantonese, for example, there are nine different tonal variations. Two of these are too subtle for Westerners, so foreigners usually learn just seven intonations. These intonations begin with three variations—low, mid, and high—in the initial pitch the speaker uses when uttering a word. There are additional variations within each pitch level: the low pitch can stay steady, rise, or fall; the mid-level pitch can stay steady or rise; and the high-level pitch can stay steady or fall. The meaning of every Chinese utterance depends on these tones. For example, consider the following Cantonese sentence: “Go go go go go go go go go go.” Its meaning, when uttered with different tones, is “That tall man over there is taller than his older brother.” No joke. The speaker’s tone determines the meaning of everything.

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Medium 9781538113998

Ecclesial Plurality

Pro Ecclesia Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Ecclesial Plurality

Alan Jacobs1

Recently, some of the strongest divisions within the Christian world in the West, and particular in North America, have arisen from disagreements about human sexuality. These disagreements may be described and accounted for in various ways. Those who hold to the traditional view that sexuality is properly expressed only in marriage between one man and one woman may speak of heresies and disobediences that demand the invocation of the strict disciplines and separations of 1 Corinthians 5; conversely, those who accept the validity of same-sex unions may see in the traditionalists the dangers of a renewed Donatism. Although all such charges have occasional validity, they tend to promote diagnostic crudity.

Such crudity has also been promoted by how both sides use the Bible. A great deal of energy has been expended, throughout the history of Christianity, in trying to resolve the apparent contradictions in the biblical witness, by choosing (often in ways that seem arbitrary) some passages to govern the interpretation of other passages. That’s how we get the Calvinist/Arminian divide, among many others. But then, seeing how interminable and fruitless these controversies are, some people decide that the Bible is incoherent and self-contradictory and stop relying on its witness to determine their theology.

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Medium 9781576751114

3 Soul As a Chorus of Inner Voices

Peppers, Cheryl Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

How queer to have so many selves.

How bewildering.


IN THE 1920s, English fiction writer Virginia Woolf made a major contribution toward understanding the structure of the personality through her technique of character development. Moving beyond dialogue between people, Woolf brought forward the dialogue within oneself as a way to reveal the inner complexity of a character. Through stream of consciousness, the reader could listen in on the protagonist’s interior dialogue. Thus the story shifts to an inner drama, played out among the character’s multiplicity of selves. Woolf’s appeal, no doubt, stemmed from her readers’ recognition of these different aspects within themselves—if not quite the same, similar in their complexity and juxtapositioning. At the time, the popular view of the personality was that of a single, dominant self—an individual who by will could control himself or herself. Woolf and others introduced the idea of many selves, whose voices sometimes harmonize and other times conflict.42

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Medium 9780871781345

M.R. Zigler

Various Brethren Press PDF

dunkerguide-history-complete35/27/104:56 PMPage 1151958-2008M.R. ZiglerA crusader for peace by J. Kenneth KreiderLegacy includes Brethren ServiceCenter in New WindsorWhen will Christians stop killing their fellow Christians?” thunderedM.R. Zigler, as he spoke to countless congregations, district conferences, international assemblies, and Annual Conference delegates. He constantly chided, prodded, and encouraged Brethren and fellow Christians to put their professed faith and standard of conduct in the teachings of the Prince of Peace rather than in secular national leaders and nationalism.Michael Robert Zigler (M.R., as most called him) was born Nov. 9, 1891, in the ancestral Zigler homestead, called the Tunker House, in Broadway, Va. The TunkerHouse—also significant as the site of the 1832 Brethren Annual Meeting and the former home of outstanding 19th-century Brethren writer and theologian PeterNead—is commemorated as a historic landmark by both state and national registers. It is located just across the road from the home of another Brethren patriarch, John Kline, who was martyred during the Civil War.

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