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Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 1

Large Smoothbore Projectiles

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Smoothbore projectiles are generally classified in six categories, according to their design and proposed use. Shot, shell, and case shot are discussed in this section. Canister, grape stands and quilted grape will be discussed in the sections that follow.

Characteristics

Shot—are usually spherical in shape. These projectiles were designed to crush the target by the momentum of impact. As ships and fortifications became more formidable in their defenses, shot became more important projectiles for damaging or destroying them. Some shot were elongated, to increase the weight of the projectile being fired.

Almost all of these were proof shot, fired to ensure the ability of the cannon to withstand the pressures of firing. A few (almost all Confederate) were elongated and designed for use at very short ranges against ironclad targets before the shot started to tumble. Maury and Brooke shot are the best known of this type. (Maury shot are covered in the rifled projectile section because of their traditional association with rifled projectiles.) Bar and chain shot were not used in large caliber guns.

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17 Discipline

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter seventeen

discipline

O

ne of the most famous judges in Texas history was Roy Bean, remembered as the Law West of the Pecos as a result of the outrageous brand of justice he administered in Langtry, Texas. Judge Bean would ask miscreants how much money they had and then fine them exactly that much. He once ordered a hanged and buried criminal dug up and hanged again. Judge Bean would have fit in fine as a TDCJ disciplinary captain. The ultimate in frustration and helplessness felt by an inmate is when he goes before the Unit Disciplinary Committee and is steamrolled and flattened by the prison disciplinary machine.

The system seems simple, and maybe even just, to outsiders, if only because it mirrors the court system in the free-world. When inmates enter TDCJ, they are handed a book with the rules they must follow. If a guard believes an inmate has violated a rule, the guard writes a case—a ticket, if you will—that details the incident. The inmate is advised of the charges, and, depending on their seriousness, is appointed a substitute counsel, which is another guard, to aid in his defense. The inmate then appears before the Unit Disciplinary Committee, which is in reality a lone captain whose duties are to be the arm of justice on that unit. The inmate is allowed to present a defense, to call witnesses, and to appeal

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Appendix A Missing and Unaccounted For

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

Missing and Unaccounted For

Research for this book produced tantalizing clues about projectiles that are unknown to the author and could not be documented for inclusion in the book.

This list of “missing” projectiles is provided below, together with the data source where they were identified. They are “unaccounted for” among surviving projectiles.

Hopefully others will do additional research and locate these projectiles. Some of these are field calibers, but are included as part of an effort to expand the knowledge in the field:

Caliber (In.)

2.9

3.0

3.4

3.5

3.67

3.67

3.8

4.2

4.2

4.5

4.62

4.62

4.62

4.62

5.1

5.82

5.82

6.4

6.4

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.0

7.5

Design

Hotchkiss Shell

Stafford Shell

Hotchkiss Bolt

Hotchkiss Case Shot and Shell

Hopson Shot

Stafford Shell

Schenkl Case Shot and Shell

Absterdam shell

Hotchkiss Shot

Dyer Shot

Hotchkiss Shell

Sawyer Bolts and Shells

Schenkl Canister

Schenkl Shells

Cochran Shell

Hotchkiss Shell

Parrott Bolt

Dyer Shells and Bolts2

Hopson Shot

Brooke Concussion Shell

Hotchkiss Bolts and Shells

Sawyer Shell

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Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

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20 Racism, Riots, and Gangs

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty

racism, riots, and gangs

A

Time cover story in the early 1980’s declared the East Texas prison unit of Eastham “America’s Toughest Prison,” a distinction hotly disputed by other Texas prison units. The entire then-Texas Department of

Corrections rocked after Judge William Wayne Justice ordered the building tender system dismantled as a result of Ruiz v. Estelle. Without its inmate goons to keep order, TDC was exposed as almost criminally understaffed.

Coupled with the mass resignings and reassignments of many oldtime guards and wardens—who had flourished under Director W.J.

Estelle’s term—the lack of supervision left a power vacuum that was soon exploited by burgeoning prison gangs. Flexing their muscles, the various gangs waged war for the right to control the prison drug trade and jumped at the opportunity to settle old scores. The murder rates rocketed as the media fueled the killing frenzy by publicly lamenting the records for violent deaths that TDCJ convicts were daily rewriting.

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