163 Chapters
Medium 9781574411522

14 Craft Shop

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter fourteen

craft shop

T

here are perhaps only three ways an inmate may legally make money while he is in TDCJ. One is to write and then market his fiction, essays and poetry to free-world magazines. Another is to paint or draw and sell his artwork to interested buyers outside the walls. Both of these moneymaking ideas are subject to not just individual talent but to the mails, and to the hit-and-miss assistance of outside parties.

TDCJ offers one way for inmates who keep clear disciplinary records to make money while inside the walls, with all work and most sales being done by the inmates. It’s called the craft shop, or the “piddling” shop, and it is a privilege not to be dismissed lightly. The craft shop is just that: an area where inmates work on leather goods, jewelry, wood projects, paintings, fanciful stick creations—any of a number of personal expressions that can be done at a minimum of cost and then sold to officers or visitors or marketed to the free-world.

Inmates within the shops, called piddlers, usually begin as apprentices, or helpers, and work their way up the ladder as space in the craft shop allows. A determined, hard-working piddler who produces quality goods can make over $12,000 a year while still performing his assigned duties for the system. That may not sound like much money, but it does

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Medium 9781574411638

Sawyer

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Sawyer

Sylvanus Sawyer and his brother Addison M. Sawyer developed and patented a system of rifles, projectiles, and fuzes that were highly regarded early in the war. They had a 5.86inch rifle and projectiles under test at Fort Monroe in Hampton Roads in 1859.1 It may have been the same rifle that in 1861 earned Sawyer that high regard. Sawyer’s rifle was the only cannon available to the Union Army that could hit the Confederate batteries defending

Hampton Roads from the Rip Raps, an island about 2,000 yards south of Fort Monroe.2

Three Sawyer shell designs are known. The most common is the flanged model.

Instead of a sabot, the iron shell body has six flanges and is covered completely with a lead sleeve. A second design has the lead sleeve cover only the flanged cylindrical sides of the shell body but not the base or ogive. The third design has a smooth sided shell body completely encased in lead. There are no known battlefield recoveries of this model in large calibers. All three designs are reported to have had a brass foil over the lead sheath to reduce the lead fouling the rifling. One flanged specimen has been documented in the West Point Museum collection with this brass foil largely intact.

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Medium 9781574411546

7 Ducklings in My Swimming Pool

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Ducklings in my Swimming Pool

and calm rivers. But what if that water habitat happens to be your swimming pool?

If you have a pool, you may find that it’s being used by many creatures aside from those in your family! I remember a call from a distressed family who discovered about a dozen ducklings in their pool one day. The family kept their pool uncovered, leaving an open invitation of water for wild ducks. Sure enough, a family of them decided to take advantage of that invitation.

It seemed harmless enough. The ducklings were swimming around and appeared to be enjoying themselves. What this family didn’t know, however, is that a joyful day at the pool could turn deadly for this duck family if they didn’t take the proper steps to make sure those ducklings had a way out of the pool!

The little ducks were too small to hop out of the water onto the edge of the pool. This is the case for many baby ducks: the edge is too high for them and they’re stuck. I told the family to put a board halfway into the water, creating a little ramp that the ducks could use to exit the water. Providing this little escape route saved the ducklings’ lives. Again, they lacked the flight feathers necessary to take flight from the water as many species of waterfowl are able to do.

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Medium 9780253012111

5. Bringing the Ghetto to the Jew: Spatialities of Ghettoization in Budapest

Indiana University Press ePub

Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano

BUDAPEST WAS ONE OF APPROXIMATELY 150 TOWNS AND cities in Hungary where Jews were restricted to urban ghettos during the Holocaust.1 Elsewhere in occupied Eastern Europe, local officials created ghettos to confine and control Jewish residents or to hold Jews sent from elsewhere.2 While noting that ghettos were not implemented in all occupied cities and towns, the late Raul Hilberg argued in his groundbreaking work The Destruction of the European Jews (1961) that concentration and segregation–the core processes of ghettoization–were central elements of the Holocaust.3 In contrast, Dan Michman–emphasizing the physical place of ghettos contra Hilberg’s process-driven focus on ghettoization–argues that ghettos were limited to a handful of countries in Eastern Europe, that they varied significantly, and were not vital to the destruction process. Michman does see the creation of ghettos in Poland as a “sharp escalation of the Nazis’ anti-Jewish policy,”4 but not the radicalization force in earlier so-called functionalist historiography.5 Whereas Michman seeks to explain ghettoization as a material manifestation of the Nazis’ anti-Semitic perceptions of Ostjuden in Poland, other scholarship more convincingly interprets early Nazi ghetto policy as the urban plank of a broader imperialist project of reshaping and “Germanizing” occupied Poland.6 In contrast to the slim scholarship on the motivations behind ghettoization, a richer historiography of daily life, Jewish institutions, and resistance movements within the ghettos has emerged. Some is comparative,7 but most focuses on individual large ghettos, in particular Warsaw and Łódź.8 Yet very few scholars have examined the material transformation of place-making policies into real places or the geographies of everyday life in the ghetto.9

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 11: Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 11

Texas Alcoholic Beverage Commission

Introduction

Brewing beer and making hard alcohol has occurred in this country from almost the moment of European settlement. Each industry has followed its own path of development, followed closely by attempts to control almost all aspects. Government control focuses mostly on taxation and regulation of sales.1

The American experience with alcohol has been controversial for much of our history, culminating in a period of Prohibition. The 18th Amendment, passed in 1919, banned the “manufacture, sale, or transportation . . .” of alcohol. Prohibition lasted 13 years and was ultimately a failure. The 21st Amendment ended Prohibition in 1933.2

The end of Prohibition did not signal an end to the issues surrounding the alcohol industry, however. The controversy over the proper role of alcohol continues, with groups like Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) attempting to bring to light the bad side of alcohol usage. Drunk driving, public intoxication, and other offenses are violations of the law, which most law enforcement agencies may address.

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