163 Chapters
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Medium 9781574411638

Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Miscellaneous Bolts and Shells

With the experimentation so widespread during the war, there are a number of types of projectiles that were one-of-a-kind experimental or single battlefield recoveries. These include Abbot, Dimick, Emery, French lugged projectiles, Gorgas, Rodman, a number of finned shot and shells, and two unidentified Confederate projectiles. Each is described briefly below.

Abbot

The Abbot design has been attributed to a single type of rifled bolt in several calibers, for which S. C. Abbot (not Gen. Henry Abbot) was awarded a patent in 1861 (#31099). A bolt in the 5.82-inch caliber is included in this book. Another in a 3.67-inch caliber is shown in Ripley and Dickey and George. Both bolts appear to have used air pressure from the rifle’s firing to expand the sabot (made of some unknown material) through vents in the shell base.

About the only relationship between the actual bolts and the patent drawings is the faceted nose. The key element in the patent application was to use air pressure from the cannon’s firing to multiply the force of the bursting charge. This design feature is completely missing from the actual projectiles attributed to Abbot. The actual bolts used air pressure only to force a midshell sabot into the rifling. The actual bolt design is much more like Dr. John Read’s patent #18707 awarded in 1857, which relied on air pressure through vents in the shell to expand the sabot. No battlefield recoveries are known of the

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Medium 9780253012111

3. Retracing the “Hunt for Jews”: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Arrests during the Holocaust in Italy

Indiana University Press ePub

Alberto Giordano and Anna Holian

IN JULY 1943, AFTER A SERIES OF MILITARY DEFEATS and amid growing domestic unrest, Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini was deposed from power and arrested. The new Italian government, headed by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, remained formally allied with the Germans, but also secretly began negotiations with the Allies, who were quickly approaching the Italian mainland from the south. Although the Badoglio government did not undo the system of anti-Semitic measures put in place during the previous years, Jews in Italy were nonetheless hopeful that their trials would soon be over. This was not to be. On September 8, 1943, the Allies announced that an armistice with Italy had been signed. In response, German forces quickly occupied the country. They released Mussolini and installed him as the head of a new Fascist government, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI). However, real power now lay in the hand of the Germans. The German occupation signaled the beginning of the Holocaust in Italy.1 Persecuted by Mussolini’s Fascist government, which had passed a series of racial laws in 1938, Jews in Italy were now also subject to deportation and extermination.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 15: Conclusion

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 15

Conclusion

If readers have learned nothing else from this book, they should now know a lot more about the massive variety of law enforcement positions available in the state of Texas. Texas may in fact have more variety in law enforcement than any other state. Positions like investigators with the Texas Racing Commission demonstrate this variety. Only six such agencies exist in the United States and Texas has one.

Within all this variety of law enforcement, there still exists a multitude of similarities between these positions. Just being a peace officer in the state of Texas requires standard training. All Texas peace officers thus have a similar training background.

The similarities continue from the basic training level. Officers must continually achieve training to keep updated in the field. Some subjects, like Multiculturalism, are required of all officers. Additionally, many of the positions have specific authorization to perform the same duties. Constables, for example, may conduct routine traffic stops in the same way as city police officers.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 17 – Discipline

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

discipline

One of the most famous judges in Texas history was Roy Bean, remembered as the Law West of the Pecos as a result of the outrageous brand of justice he administered in Langtry, Texas. Judge Bean would ask miscreants how much money they had and then fine them exactly that much. He once ordered a hanged and buried criminal dug up and hanged again. Judge Bean would have fit in fine as a TDCJ disciplinary captain. The ultimate in frustration and helplessness felt by an inmate is when he goes before the Unit Disciplinary Committee and is steamrolled and flattened by the prison disciplinary machine.

The system seems simple, and maybe even just, to outsiders, if only because it mirrors the court system in the free-world. When inmates enter TDCJ, they are handed a book with the rules they must follow. If a guard believes an inmate has violated a rule, the guard writes a case—a ticket, if you will—that details the incident. The inmate is advised of the charges, and, depending on their seriousness, is appointed a substitute counsel, which is another guard, to aid in his defense. The inmate then appears before the Unit Disciplinary Committee, which is in reality a lone captain whose duties are to be the arm of justice on that unit. The inmate is allowed to present a defense, to call witnesses, and to appeal the findings. If found guilty, punishment is assessed from a range designed to fit the seriousness of the offense.

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Medium 9781574411638

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 1

Large Smoothbore Projectiles

Shot, Shell, and Case Shot

Smoothbore projectiles are generally classified in six categories, according to their design and proposed use. Shot, shell, and case shot are discussed in this section. Canister, grape stands and quilted grape will be discussed in the sections that follow.

Characteristics

Shot—are usually spherical in shape. These projectiles were designed to crush the target by the momentum of impact. As ships and fortifications became more formidable in their defenses, shot became more important projectiles for damaging or destroying them. Some shot were elongated, to increase the weight of the projectile being fired.

Almost all of these were proof shot, fired to ensure the ability of the cannon to withstand the pressures of firing. A few (almost all Confederate) were elongated and designed for use at very short ranges against ironclad targets before the shot started to tumble. Maury and Brooke shot are the best known of this type. (Maury shot are covered in the rifled projectile section because of their traditional association with rifled projectiles.) Bar and chain shot were not used in large caliber guns.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 12: Bailiffs

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 12

Bailiffs

Introduction

Under normal circumstances, the general public may never have a reason to encounter a bailiff. Only persons with business in a courthouse will encounter the bailiff, specifically potential jurors and other persons involved in a court case. Even these people, however, may not fully understand the functions of the bailiff or know that the bailiff is a licensed peace officer.

Modern media has done nothing to promote awareness of this important position, with bailiffs playing minor supporting roles in courtroom dramas. Perhaps the most famous television bailiffs were Bull and Roz on the 1980s sitcom Night Court. While entertaining, these two comedic individuals did almost nothing that resembles the real work of the bailiff.

History of the Position

Like the constable, the bailiff has roots in medieval times. In England, the bailiff served either the lord of the manor or the hundred courts and sheriff. The position was supervisory. Those serving on a manor or estate kept accounts, collected rents and fines, and were responsible for all the land and buildings that made up the estate.1

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 2 – Living Quarters

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWO

living quarters

In prison, privacy is precious. Inmates need some place to brood, to read and write letters, to kneel and pray. There is no place to be by oneself, except for rare instances. What little privacy inmates have is in their living quarters.

Depending on the age of a particular unit and on an inmate’s custody level, he will live in one of three fashions: single-celled, in administrative segregation; double-celled, in all close, most medium, and some minimum assignments; or in a dormitory, which is only for minimum-security inmates. While many inmates would prefer cells, ironically only close-custody inmates—who have few privileges to speak of—are guaranteed cells.

At the time Ruiz v. Estelle was heard, TDCJ consisted of eighteen units—sixteen for males and two for females. Their design was primarily the same—one long corridor, intersected at intervals by housing blocks that extended, wing-like, to both sides. Imagine a cross with eight arms instead of two and you have the idea. Each block contained from two to four tiers, with twenty-one to thirty-one cells per tier. Designed for one inmate, there were never less than two inmates assigned to each cell, and severe overcrowding—a main issue in Ruiz—resulted in three or sometimes four inmates living in a forty-five-foot space.

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Medium 9781574411638

Brooke

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Brooke

Cdr. John Mercer Brooke, CSN, is best known for his designs of rifled cannon and projectiles for the Confederacy. He also designed the torpedoes and armor for the CSS

Virginia and oversaw its manufacture by Tredegar Foundry.1 Brooke was so highly regarded by both sides that Union Adm. David Porter said he only regretted the loss of two officers to the Confederacy from the United States Navy: Brooke and Catesby Jones.2 Porter did not mean to be flattering with that comment. After the war he said that Brooke had done more harm to the North than any other man in the South.3

Like his early work in designing cannon, Brooke’s early projectile patterns were modified versions or outright copies of existing designs. For example, in working on projectiles for the CSS Virginia, Brooke asked for designs from the Gosport Navy Yard ordnance officer, then modified the Dahlgren pattern for a shell design. He wrote in his notes, “200 shells are being cast at the Tredegar—of my design—Dahlgren pattern serving as the basis.”4 A number of experiments were conducted using Brooke’s Dahlgren designs,

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 6 – Administrative Segregation

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER SIX

administrative segregation

There are stories about the new Super-Seg and Super-Max Units, stories that focus on the inhumane aspects of those prisons. Marion in Illinois, Pelican Bay in California—they and the prisons like them are the new Alcatrazes. There the supposedly incorrigible are sentenced to years of subhuman life, their movements dictated by shadows behind unbreakable glass, a red, blinking glare of light sensors admitting them in and out of echoing corridors. These are places where life is twenty-four hours of enforced loneliness. The only human contact allowed is when one is transferred, shackled with leg irons and handcuffs, and in some cases wheeled on a gurney, a mask over one’s face, like so much savage freight.

As I write this, there are four super maximum-security prisons in Texas—Estelle, Smith, Clements, and Allred High Security Units. While they are undoubtedly more secure, with unit policies that result in inmates being isolated from each other in ways not possible on other units, the great majority of Texas inmates in ad/seg are on units where the ad/seg wings are part of the general prison, not in the four stand-alone high security units. That is not the case in California, where Pelican Bay is, by policy, practice, and physical attributes, set apart from every other California state prison. The policies that govern Texas ad/seg are the same, whether the ad/seg environment consists of the dilapidated, six by nine feet pre-Ruiz cells on Wynne, Eastham, Ellis, Coffield, or other older units; the newer, more spacious ad/seg wings on Robertson, Hughes, Michael, and other pod-like wings built after Ruiz; or whether on the four units built specifically as ad/seg units, touted as such by politicians and designed to be more secure, more spartan, and thus more feared. However, after conversations with various inmates who have done time in many ad/seg environments, including the super maximum units, the biggest adjustment (and perhaps the only major difference) is the level of loneliness. On the non-high security units, it is still fairly easy to communicate with other inmates. That is not the case on the new high security units. The level of isolation is such that most of the inmates I’ve spoken to all agree that merely holding on to one’s sanity required a level of strength and inner resources they did not know they had.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 8 • Victims of Crime

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Child Victims

•429 Annual Report. Austin: Texas Child Fatality Review Team [2006–date].

Child fatality review teams are multidisciplinary, multi-agency working groups that review child deaths on a local level from a public health perspective with the goal of decreasing the incidence of preventable child deaths

(Texas Fam. Code Ann. §§ 264.501–.515 (Vernon 2008 & Supp. 2010)). Their work is supported and coordinated by the Texas Department of State Health

Services. This report contains data on child fatality victims as follows: race/ ethnicity, age group, and gender of children who died from homicides (Table

5); place of homicide (Chart 4); perpetrator in homicide deaths (Chart 5); race/ ethnicity, age group, and gender of children who died from firearms (Table

10); manner of death for firearm deaths (Chart 15); and owner of firearm in firearm deaths (Chart 16).

Research Note: Reports are available online back to 2000. Reports were biennial prior to 2006.

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Medium 9781574411638

Appendix C Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix C

Rifled Projectile Sabot Designs

Correct identification of rifled projectiles often requires accurate identification of sabot designs. This appendix provides specific information to assist the student of projectiles in identifying sabot designs of both field and large caliber rifled artillery projectiles used in the war.

The three steps to accurate sabot identification are to identify: (1) the material the sabot is made of: iron, brass, copper, lead, or papier-maché; (2) the form or shape of the sabot: ring, cup, disk, or band; and (3) the distinguishing characteristics of different sabot designs. Each step is described in more detail in the rest of this appendix.

Sabot Materials

Sabots were made of four types of materials during the war: wrought iron, lead, copper or brass, and papier-maché. Each is described below.

• Wrought Iron. Wrought iron can usually be identified by its appearance. In battlefield-recovered projectiles, the wrought iron sabot is often more corroded than the projectile body. When preserved with electrolysis, it takes on the same black color as the cast iron shell body. Wrought iron sabots were made separately and the projectile was cast around the sabot.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 12 – Religion

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub

CHAPTER TWELVE

religion

If adversity draws one closer to the Lord, the skies over most prisons should be ringing with hymns and the fences humming with prayer. Most convicts were not religious people before coming to jail—that truth is evident in their reckless, hurtful, selfish actions. However, the Lord is active in Texas prisons. Inmates who wish to pursue a spiritual awakening are extended almost every opportunity to do so. TDCJ extends quite a bit of freedom to inmates for them to pursue individual beliefs and practices. All inmates are encouraged to believe, worship, and to study their particular religion. Participation in any worship is voluntary, unless an inmate is assigned to one of the pre-release units that has a focus on spiritual fellowship as a foundation for rehabilitation, such as the Carol Vance Unit, which houses the Inner Change Faith-Based Treatment Program.

Many things contribute to the degree of religious freedom and array of religious activities on a particular unit: the dedication of the unit chaplains; the involvement of community volunteers; the religious beliefs of the warden. In any case, this is one area where what TDCJ practices often exceed what its policy requires.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 7 • Capital Punishment and Death Row

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Appellate Courts

•409 Annual Statistical Report for the Texas Judiciary. Austin: Office of Court

Administration [2005–date].

Presents data for the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals on direct appeals

(death penalty and DNA appeals–death sentence); applications for writ of habeas corpus (death penalty); and motions for stay of execution. Also includes a county-level summary of death sentences and life sentences imposed in criminal cases in state district courts.

Research Note: Data is reported by fiscal year. Reports are available online back to 1996.

Previously published under the titles Texas Judicial Council Annual Report (1974–1978), Texas

Judicial System Annual Report of Statistical and Other Data for Calendar Year [year] (1979–

1983), and Texas Judicial System Annual Report Fiscal Year [year] (1984–2004).

410 Fagan, Jeffrey, and James Liebman. Processing and Outcome of Death

Penalty Appeals after Furman v. Georgia, 1973–1995: [United States]. Ann

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Medium 9781574411638

Section 3 Torpedoes and Mines

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Section 3

Torpedoes and Mines

Note: during the war, the term “torpedo” was generally used to describe both mines and torpedoes as we know them today. Following that tradition, the torpedoes and mines described in this section will be referred to as “torpedoes.”

The Confederates were forced to invest heavily in the development and deployment of torpedoes to protect their extensive ports and riverways. Confederates could not deploy enough ships, artillery, and men to defend the extensive river and coastal areas in the

South. Even in heavily defended areas such as Mobile, Charleston, and Wilmington, torpedoes added significantly to the threat to exposed Union ships and gunboats.

Initial efforts to develop Confederate torpedo capabilities were headed by Matthew

Maury,1 who is also credited with the design of several smoothbore bolts. After he went to England, Hunter Davidson was appointed as his successor and headed the program until the end of the war.2 It was a high enough priority that Lt. John M. Brooke, later famous for his cannon and projectile designs, designed several types of torpedoes and even a torpedo boat design. He designed an anchored swaying spar torpedo and a fixed bottom torpedo called a “turtle,” that was convex, so antitorpedo boats could not grapple it off the bottom.3 It was deployed together with his swaying spar torpedo, which was said to be one of the deadliest encountered by Union ships.

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Medium 9781574411546

7 Ducklings in My Swimming Pool

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Ducklings in my Swimming Pool

and calm rivers. But what if that water habitat happens to be your swimming pool?

If you have a pool, you may find that it’s being used by many creatures aside from those in your family! I remember a call from a distressed family who discovered about a dozen ducklings in their pool one day. The family kept their pool uncovered, leaving an open invitation of water for wild ducks. Sure enough, a family of them decided to take advantage of that invitation.

It seemed harmless enough. The ducklings were swimming around and appeared to be enjoying themselves. What this family didn’t know, however, is that a joyful day at the pool could turn deadly for this duck family if they didn’t take the proper steps to make sure those ducklings had a way out of the pool!

The little ducks were too small to hop out of the water onto the edge of the pool. This is the case for many baby ducks: the edge is too high for them and they’re stuck. I told the family to put a board halfway into the water, creating a little ramp that the ducks could use to exit the water. Providing this little escape route saved the ducklings’ lives. Again, they lacked the flight feathers necessary to take flight from the water as many species of waterfowl are able to do.

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