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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 12 – Religion

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub



If adversity draws one closer to the Lord, the skies over most prisons should be ringing with hymns and the fences humming with prayer. Most convicts were not religious people before coming to jail—that truth is evident in their reckless, hurtful, selfish actions. However, the Lord is active in Texas prisons. Inmates who wish to pursue a spiritual awakening are extended almost every opportunity to do so. TDCJ extends quite a bit of freedom to inmates for them to pursue individual beliefs and practices. All inmates are encouraged to believe, worship, and to study their particular religion. Participation in any worship is voluntary, unless an inmate is assigned to one of the pre-release units that has a focus on spiritual fellowship as a foundation for rehabilitation, such as the Carol Vance Unit, which houses the Inner Change Faith-Based Treatment Program.

Many things contribute to the degree of religious freedom and array of religious activities on a particular unit: the dedication of the unit chaplains; the involvement of community volunteers; the religious beliefs of the warden. In any case, this is one area where what TDCJ practices often exceed what its policy requires.

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Medium 9781442267527

The Maverick Collector: The Method in the Madness of Peggy Guggenheim

Collections AltaMira Press ePub

Emma Acker

Masters candidate in art history, with a specialization in museum studies, in the Department of Art History, Von Kleinsmid Center-VKC351, University’of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0047; she also is a research assistant to the Head of Collections Development, Getty Research Institute, J. Paul Getty Center, 1200 Getty> Center Drive, Suite 1100, Los Angeles, CA 90049-1688 (acker@usc.edu). Current address: National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

AbstractThe twentieth-century matron, dealer, and gallery owner Peggy Guggenheim crafted both a highly public image and a personal identity through her writings, collecting, and exhibition practice. Through her outrageous social behavior, outspoken interviews with the press, and scandalous memoirs, Guggenheim presented herself as a bohemian libertine, with little or no serious intentions other than to live as brazen and unfettered a lifestyle as possible. However, by all accounts other than her own, Guggenheim was an avid learner and teacher, and her anti-intellectualism and playful irreverence belied her ultimate concern with garnering recognition as an important figure in the art world. Ultimately, Guggenheim’s rejection of more conventional modes of collecting and display in favor of the role of social impresario and fashionable eccentric enabled her to produce and promote her own image as an iconic and pioneering figure in the history of patronage.

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Medium 9781574411638

Appendix B Civil War Cannon Rifling

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix B

Civil War Cannon Rifling

The rifling found on the sabots of fired Civil War rifled artillery projectiles provides important information to the artillery student. Usually, it indicates which type of cannon fired the projectile. This in turn often allows a person to identify the specific cannon and perhaps the battery or ship that fired the projectile.

Listed below are the known types of rifling for all the calibers of rifled cannons thought to have been used in the Civil War. Obviously the list is not complete. Projectiles are still being recovered with rifling on their sabots that have not been previously documented. Some of the rifling documented for this appendix are from actual projectiles with rifling that are not recorded in reference books. The reference column indicates the source of the information.

Additions that can be documented by actual projectiles or cannon or from authoritative reference books are welcomed. See “Notes” at the end of this appendix.



Type Rifle

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Medium 9781576336045

ACT Exam Essential Vocabulary: "P" Words

Ace Academics Ace Academics ePub
Medium 9781475817492

Becoming Problem Solvers: The Case of Three Future Administrators

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub



ABSTRACT: This study examines how students in an administrative credential program developed collaborative problem-solving competence through their participation in two problem-based learning classes. Data collected at three times over the course of a year (videotapes, student reflective papers, faculty and student evaluations, final group projects, and interviews) were analyzed to assess how students develop problem-solving skills within a group. The data indicate that these classes allowed students to acquire knowledge and skills in group processes and problem-solving as well as course content. Follow-up studies of three students who served as telling cases, and who are the focus of this study, suggest students could see the link between theory and practice, and between the classes and their jobs as administrators. Although the students entered the classes with differing levels of problem-solving ability, all three perceived that the experiences in the problem-based learning classes enhanced their skills. The data also suggest that more active guidance by the faculty could enhance students’ reflective skills and their ability to identify implicit theories of practice. Thus, a metacognitive framework for acquiring and improving problem-solving skills in collaborative groups was developed to enable students to explore personal and organizational factors that shape their theory of practice.

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Medium 9781475817157

The Regular Education Initiative: Educational Reorganization for Rural School Districts

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub



ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis is to explore how rural school administrators can implement educational processes to enable the full inclusion of students with disabilities into the general education program. First, we review related literature including the historical basis of inclusion, the limitations of traditional special education practices, arguments of those opposed to full inclusion, and the unique characteristics of rural communities. We ground our analysis in a theoretical framework comprised of a categorical description of organizational theories and behavior. We apply this framework to consider how rural community characteristics can enable or constrain the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic processes of restructuring schools to the benefit of all students.

As the field of education moves into the twenty-first century, yet another challenge faces American educators. An issue, which both challenges and requires educational restructuring, is the full inclusion of students with disabilities in the general education program.

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Medium 9781475816235

School Violence: Legal Obligations, Prevention, and Dealing with Threats

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Alan Demmitt and Charles J. Russo

As witnessed by recent school shootings throughout the United States (Cloud, 1997; Furlong & Morrison, 2000), increasing numbers of educators have uttered the fateful words that if his or her school could experience violence, it could happen anywhere. With the realization that no one is immune from violence, educational leaders are confronted with a variety of questions, including: What constitutes a threat and to whom should it be reported? What are the limits to confidentiality between students and school personnel in view of the duty that educators have to report concerns over school violence? And what are the responsibilities of educators in the event of a violence-related emergency?

In light of growing concerns over school violence, regardless of where school personnel work, this article is divided into two sections. The first part provides educational leaders with an overview of legal issues surrounding their “duty to warn.” The second section offers practical suggestions for dealing with and preventing threats of violence.

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Medium 9781475817386

Communication Gatekeeping: A Response to Mediating Conditions in American Indian and School Personnel Interactions

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: The findings reported in this paper indicate the need for a more robust explanation of communication failure between American Indian parents and school personnel than cultural discontinuity provides. According to the data, conditions that constrain interactions between American Indian families and educators in one consolidated school district lie within the bounds of politics, economics, and social circumstance. The conditions of distrust, racial tension, maintenance of tribal identity, dependence, and isolation inform the perceptual frame that influences the ways American Indian people interact with school personnel. Through “gatekeeping,” American Indian parents act to control the dilemma they face in American public education. Proposed solutions to problematic American Indian educational issues suggest that transformative school leaders must create inclusive learning communities in which American Indian students have opportunities to thrive.

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Medium 9781475816396

Predictors of Academic Achievement for Elementary Teacher Education Students in Turkey

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sener Büyüköztürk

Studies examining the important predictors of academic achievement of elementary teacher education students help us understand the predictors of student achievement. These studies (House, 2000b; Ting & Bryant, 2001; Zheng, Saunders, Shelley, & Whalen, 2002) focus on the relationship between academic achievement and a number of cognitive as well as noncognitive variables. Cognitive variables include high school achievement, standard aptitude tests, and university admission examinations. Noncognitive variables, often called psychosocial variables, include psychological, cultural, and social characteristics (Ting, 1997).

Walsh and Betz (1995) claim that aptitude tests are important predictors of future academic achievement. Brody (1997) found a positive relationship between the results of aptitude tests and students’ future academic achievement. In Turkey, in order to enroll in undergraduate programs, students are required to take a centralized exam, the University Entrance Exam (UEE), which measures general academic aptitude and mental reasoning. The assumption here is that the UEE places students into programs where they can be successful (Aşkar, 1985; Kuzgun, 2000). Thornell and Mccoy (1985) argue that tests with the objective of selecting and placing students have to be important predictors of future academic achievement. There is a body of literature (Boyden, 1973; House, 1998, 2000a, 2000b; Özdoğan, 1988; Ting, 1997, 2000; Ting & Bryant, 2001; Tinto, 1993; Yıldırım, 1972; Zheng et al., 2002) that indicates measuring student academic ability before admition to a university using standardized test scores such as Scholastic Achievement Tests (SAT) and the American College Teaching (ACT) in United States and the UEE in Turkey are important predictors of student achievement. On the other hand, there are studies (Begik, 1997; Hall & Marchant, 2000) that found no significant correlation between standardized scores from the Student Selection Examination and academic achievement in college.

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Medium 9781052684097

From Outside In: Additional Conflict for the Public School Superintendent

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT:Experience and a review of the limited research on the superintendency continue to reveal the enormous amount of conflict and tension in a changing and ambiguous position. The significance of superintendents coming from outside of the district is discussed. A majority are “outsiders.” Reasons are given to support the need for “outsider” status research. A proposal is made to direct research toward answers to three questions relating to “outsider” status for superintendents. First, how does “outsider” status influence the effectiveness of a superintendent? Second, how can the negative effects of “outsider” status be significantly reduced? Third, is the impact of “outsider” status different for women and minorities?

I will never forget the encouragement of some board members when I was appointed superintendent. They said that they knew I would want to appoint people whom I trusted. They understood that these folks might come from outside of the district, because I was from outside. They noted that CEOs of large corporations do it all of the time. Even the staff and former long-time superintendents of the district agreed that this strategy was appropriate. I was ecstatic. Certainly, I would not try to force the issue, but I would seriously consider this if vacancies occurred at the top. When vacancies occurred, my appointments had the unanimous support of the board and staff. Nevertheless, when some principals and teachers reacted, that support changed. Although only two of many of my appointments went to “outsiders,” these two created public controversy. In spite of public reasons given for the controversy, the private answer from locals was that these appointments were “outsiders,” and so was I. The good news is that this experience peaked my long-time curiosity about “outsider” status, why it is a factor, and how it influences the effectiveness of the superintendent. Clearly, it adds more conflict to a job that already has its share.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 6 – Administrative Segregation

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


administrative segregation

There are stories about the new Super-Seg and Super-Max Units, stories that focus on the inhumane aspects of those prisons. Marion in Illinois, Pelican Bay in California—they and the prisons like them are the new Alcatrazes. There the supposedly incorrigible are sentenced to years of subhuman life, their movements dictated by shadows behind unbreakable glass, a red, blinking glare of light sensors admitting them in and out of echoing corridors. These are places where life is twenty-four hours of enforced loneliness. The only human contact allowed is when one is transferred, shackled with leg irons and handcuffs, and in some cases wheeled on a gurney, a mask over one’s face, like so much savage freight.

As I write this, there are four super maximum-security prisons in Texas—Estelle, Smith, Clements, and Allred High Security Units. While they are undoubtedly more secure, with unit policies that result in inmates being isolated from each other in ways not possible on other units, the great majority of Texas inmates in ad/seg are on units where the ad/seg wings are part of the general prison, not in the four stand-alone high security units. That is not the case in California, where Pelican Bay is, by policy, practice, and physical attributes, set apart from every other California state prison. The policies that govern Texas ad/seg are the same, whether the ad/seg environment consists of the dilapidated, six by nine feet pre-Ruiz cells on Wynne, Eastham, Ellis, Coffield, or other older units; the newer, more spacious ad/seg wings on Robertson, Hughes, Michael, and other pod-like wings built after Ruiz; or whether on the four units built specifically as ad/seg units, touted as such by politicians and designed to be more secure, more spartan, and thus more feared. However, after conversations with various inmates who have done time in many ad/seg environments, including the super maximum units, the biggest adjustment (and perhaps the only major difference) is the level of loneliness. On the non-high security units, it is still fairly easy to communicate with other inmates. That is not the case on the new high security units. The level of isolation is such that most of the inmates I’ve spoken to all agree that merely holding on to one’s sanity required a level of strength and inner resources they did not know they had.

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Medium 9781608681624

2. The Confidence Key

Eric Maisel New World Library ePub

Chapter 2


Both the creative act and the creative life require confidence. And life can rob you of confidence.

Let’s say a teacher constantly humiliates you in front of the entire third-grade class. How much confidence is stolen from you during that excruciating year? How many other robberies occur during our childhood and our adulthood? Over time, how much confidence remains? If you’ve been robbed of confidence, you may experience an inability to conceive of and follow through on creative projects, a tendency to procrastinate, a fear of messes and of the unknown, and other assorted creativity killers.

Consider the following. A painter opens his email and is thrilled to find a note from someone who owns a nice gallery in a faraway city. The note explains that the gallery owner has visited the painter’s website and loves the painter’s work but can’t find the painter’s prices posted. What, the gallery owner wonders, are the artist’s prices?

This question sends the artist into a tizzy, since he has no idea if his prices are perhaps ridiculously high or, quite possibly, ridiculously low (which is why he has avoided posting them on his site). He stews about the matter for several days, feeling his usual lack of confidence grow exponentially. Finally he visits his best friend, a successful artist with a great deal of confidence. “What should I do?” the painter cries. “I know I’m blowing this opportunity by not replying, but I don’t know what to say!”

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Medium 9781475816556

Student Injuries and Negligence: Lessons From the International Scene With Implications for Singapore’s Educators

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Kim Teh

ABSTRACT: Many jurisdictions are showing a trend of school-related negligence cases being taken to court. This article explores the legal principles applied by the courts in England, Australia, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand to ensure the safety of students in schools. As we look at the developments in these countries, we can see student injury issues that appear all too familiar in Singapore. How other jurisdictions are handling these episodes may provide useful pointers for Singapore’s school administrators. The article concludes with the first reported case in Singapore of an allegation of negligence by a school resulting in personal injury, and it offers some helpful hints for averting legal risks.

Safety in schools encompasses a range of related issues, but a recurring theme is that of negligence resulting in injury. When do schools become liable for a student’s injury, and what is the standard of care required of them in the supervision of students? Numerous cases have appeared over the years in many jurisdictions, and lessons can be learned from them. As such, this article reviews the more important legal principles applied in these jurisdictions. First, an overview is presented of the common law tort of negligence.

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Medium 9781475817102

School Administration in the Twenty-First Century

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


ABSTRACT: As we approach the 21st century, changing sociological trends and technological advances will make it necessary for our university system to prepare graduates for careers as administrators. It is a given fact that school administrators entering the 21st century will have to have special skills far above those abilities that most administrators now possess. It will not be enough for school systems or states to appoint unqualified teachers to school administrator jobs to be equally unqualified administrators. States and universities within them will have to unify and redirect energies toward competency of administrative certification, and in the process, tighten standards.

Administration in today’s society is a complex process consisting of a myriad of extraneous factors trying to influence the direction of educational outcomes. Administrators must be able to wear many different hats; they must be able to provide sophisticated provisions for education to allow for blatant acts or laws resulting from reoccurring changes down through the centuries. For instance, early societies made provisions for education as in the Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tablets in Rome. The early supposition was that when you require people to learn, you are making provisions for education. However, a requirement is usually associated with some form of dictatorship or law; thus, the legal structure began its slow trek to becoming a major influence in education.

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Medium 9780749470937

Part 2 – Teaching Establishments

Editorial Staff, Kogan Page Kogan Page PDF

Part 2

Teaching Establishments


The statutory responsibility for the provision of education in the United Kingdom lies with the

Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) in

England, the Welsh Assembly Government’s Department for Education and Skills (DfES), the

Education Department of the Scottish Government and the Department of Education and Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland. In the United Kingdom the statutory system of public education has three progressive stages: primary education (up to the age of 11 or

12), secondary education (up to age 16), and further education (post-16).

This section briefly describes further and higher provision and the main types of institution.


‘Higher education’ (HE) is a term that broadly defines any course of study leading to a qualification at level 4 and above in the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF)/National Qualifications Framework (NQF) for England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and level 6 and above in the

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