163 Chapters
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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 9 • Driving/Boating Under the Influence and Traffic Fatalities

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Driving Under the Influence

465 Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes, by Gender and

State, 2007–2008 [Traffic Safety Facts/Research Note]. Washington, D.C.:

National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety

Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2009. DOT HS 811 195

Provides data on alcohol-impaired drivers involved in fatal crashes by gender and state, 2007–2008 (Table 6).

•466 Alcohol-Impaired Driving [Traffic Safety Facts]. Washington, D.C.:

National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety

Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation [annual, online only,


Provides data on traffic fatalities by state and the highest driver or motorcycle rider BAC (blood alcohol concentration) in the crash.

Research Note: Previously published under the title Alcohol (1994–2005).

467 Alcohol-Related Fatalities and Alcohol Involvement Among Drivers and

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Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Prior to the war, Alexander B. Dyer was a junior ordnance officer in the U.S. Army.

Before the war he went to England and observed the performance of Britten projectiles being fired from Blakely rifles. Upon his return home, Dyer designed a very similar projectile. He soon was promoted to captain and became chief of ordnance at Fort Monroe.1

It was while he was in that post that the Union Army began purchasing projectiles of his design. The ordnance officer who recommended the purchase of Dyer shells stated that the Dyer design differed only slightly from the Dimick projectile2 and was almost identical to the design of John A. Dahlgren.3

The Dyer design, like Britten’s and Dahlgren’s, had a heavy lead cup sabot cast on to the shell base. For field caliber shells, Dyer used the same method for sabot attachment as Britten. The rounded shell base was tinned, then a lead cup sabot was cast on to the tinned shell base. For the large caliber projectiles, Dyer designed the shell body with a flat base and used notches in the side of the shell base to hold the sabot in place, differing from the Britten design.

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 2 – Living Quarters

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


living quarters

In prison, privacy is precious. Inmates need some place to brood, to read and write letters, to kneel and pray. There is no place to be by oneself, except for rare instances. What little privacy inmates have is in their living quarters.

Depending on the age of a particular unit and on an inmate’s custody level, he will live in one of three fashions: single-celled, in administrative segregation; double-celled, in all close, most medium, and some minimum assignments; or in a dormitory, which is only for minimum-security inmates. While many inmates would prefer cells, ironically only close-custody inmates—who have few privileges to speak of—are guaranteed cells.

At the time Ruiz v. Estelle was heard, TDCJ consisted of eighteen units—sixteen for males and two for females. Their design was primarily the same—one long corridor, intersected at intervals by housing blocks that extended, wing-like, to both sides. Imagine a cross with eight arms instead of two and you have the idea. Each block contained from two to four tiers, with twenty-one to thirty-one cells per tier. Designed for one inmate, there were never less than two inmates assigned to each cell, and severe overcrowding—a main issue in Ruiz—resulted in three or sometimes four inmates living in a forty-five-foot space.

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Medium 9781574414325

Appendix I – Resource List

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


Resource List

Following is a list of some organizations that offer services and assistance to prisoners and their families. Many of them offer other resource lists, generally in an area related to what services they extend. By asking them for resource lists, you can build a network of organizations suited to your particular needs.

Texas Inmate Families Association


P.O. Box 181253

Austin, TX 78718-1253

(512) 695-3031


Advocacy group that provides support and resources for families of Texas prisoners. This organization works directly with prisoners’ family members, not prisoners. Has chapters throughout Texas and lobbies for change in the legislature, and often meets with top prison officials.

Info, Inc.

Inmate Families Organization, Inc.

P.O. Box 788

Manchaca, TX 78652


Advocacy group similar to TIFA, although newer.

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Medium 9781574411522

13 General and Law Libraries

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter thirteen

general and law libraries


ll TDCJ units provide inmates access to both a general library and to a legal library. However, access to the general library is considered a privilege that can be revoked for disciplinary infractions. On the other hand, every inmate in TDCJ—whether in solitary confinement, in the lowest levels of administrative segregation, or in transit—will be able to either visit the legal, or law, library or have legal materials brought to him. The courts have held that TDCJ cannot deny any meaningful access to the courts, and the system, in my opinion, has done a decent job of fulfilling that mandate.

While access to the legal libraries is pretty uniform throughout the system, there is a wide gap between what access is allowed by the different units to their general libraries. The libraries are attached to the unit educational departments and are usually supervised by librarians with free-world training and staffed by TDCJ officers with a few convict clerks to perform the checking in and out of books, updating card catalogues, etc. Access to the library itself is dictated by security. As security on the different units is dictated by the attitude of the wardens and higher-ranking officers, one unit may be more accommodating of inmates who desire to use the library, while others may consider it an unnecessary

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Medium 9781574414325

Appendix B – Medical/Dental Services

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


Medical and Dental Services Offered TDCJ Inmates

I. Primary Care

This is the inmate’s first point of contact with the health care system. This level offers medical care for the large number of conditions that frequently occur in the population and which do not require sophisticated technical capability to diagnose or treat. This level also provides for the triage and referral of patients to the secondary level, which offers more specialized diagnostic procedures and treatment. All units in the TDCJ-ID offer at least primary care.

Services provided:

A. Self-care—personal hygiene and care for a condition that can be self-treated.

B. First aid services—services for a minor condition that can be treated with over-the-counter products by uncredentialed person trained in first aid.

C. Basic Ambulatory Clinic Outpatient Services:

1. Medical services offered:

a) medication administration

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 11 – Visits and Phone Calls

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


visits and calls

There are prisons in some states that allow conjugal visits between inmates and their spouses. There are prisons where visitors are encouraged to have picnics with their loved ones, who are allowed to bring in food, and the prisons provide barbecue facilities. Visits in those states are almost unsupervised, with inmates and their families left alone until they abuse the privilege. Texas is not one of those states. In Texas, it is assumed that all inmates will, if given the opportunity, smuggle in contraband or will otherwise abuse the visiting process. In order to prevent this, Texas limits the contact between visitors and convicts severely.

Visits in Texas prisons fall into two categories: general and special. General visits are further divided into two categories: contact and non-contact, or regular visits. Every convict in Texas prison is allowed some type of visit, unless he is in a locked-down status or in punitive segregation.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 4 • Courts and Sentencing

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Adult Felony System

183 Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties [Bulletin]. Washington,

D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice [biennial, 1988–date].

Reports representative sample data gathered through the State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS) program, which focuses on the processing of felony defendants in the state courts of the seventy-five most populated counties in the United States (including Dallas, El Paso, Harris, and Tarrant). These counties account for approximately one-half of the felony crimes committed nationwide. The Appendix Tables provide SCPS jurisdiction-level data as follows: population, sampling weights, and number of cases; most serious arrest charge of felony defendants; sex and age of felony defendants; race and Hispanic/Latino origin; felony defendants released before or detained until case disposition; failure-to-appear and re-arrest rates of defendants released prior to case disposition; adjudication outcome for felony defendants; and most severe type of sentence received by defendants convicted of a felony.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 9: Fire Marshal

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 9

Fire Marshal


Fire can leave significant damage in its wake, including property damage, environmental devastation, and even death. There are many causes of fires including accidents, weather-related causes like lightning, faulty wiring, etc. When a fire is set deliberately or occurs due to negligence, police treat it as a crime of arson. Arson is the second leading cause of death in residential fires and is responsible for 500 deaths every year nationwide. Property damage from arson is estimated to cost $900 million each year.1

Arson has always been a crime, but in 1978 it was elevated to the status of Index Crime. In 1982 Congress passed the Anti-Arson Act, which made the crime of arson a permanent part of the Uniform Crime Reports Part I offenses.2 Basically, this piece of legislation reaffirmed that arson is worthy of being an Index Crime.

Other crimes may also fit within the definition of fire-related. These include insurance fraud and crimes where a fire is set to cover up another crime. The most common reason for arson is in fact financial difficulties.3 Homicide and burglaries are also crimes that frequently relate to fires.4

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Medium 9781574414325

Appendix D – Commissary Spending Limits

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


Commissary Spending Limits

As of August 2001, the following limits on commissary spending were in effect for inmates in TDCJ-ID, applied according to custody level.

G1, G2, and G3 Minimum—$75 every two weeks, raised to $100 on certain holidays

G4 Medium—$30 every two weeks

G5 Close—$20 every two weeks

Administrative Segregation:

Level I—$60 every two weeks

Level II—one item of each hygiene and correspondence, not to exceed $10, every two weeks

Level III—correspondence supplies not to exceed $10, every two weeks

(Source; TDCJ-ID Classification plan, Revised Nov. 1999)

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 19 – Drugs

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub



In March of 1995, TDCJ outlawed the use of tobacco products on all of its units, by both guards and inmates. Trumpeted as a cost-saving measure, the move probably did save the system millions of dollars. Building interiors no longer needed the constant repainting due to layers of smoke scum. The damage done by incidental, and sometimes intentional, fires was eliminated. Convicts suffering from asthma, emphysema, and other lung ailments could literally breathe easier, and convicts’ health improved overall, dropping the system’s medical cost.

One totally unintended consequence of the new tobacco policy was a sharp decline in drug trafficking, as the convicts who sold drugs—and the guards who smuggled them—realized the enormous profits and relatively low risks of now trafficking tobacco. While drugs are still available—especially on the units where older convicts retain their lifelong addiction to heroin—the businessmen who maintained the large operations now deal tobacco, not cocaine or marijuana.

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Chapter 12 • Polls and Rankings

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF


•629 Texas Crime Poll. Huntsville: Survey Research Program, College of

Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University [1977–2007].

These annual polls of Texas residents cover selected topics relating to crime, criminals, juvenile delinquency, victims, law enforcement, courts, legislation, corrections, parole, community supervision, and capital punishment.

Research Note: The Survey Research Program disbanded in August 2010.


•630 Crime State Rankings: Crime Across America, edited by Kathleen

O’Leary Morgan and Scott Morgan [CQ Press’s State Fact Finder Series].

Washington, D.C.: CQ Press [annual, 2008–date].

Provides state rankings based on governmental and private statistical sources

(including unpublished FBI data) in the following categories: arrests, corrections, drugs and alcohol, finance, juveniles, law enforcement, and offenses.

Research Note: Previously published under the title Crime State Rankings: Crime in the 50

United States (Lawrence, Kan.: Morgan Quitno Corp., 1994–2007). Researchers are advised to review “Variables Affecting Crime,” the FBI’s caution against ranking that accompanies each edition of Crime in the United States: Uniform Crime Reports (see entry 002).

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Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


John P. Schenkl designed extremely effective rifled projectiles and percussion fuzes that were favored by both the Union Army and Navy. The shell body strongly tapers to the rear, maintaining a forward center of gravity that is helpful to flight stability. The sabot is unique among Civil War projectiles: a papier-maché cup that covered the tapered portion of the shell except the last inch on the base knob. For some reason, Schenkl was unwilling or unable to obtain a patent on the projectile and sabot design. Perhaps it was his concern about someone copying the formula. In any event, he kept the formula secret and it was apparently not even known by his wife or the foundry that cast the shells,

Cyrus Alger. The secret formula gave the papier-maché a structure that would firmly take the rifling, but would not generally absorb excessive amounts of moisture and swell up so the shell could not be rammed down the barrel.

The Schenkl projectile was popular for several reasons. General Abbot reported that it flew smoother and more accurately than the Parrott, and that the sabot provided no danger to forward troops.1 The fuze was also prized by Union Navy and Army troops.

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Medium 9781574411522

Appendix F Good Conduct Time

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


Little is known of the designer of the Stafford family of projectiles. He was probably well connected politically, based on the political controversy highlighted below. The projectiles were sub-caliber projectiles, meaning that the bulk of the projectile was substantially smaller than the caliber of the rifle. This is similar in concept to the sabot rounds used in current models of Abrams tanks. The concept of sub-caliber projectiles is to achieve much higher velocities at short range than full-caliber projectiles can attain, enabling the shell or bolt to penetrate deeper in a narrower space.

Stafford projectiles had brass ring sabots. Some were encased in a wood sleeve, others had a brass ring, or an enlarged head to fit the rifle bore. The sabot was a brass ring type, which was held in place by iron pins or nails driven into the metal core, into the wood casing, or between the two.

Staffords were produced in several calibers, including 5.1-inch, 6.4-inch, and 8-inch.

No survivors are known in the 8-inch caliber. One hundred 8-inch Stafford projectiles were purchased by the Union Navy and tested by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863 off Charleston.1 They were reported on July 27, 1863, to have performed unsatisfactorily.2 Ironically, only five days before the navy test results were reported,

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