163 Chapters
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Medium 9781574411546

5 Leave Bambi in the Forest

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Five

He was sure the fawn was abandoned. The man was working with a construction crew, clearing undeveloped wildlands to prepare the area for a large office building that was going to be built. One evening as he was leaving work, he noticed a fawn wandering around and looking disoriented. The little guy was at the edge of the field they had just cleared. The man guessed that the bulldozers had disrupted the fawn and scared off the mother. He was probably right.

The man knew already to leave the fawn alone in the area where he found him. He knew that the mother may be nearby, ready to return for the fawn at any time. He left the fawn there overnight. But the next day, the man found the fawn in the same spot, still wandering around and looking disoriented.

The fawn looked weaker than he had the previous evening. The mother was nowhere in sight. The man continued to work throughout the day, all the while keeping an eye on this little guy. When it was time to go home that evening, the man picked up the fawn and brought him home.

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Medium 9781574411522

24 Helping Ex-Cons Stay out of Prison

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter twenty-four

helping ex-cons stay out of prison


hy do we kill, or rob, or sell drugs, or write hot checks, or beat up strangers, or abuse and rape women and children? Why are we criminals? Is it because we are poor? Because we were abused ourselves?

Because our friends do it? Do our criminal actions arise from need, rage, despair, or simple greed?

I don’t know if anyone can answer these questions. However, once someone is convicted and comes to prison, that person is identified in a way and molded into something he wasn’t before. The guy on the corner who we suspected was “up to no good” is now a full-fledged convict, and a convict trying to stay out after release from prison will face a different set of problems than a young person who is just now breaking the law and has yet to go to prison.

I have no insights to offer those who wish to keep people out of trouble and out of jail. If you are reading this, it is probably too late for that, anyway. What I have to offer is hope—that with your help, your loved one in prison can, upon release, defy the odds and stay out. This may sound strange; hope, and suggestions on how to stay free from a man in for the third time, in the face of cold statistics that show almost sixty percent of all convicts returning to prison.

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Medium 9781574413083

Title Index

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

2000 Texas Survey of Substance Use Among Adults, 562

2004 Survey of State Adult Protective Services, 441–442

2005 Texas Survey of Substance Use Among College Students, 548

2008 Salary Survey Fact Sheet, 231

2008 Study of Criminal Records, 109

2008 Turnover Survey Fact Sheet, 232

-AActive License/Certified Instructor Counts, 127

Active Police Licenses By County/Region, 166

Active U.S. Hate Groups, 046

Adult and Juvenile Correctional Population Projections, 339, 368

After Prison, 331

Agency Legislative Appropriations Requests, 573

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Department of Criminal Justice], 340

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Youth Commission], 395

Agency Strategic Plan [Texas Department of Public Safety], 177

Alcohol and Crime: Data from 2002 to 2008, 012A

Alcohol-Impaired Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes, by Gender and State,


Alcohol-Impaired Driving, 466

Alcohol-Related Fatalities and Alcohol Involvement Among Drivers and

Motorcycle Operators in 2005, 467

American Indians and Crime, 420

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Medium 9781574411638

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Grape Stands and Quilted Grape

For both smoothbore and rifled artillery, grape stands and quilted grape served a different purpose from case shot and canister. Quilted grape and grape stands were designed to damage ships’ rigging and spars or fortification equipment, with the fragments from this damage causing major casualties to gun crews.

Some confusion exists about the use of grape stands and quilted grape. As general antipersonnel weapons, grape stands and quilted grape in field calibers had been largely replaced by canister by the time the war began. It appears that early in the war grape stands replaced quilted grape for calibers below 8 inch. Quilted grape were used in all calibers above 8 inches, including the 15-inch size, which has been documented aboard

Monitor-type gunboats1 and in postwar Bannerman catalogs.2 However, the Confederates captured a large supply of 32-pounder quilted grape when the Southern states seceded and had others manufactured during the early years of the war. These were deployed to river and coastal gun positions. A number of these 32-pounder quilted grape were excavated near Fort Huger, North Carolina, some years ago, and others reportedly were recovered in gun positions along the Mississippi and elsewhere over the years.

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Medium 9781574413083

Subject Index

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

Numbers refer to Entry Numbers

-AAccess to legal information, 350

Accident investigation, 511

Acquaintance rape, 011

Adult felony system, 183

Adult Protective Services, 443

Aggravated assault, 001–003, 020, 072–075, 097

Agricultural crime, 019, 095

AIDS, 003, 264, 266–267A, 269, 271, 544–545, 549

Aircraft, 096, 136–137

Alcohol abuse, 003, 073, 542–543, 546–553, 556–563

Alcohol detoxification, 228, 566–571

Alcohol–related crimes, 001–003, 012–012A, 097, 465–488, 584

Alcoholism treatment programs, 566–571

Aliens, 003, 067–071, 184–184A, 225A–227, 279, 310, 572

American Indians, 057, 192, 223, 283, 306–307, 418, 566, 607, 609, 617

Annual Parole Survey, 302

Annual Probation Survey, 321

Annual Survey of Government Employment, 155, 158, 188–189, 233–234,

566, 588

Annual Survey of Government Finances, 158, 189, 234, 237, 565–566,


Annual Survey of Jails, 279–280, 283

Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances, 565, 587

Antisemistism, 047

Appellate courts, 186–187, 191, 220, 225, 409–412

Appropriations, 573–586

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Medium 9781574411522

16 Education

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter sixteen



f there is only one thing you can do to assist your convict friend or relative in his struggle to prepare for freedom and remain out of prison, that one thing should be to encourage him to get an education. You may believe that his lack of spiritual values, or his addiction, led to his criminal actions, and you want him to attend AA/NA and get involved in religious programs. This is good because he needs to address those issues also. However, he can’t read the Bible if he can’t plain read. He can’t complete the written portion of the Substance Abuse Treatment

Program if he can’t write. He won’t be able to hold down a job, or be involved in the life of his family or the larger society, if he doesn’t grasp the fundamental concepts that you take for granted—balancing a checkbook, following written directions, taking the state driver’s license test, or forming a simple budget. He will have no connection with his neighbor or society if he knows nothing of the basic milestones of our history or doesn’t understand the civic process.

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Medium 9781574411638


Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF


General Abbot attributes two designs of large caliber bolts to Maury.1 This probably refers to Matthew F. Maury, a Confederate naval officer involved in the design and construction of Confederate gunboats.2 However, the author has not found a definitive connection between him and the design of the projectiles, except for General Abbot’s description and similar descriptions of a Maury bolt in other period documents. The

Maury bolts were first ordered for production in 1863 and orders continued to be placed until 1864, so they must have seen some action, probably along the James River.3

Both designs documented by Abbot are for smoothbore cannons and do not have sabots. One has a smooth side surface. The other has bourrelets. They have the form of a rifled bolt, and were probably intended for use in smoothbores by navy forces at short range where rifling would not be critical to flight stability. Both designs have a sizable hole from the base through the nose of the bolt. Its purpose can only be to reduce the chamber pressure on the bolt to prevent the cannon from exploding.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 5 • Adult Corrections, Parole, and Probation

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF


225A Justice for Immigration’s Hidden Population: Protecting the Rights of

Persons with Mental Disabilities in the Immigration Court and Detention System. Austin: Texas Appleseed, 2010.

Provides data on immigrants in Texas with mental disabilities who are held in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, including the number of psychotropic prescriptions issued, percentage of detainee cases without counsel, detention facilities with the highest percentage of unrepresented detainees, and the number of cases adjourned because the

Department of Homeland Security requested a certification of the detainee’s mental competency.

226 Salant, Tanis J. Undocumented Immigrants in U.S.–Mexico Border Counties: The Costs of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Services. Tucson:

Eller College of Management, School of Public Administration and Policy,

University of Arizona, 2008. NCJ 223285

Provides a breakdown of the costs of undocumented immigrants to law enforcement and criminal justice services in the U.S. counties bordering Mexico, which includes fifteen in Texas. County-level statistics are given for sheriff’s offices, detention facilities, adult probation, and juvenile probation.

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Medium 9780253012111

4. Killing on the Ground and in the Mind: The Spatialities of Genocide in the East

Indiana University Press ePub

Waitman Wade Beorn, with Anne Kelly Knowles

“I would like to once again assure you that I never participated in the shooting of civilians. I merely once had to serve in the cordon as Jews were shot.”

German soldier Georg R. describing his role in the murder of one thousand Jews in the town of Krupki, 1964

“A solution of the Jewish Question during the war seems impossible in this area [Belarus] because of the tremendous number of Jews.”

Commander of Einsatzgruppe B, Arthur Nebe, 1941

IN THE LATE SUMMER AND FALL OF 1941, A HOLOCAUST WAS TAKING place across the Soviet Union.1 This was not the Holocaust of popular memory. There were no gas chambers, no train journeys, no barbed wire. This was a “holocaust by bullets,” an intimate iteration of the Nazi genocidal project in which Jews were murdered at home, by killers who found themselves acting in the closest proximity to the victims.2 If Auschwitz has come to symbolize the industrial, assembly-line face of the Holocaust, the murder of approximately one and a half to two million Jews by the Einsatzgruppen (EG) mobile killing squads more closely resembled the domestic system in which work was performed in countless homes dispersed across the countryside.3 Indeed, the metaphorical comparison between factory and cottage industry functions on a regional scale (central location with transportation to factory versus dispersed locations of work) and a microscale (work within the confines of a single building or setting versus work in various structures set in the countryside). The two statements to the left, by perpetrators at the lowest and highest levels of the killing process, serve as a good introduction to this discussion of EG killing in the context of a locational model that examines killing at both a regional and a personal scale and from both a logistical and a moral perspective.

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Medium 9781574414455

Chapter 3: Legal Issues

Lorie Rubenser and Gloria Priddy University of North Texas Press ePub

Chapter 3

Legal Issues

By Special Guest Author Raymond G. Kessler, J.D.


The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the legal bases of authority for Texas police agencies and individual Texas peace officers under Texas law. Although the Texas Constitution says little of relevance, there are thousands of pages of statutes and administrative regulations relevant to peace officers in general, or just to specific types of peace officers. This chapter will thus provide only a summary of the broadest principles, and some selected specific provisions and court decisions.


In the United States, government power is divided between the federal government and state governments—a system referred to as federalism.1 The Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that “the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively . . .”2

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 21 – Parole and Good-time

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


parole, good time, and discharge

Now, to what you’ve all been waiting for: the frustrating rules governing an inmate’s release from prison. First—parole is not a right; it is not guaranteed to any inmate. Parole is a privilege. It is granted by the Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles, which consists of eighteen men and women who were appointed to their seats due to their avowed interest in law and order. Second—parole will be awarded when the members of the board decide, and their decision is subjective. It is also influenced by the political winds of the day, and by pressures brought to bear by overcrowded prisons and available money to build new ones. So, if a convict tells you he is “up for parole,” don’t rush out to buy him clothes. All he is saying is that he is now eligible and that the board will shortly review his case and consider him for parole.

Before I go into details, let me stress those two points. Parole is not guaranteed, and there is no way to predict what the board will do in any given case. A man serving a twenty-year sentence for robbery may become eligible for parole after two and one-half years and be granted parole. Then again, he could be denied, reviewed every year thereafter and denied each time until he has done his entire twenty years, and it would all be perfectly legal, although rare.

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Medium 9781574411638

Appendix A Missing and Unaccounted For

Jack Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix A

Missing and Unaccounted For

Research for this book produced tantalizing clues about projectiles that are unknown to the author and could not be documented for inclusion in the book.

This list of “missing” projectiles is provided below, together with the data source where they were identified. They are “unaccounted for” among surviving projectiles.

Hopefully others will do additional research and locate these projectiles. Some of these are field calibers, but are included as part of an effort to expand the knowledge in the field:

Caliber (In.)


























Hotchkiss Shell

Stafford Shell

Hotchkiss Bolt

Hotchkiss Case Shot and Shell

Hopson Shot

Stafford Shell

Schenkl Case Shot and Shell

Absterdam shell

Hotchkiss Shot

Dyer Shot

Hotchkiss Shell

Sawyer Bolts and Shells

Schenkl Canister

Schenkl Shells

Cochran Shell

Hotchkiss Shell

Parrott Bolt

Dyer Shells and Bolts2

Hopson Shot

Brooke Concussion Shell

Hotchkiss Bolts and Shells

Sawyer Shell

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 3 – Food

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub



Inmates in Texas prison eat in the chow halls because they have to, not because they want. Any chef will tell you that the quality of a meal drops with the amount of people you have to feed. In TDCJ, minimally trained cooks prepare from 1,000 to 3,000 meals three times a day, under minimal quality standards, and with only the pride they and an occasional professional wearing TDCJ gray bring to their jobs. The courts have ruled, and rightly so, that good taste cannot be dictated. The standard applied to institutional meals is that they be hot and nutritious. In turn, state dieticians and various medical experts set out the nutritional standards TDCJ follows. Inmates get three meals a day, and if an inmate eats all that he is offered, he will be assured of the minimal daily requirements of vitamins and minerals that medical experts say he needs to survive.

Meals consist of: three four-ounce servings of three different vegetables; a four-ounce serving of beans; a scoop of potatoes or rice; a piece of meat (except at breakfast); two pieces of bread, or two biscuits, or a three inch square of cornbread; and dessert at lunch (which can be cake, pie, gelatin, or pudding). That’s it. If you complain, or ask for more, chances are good that the staff will take your tray and order you from the chow hall.

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Medium 9781574413083

Chapter 3 • Law Enforcement

R. Scott Harnsberger University of North Texas Press PDF

44  •  A Guide to Sources of Texas Criminal Justice Statistics

Agricultural Crime

095 Special Ranger Statistical Information. Fort Worth, Tex.: Texas and

Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association [annual].

The Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association (TSCRA) is a

130-year-old trade organization whose 14,500 members manage approximately

5.4 million cattle on 70.3 million acres of range and pasture land, primarily in

Texas and Oklahoma. The TSCRA employs twenty-nine investigators, who are commissioned as Special Rangers by the Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation or the Texas Department of Public Safety (Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art.

2.125 (Vernon Supp. 2010)). This report provides statistics by calendar year on the number of cases investigated that involved cattle and livestock related theft.

The dispositions of those cases brought to trial are also reported (sentences, court costs assessed, fines assessed, and restitution made). In addition, property recovered or accounted for by the Special Rangers is reported as follows: number and value of steers and bulls, cows and heifers, calves, yearlings, horses, trailers, saddles, and miscellaneous ranch property.

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Medium 9781574411546

4 There’s a Cardinal Knocking on My Window

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter Four

The woman panicked. She even thought the bird was possessed. I thought at first that this had to be a prank call, but as she screamed on and on, I realized this was indeed a real situation!

I’ll admit that I didn’t know what to tell her. This was the first time

I had taken a call like this at the sanctuary, and I had to put the woman on hold and ask my boss, the wildlife expert and veteran rehabilitator, what to do.

I found out that the cardinal was only trying to protect his territory. This was a male cardinal and he chose this woman’s yard as his place to mate and nest. Each time the cardinal got near the woman’s home, he would see his own reflection in her windows. He was interpreting this as another male cardinal in his territory, and he was attacking the windows to try and drive him away. What he didn’t understand was that he was just attacking his own reflection.

Cardinals, like many other species of birds, are very territorial.

In order to fix this temporary problem, the woman was going to have to find a way to break up the reflection in the windows. We told her she could do this by putting towels or newspapers over the windows so that the cardinal would no longer see himself. Another option was to pull down the shades, close the blinds, or pull curtains across the windows. We also told her she could try putting a bright light in front of the window. All of these things will help break up the reflection. If you’re not sure if that’s happening, go outside and check. You may have to alter the outsides of your windows temporarily.

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