13646 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781855750395

2. The Concept of Projective Identification

Ogden, Thomas Karnac Books ePub

Psychoanalytic theory suffers from a paucity of concepts and language to describe the interplay between phenomena in an intrapsychic sphere and phenomena in the spheres of external reality and interpersonal relations. Since projective identification represents one such bridging formulation, it is to the detriment of psychoanalytic thinking that this concept remains one of the most loosely defined and incompletely understood of psychoanalytic conceptualizations.


As discussed in chapter 1, through projective identification the projector has the primarily unconscious fantasy of ridding himself of unwanted aspects of the self; depositing those unwanted parts in another person; and finally, recovering a modified version of what was extruded.

Projective identification will be discussed as if it were a sequence of three phases or steps (Malin & Grotstein, 1966). However, the notion of there being three aspects of a single psychological event better conveys the sense of simultaneity and interdependence that befits the three aspects of projective identification that will be discussed. In a schematic way, one can think of projective identification as a process involving the following sequence of events. First, there is the unconscious fantasy of projecting a part of oneself into another person and of that part taking over the person from within.1 Then, there is a pressure exerted through the interpersonal interaction such that the recipient of the projection experiences pressure to think, feel, and behave in a manner congruent with the projection. Finally, after being “psychologically processed” by the recipient, the projected feelings are reinternalized by the projector.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782202103

Chapter Five: What is Going on in the Brain in ADHD?

Mollon, Phil Karnac Books ePub

ADHD might best be viewed as a deficit in the overall organisation, regulation, and coherence of consciousness, experience, affect, and behaviour. Whilst attentional deficits are often a prominent feature, the problems are both broader and deeper than this component alone would suggest.

A selfobject deficit disorder

Placing the emphasis upon a deficit in “organisation, regulation, and coherence” puts the condition into line with the functions of the self-object described by Kohut (1971, 1977, 1981), of soothing, stimulation, and regulation provided by the empathic availability of the carer in childhood, and friends and family throughout life. The merging of the word “self” with that of “object” (meaning “other”) denotes how these empathy-based functions provided by the other form part of the regulatory functioning of the self. Within a modern attachment neuroscience framework, this can also be viewed in terms of the social construction and regulation of the brain, rooted in early attachment—the “dyadic regulation of affect” (Sroufe, 1996). From this kind of perspective, it becomes easier to see ADHD as a selfobject deficit disorder, and also to see ADHD as a core in various other constellations where disorders of self-regulation are apparent, such as borderline personality disorder. We can also more easily understand that ADHD may have a neurobiological core, but this can be exacerbated by adverse early experience that contributes to dysregulation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781912567188

3. The Development of Kleinian Aesthetics

Glover, Nicky Harris Meltzer Trust ePub


The development of Kleinian aesthetics

“See now they vanish
The faces and places, with the self which, as it could, loved Them. To become renewed, transfigured, in another pattern”

(Eliot, 1936, Four Quartets: Little Gidding, III)

In this chapter I shall explore the development of Kleinian aesthetics through the work of the psychoanalyst Hanna Segal, one of Klein's pupils, and the art critic and historian, Adrian Stokes. Their combined contribution lays the foundation of what can be described as a “traditional” Kleinian aesthetic: an approach to art which, as we shall see, regards the attainment of the depressive position as central to aesthetic and creative experience, binding it to a specific ethical commitment.

As we explored in the previous chapter, during the late 1940s and the 1950s Kleinian concepts were beginning to open up a whole new perspective on the relationship between the developing mind and its relationship to internal and external objects. Freud had always been always interested in the creative achievements of human beings and coined the term “sublimation” to denote the transmuting of basic instinct for biological satisfaction into an exalted form of conduct and civilized achievement in the “sublime” and non-physical world of symbols. For Klein, however, creativity was a much more involved process. It was seen not as the simple transforming of an instinct, but an infinitely more complex activity involving the concept of reparation, play, and unconscious phantasy activity, together with the synthetic function of the life instincts. The emphasis was shifting away from psycho-sexual phases to the phenomenology of the ego's relationship to primary objects (the mother's body), under the sway of the life and death instincts. This approach allowed better understanding of the changing ego-structure and its relation to the perception of the world. This, together with an emphasis on symbolization as a sublimatory, developmental activity and the formulation of the concept of the depressive position, enriched psychoanalysis with new tools for understanding the location and genesis of creativity, together with a concept of aesthetic value, which, in the Kleinian account, is inextricable from the emergence of the moral sense.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782203520

Chapter Five - Work with Parents and Carers

Karnac Books ePub

Principles of psychoanalytic work with parents and carers

The parent worker stands, as it were, on the cusp between our concerns with the inner world of the child and the outer world of family, school, everyday events, and outer reality.

Miles, 2011, p. 110

Child psychotherapists engage with parents and carers in a range of ways to support the child or adolescent patient's therapy and emotional development. Parents’ and carers’ feelings about their child's difficulties, their child's psychotherapist, and the clinic team as a whole are a hugely important part of the picture. It is essential that these be addressed not only through a thorough process of setting-up, assessment, and review, but also through work with parents conducted separately from the young person's therapy, where this is desired by parent and child. The process of reviewing therapy is discussed briefly below, but the main focus of this chapter is on parent work conducted in parallel to the young person's psychotherapy, here called “parent work” but sometimes called “parental therapy” (Frick, 2000) or the “psychotherapy of parenthood” (Sutton & Hughes, 2005). While this is the model of parent work offered as part of STPP, other psychoanalytic writers have described parent work conducted where the young person is not having psychotherapy. Jarvis (2005) and Trevatt (2005), for instance, describe brief work usefully undertaken with parents on their own, where their adolescent child refuses to attend. Parents are also sometimes seen for group work (Rustin, 2009b). This chapter is written primarily with parents in mind, which might include adoptive parents. Much of it, however, is also applicable to other carers, such as foster carers, who have responsibility for providing the day-to-day parental function in relation to the young person; some specific attention to their differing situations and needs is given below (“Working with adopted and looked-after children and their carers”).

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253355973

1. Defiance: Bodies, Minds, and Marginality

Staci Newmahr Indiana University Press ePub

Bodies, Minds, and Marginality

It was the last committee meeting. Tomorrow was the big event. We had rented three floors of a large hotel. One floor was going to be devoted to educational classes throughout the weekend. One floor was going to be devoted to vendors of SM and fetish products, and one floor was to be the dungeon. It was being designed and set up by a man who owned an SM club in another city. I had heard very good things about his work.

It had taken seven months of almost weekly meetings, several hours each. And the IMs and the emails. God, the emails. Seven months of general snippiness and petty arguments. Seven months of asking Noah to relax and imploring Amy to be nice, and trying very hard not to tell everyone to stop acting like the rise and fall of civilization was entirely wrapped up in this event.

The communication was abominable. At each and every meeting lately, I found myself wondering why everyone was so snotty. Was I the only one who noticed? How did they get away with talking to people like this? All of it was driving me nuts: the tension, the drama…the body odor.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782203131

Chapter Twelve: Discussion of “The Two Faces of the Medallion”, by Ayşe Kurtul

Karnac Books ePub

Ingrid Moeslein-Teising

We very much thank Ayşe Kurtul for sharing her case with us. It is always a special opportunity to look directly into the scene of an analytic ongoing process—and a challenge at the same time.

While this case emphasises several points, I shall focus particularly on “homosexualities”. Of course, this case reminds us of Freud's case of female homosexuality (1920a), which is discussed widely in other chapters in this book.

In trying to understand the patient, I first want to discuss some theories of the homosexualities of women, starting with female development. My discussion is based on these theories.

We remember Freud's basic assumption of constitutional, innate bisexuality, in which, as we might view it today, the cross-gender or trans-gender identifications fall victim to repression along with the formation of a heterosexual gender identity, but in which cross-gender identifications nevertheless remain in the unconscious. The fundamental bisexual object choice of early childhood enables a person later to change his or her object choice, as one possibility is lived and the other does not vanish, but is only suppressed and comes back to life in certain constellations (see also Quindeau, 2013a,b).

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855752658

APPENDIX C. Envy: a psychological analysis

Symington, Neville Karnac Books ePub

Since the advent of Envy and Gratitude in 1957, the word “envy” has flooded the clinical literature within psychoanalysis. It has been particularly profuse within the Kleinian School, but this has overflowed into the clinical descriptions both of the Independent School and that of the Classical Freudians. What I attempt here is a psychological analysis of envy, because we assume that we all know what we mean by it. I think the meaning that we attribute to it is something like the following:

Envy is hatred of another for having a treasure I do not possess. 1

The focus of this definition is upon the other. This, I believe, derives from folk religion and throws no light upon why this entity is damaging to the author of the envy. If a psychoanalyst is asked

“Why should I not envy another?”

I believe the questioner will be answered with a moralistic answer:

“It is harmful to another person to hate him for a treasure that he possesses. Therefore it is bad.”

Someone who is satisfied with contract theory might elaborate this further and point out that something that is bad for another is harmful for society and therefore ultimately to the person himself and so should be shunned. However, this is dubious and very far from psychoanalysis, which is concerned with the immediate effects of an individual’s emotional activities. Let us therefore try to build up a picture of envy as revealed by psychoanalytical investigation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855752139

2. Psychoanalysis and developmental therapy

Karnac Books ePub

Anne Hurry

“Where are finished or developing character structures open to influence? We know they are open to many influences, because there are many people who never have therapy and who still undergo quite extraordinary personality changes during their life-time, according to experience in relationships … sometimes experience through frustration, sometimes through satisfaction, sometimes through a new world opening up to them. And this is largely an unexplored field, but very worthwhile to explore from what we see happen in child analysis.”

Anna Freud,1 quoted in Penman, 1995

Psychic development is a lifelong process, subject to both inner and outer influences, the outcome of a continuous interaction between what is innate or has become inbuilt in us and the relationships and circumstances that we encounter.

Today, there is considerable interest in the “innate”, in the genetic roots of psychological development and its disturbances, and our growing knowledge here should prove valuable in helping us to offer appropriate treatments. (See Cohen, 1997, for a brief review of organizing or influencing biological factors in various childhood disturbances.) But emphasis on the innate can be used to oversimplify complex psychological phenomena. Biological reduc-tionism, increasingly evident in the current scientific climate, can lead to a kind of therapeutic nihilism: psychotherapy becomes an irrelevancy or restricts its aims, offering only improved management; gene therapy or drug therapies are seen as the answer to psychological difficulties.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782201151


Williams, Meg Harris Harris Meltzer Trust PDF


The Ghost

Ghost: If thou has nature in thee, bear it not,

Let not the royal bed of Denmark be

A couch for luxury and damned incest.

But howsomever thou pursuest this act,

Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive

Against thy mother aught. (I. v. 82-86)

Horacio is surprised by the sudden impact of Ophelia after Hamlet’s dream of the Ghost, and begins to tackle Hamlet’s ambivalence towards women.


he week after this, Hamlet brought me a fascinating and crucial dream, whose mirroring of deep emotional conflicts would prove central to the analysis for a long time. The Ghost dream became a major point of reference for us.

In this dream, Hamlet saw his father in his fighter-pilot’s uniform from the war, seated inside his Spitfire wearing flying suit and goggles. He seemed larger than life, surrounded by a shimmering golden aura, and the plane’s wings seemed to be quivering in a




See All Chapters
Medium 9781855758414

CHAPTER NINE: The silence of God

Kenny, Colum Karnac Books ePub

Three centuries before Christ, the Greek playwright Menander (c342–290) reflected on the fact that divine beings, if they act at all, act in mysterious and inscrutable ways. “In silence, God brings all to pass,” he wrote (Allinson, p. 533).

Divine silence has frequently frustrated or even terrified the faithful, who continue to pray notwithstanding what appears to be divine indifference in the face of adversity and cruelty. At the same time, that very silence confirms for atheists their belief in the absence of any God. Yet, even for atheists, there are aspects of reality that elude or transcend everyday language. These aspects cannot simply be dismissed as insignificant. The silence that surrounds us and permeates our world seems to be challenging us.

Was there silence before anything? Can we say in any meaningful sense that there was silence before “The Big Bang”, or before phenomena became manifest in this universe?

And if one believes that there is a God, and if communications are part of his Creation, then why is he apparently silent on so many occasions when he might be expected to speak up? Where was God's voice at Auschwitz, or during recent Asian tsunamis? Where was he when a friend's son died young, or when so many children were being abused? Does God's failure to be heard mean that he does not care or does not exist? Are silence and absence the same thing in this case? Might an existing God conceivably answer our prayers in obscure and seemingly perverse ways, or even refuse to listen to our pleas, as implied by some passages in the Old Testament? These include a complaint to God in the Book of Lamentations that, “You have wrapped yourself with a cloud so that no prayer can pass through” (Lamentations 3:43. See also Ezekiel 20:3). Perhaps the only logical conclusion is that his silence does indeed signify his absence. The sort of blind faith that simply avows that there is a God and then goes looking for reasons to back up that avowal is not for everyone. As one young doctor wrote, “I do not wish to talk with myself and to imagine to myself that it is God who is talking to me. God does not talk. There is the silence of God” (Dewailly, p. 294). Yet many believers claim to have had deep experiences of his love that contradict such a conclusion. They hear his words in their hearts, discern his word in Creation.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782200543

CHAPTER ONE Ethics and psychoanalysis

Chetrit-Vatine, Viviane Karnac Books PDF


Ethics and psychoanalysis

Freud and ethics: The Project, The Ego and the Id, Civilization and its Discontents n the Project (1895), Freud writes: “If the [child] screams . . . [it] will awaken the memory of the subject’s own screaming and at the same time his own experiences of pain” (p. 331). Earlier, he had indicated that, at these early stages, the human organism is incapable of bringing about the “specific action” (p. 318) aimed at satisfying his needs of survival. Extraneous help, fremde Hilfe, is indispensable. It takes place, he writes,


when the attention of an experienced person is drawn to the child’s state by discharge along the path of internal change [by its screams, for example]. In this way, this path of discharge acquires a secondary function of the highest importance, that of communication. The initial helplessness of human beings is the primal source of all moral motives [“die Urquelle aller moralischen Motive”]. (p. 318)

In Schneider’s terms, “it is this experience, which is not exempt from effects of interference and contagion, that Freud places at the foundations of ethics” (1993, p. 208).


See All Chapters
Medium 9781607059608

Spark 27. Share Your Work

Carrie Bloomston Stash Books ePub



There are basically two ways to share your creations with the world. The first is the traditional face-to-face sharing of the gallery show, the craft fair, or the concert. You might invite a few friends over to show them what you’ve been up to. These days, businesses want to feature local artisans, so talk to shop owners about featuring your wares. Approach a local coffee house or boutique about using its walls for a month.

For me, there is no greater or more connected form of commerce than the lemonade stand. It is the perfect model for small business. The lemonade stand is the perfect representation of belief in oneself.

Artist Marcel Duchamp believed that his work wasn’t finished until it was seen by people—that the viewing completed the work. I love that.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780946439768

1009-1914: Shirting Decisions

Muriel Gardiner Karnac Books ePub

Nw, having escaped from Dr. N.’s sanatorium and returned to Frankfurt with Dr. H., I left it to him to decide what should happen next. As there was no question of my going back to Professor Kraepelin, Dr. H. recommended that I consult Professor Ziehen in Berlin. So we remained only a few days in Frankfurt and then went to Berlin where, together with Dr. H., I visited Professor Ziehen. Professor Ziehen, like Professor Kraepelin, was of the opinion that the best thing for me would be a long period in a sanatorium for nervous disorders.

Following Professor Ziehen’s advice, we took up our winter quarters in the year 1908 in Schlachtensee, which one could reach from Berlin in half an hour by train. The medical director of the Sanatorium Schlachtensee was Dr. K., who made the impression of being a reasonable and rather balanced person. The patients of this sanatorium enjoyed more freedom than those of Dr. N.’s. When the prescribed daily treatment was completed, they could do whatever they wished the rest of the day. Naturally I lived in the institution, and my mother, my aunt, and P. were settled in a pension in a neighboring villa, I found this very pleasant, as I could make excursions and trips to Berlin with P., and I was also in regular contact with my mother.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781782413004


Furey, Paul Karnac Books PDF


Get out there and give someone some useful, skilful feedback. This stuff takes lots of practise. Choose situations before they choose you – in other words, don’t wait until you are under pressure before you have to

Choose situations where feedback is not essential but might be useful.

Even chose situations that have less importance attached to them. For ket who greeted you genuinely, the waiter who served your meal but seemed not to care, to the person at the petrol station who was cheerful.

These situations turn up many times every day – the trick is to spot the very many ordinary things that happen where you feel something but wouldn’t normally either make a big deal of it or even notice the feeling

Good luck and have fun with feedback.



pf@paulfurey.com paulfurey.com

See All Chapters
Medium 9781912567515

6. Adolescent Sexuality (1969)

Harris, Martha; Meltzer, Donald Harris Meltzer Trust ePub


Adolescent sexuality1


Martha Harris

We have made the point that a child's current relationships and his physical and emotional growth continue to be affected, if not determined, by his earlier experiences. This is especially true of the sexual development of the teenager, of his feelings about himself and his body, of his capacity to anticipate and finally enjoy sexual experience reciprocally with the partner of his choice.

His capacity to enjoy his body and to be able finally to integrate sexual feelings with tenderness is rooted in the early physical and emotional relationship he had as a baby with his mother. This goes for the girl, of course, as well as for the boy. Her very first physical closeness is also with her mother, in whose arms she first begins to feel some fleeting physical identity and sense of what belongs to her body and what it looks like.

As we have already mentioned, a number of things can interfere with the mother's capacity to accept the baby in a physical and emotional way, and there are differing factors in each baby which may inhibit its capacity to utilize and to respond to what he is offered. These half-formulated secret shames about being unattractive, unlovable and lacking in love weigh very heavily on the teenager. Sometimes they lead him to rush prematurely into sexual experience and promiscuity; sometime they inhibit him from seeking it at all.

See All Chapters

Load more