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Medium 9781780490014

CHAPTER TWELVE. Intimacy and detachment: working relationships in a temporary institution

Karnac Books ePub

Angela Eden and David Sierra Lozano

At Belgirate III there was an opportunity to form small groups, and we both joined one of the self-selected groups called “creativity”. The group started well, and we felt comfortable being together, maybe because there was a match of expectations and skills in the group, which confirmed the choice we made in moving from the large group.

We played with ideas and acts of creativity which proved to be a satisfying experience. At the end of the conference, as we were saying goodbye and thinking about detaching from the intimacy of the conference, we were musing on the power of GR events. These are places where strangers join together, share experiences, often become quite close, and then say goodbye. Often the closeness is not continued, or it is renewed at another conference. It felt strange to be in such intensity of relationships and then let the contact evaporate. As we thought about this phenomena, so many other associations came to mind about our work in organizations, and we coined a phrase—”working intimacy”.

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Medium 9781855758841

15: Greetings (1980 [1983])

Heinz Kohut Karnac Books ePub

Ladies and gentlemen, colleagues, friends!

My remarks, though serious in their ultimate intent, will be presented in a lighthearted vein, as befits this informal moment of our conference. To begin with I will tell you about two personal events, one occurring about seven or eight years ago, the other quite recently, about a month ago. Each has something in common with the other, and yet they are also quite different.

As I said, the first event took place about seven or eight years ago. To put its significance for me into a nutshell, it was the first time that I got a taste of how acerbic the reaction of a number of colleagues would be to some of the ideas that I have expressed during the past fifteen years or so. By now I have become used to the intensity with which certain critics have rejected my work. But I can still remember how much I was taken aback when somebody told me that, at a meeting in another city, an old friend of mine had said that after reading The Analysis of the Self he had concluded that I do not analyze transferences but that I accept them instead. I was puzzled. How could anyone so totally misunderstand a book in which I had extensively described a group of analyzable transferences which, as I thought, had formerly not been recognized? And how could any analyst misunderstand my statement that, when the first tendrils of these transferences begin to germinate, he should not interfere with their development by premature interpretations but must allow them to unfold? Had I not said clearly that to interpret them at this earliest state of development would be the same as if at the first sign of an oedipal transference the analyst would stop the patient and tell him: “Look here, I am not your father!”? I felt that, for reasons that I could not figure out, my critic had emphasized my use of the word “accept” and underplayed the context into which it was embedded. And, as I said, I felt badly misunderstood. By now I have become used to such unfriendliness (even though I continue to be puzzled by it)—but then it was still very upsetting to me.

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Medium 9780253006455

18 The History of Homosexuality

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

All human behavior is subject to the judgment of others. As children, we are judged by our parents, teachers, and playmates. Some behaviors are approved and admired; others are condemned and sometimes punished. That has been the history of behavior concerning table manners, dressing, grooming, reliability, dishonesty, theft, selfishness, generosity, cursing, bullying, flirting, and just about anything we do. Both culture and religion have their dos and don’ts. Those values change from generation to generation, and they are different in different countries and regions of countries. Almost all cultures condemn violent behavior toward those who are not designated by the state as legitimate objects for attack. We punish perjury, theft, fraud, treason, blackmail, piracy, and many other behaviors as crimes, and regulate them with laws. Most industrial nations no longer regard some crimes of the past as crimes today. At one time, blasphemy was a capital crime. Until the 1920s, it was a crime for a physician in the United States to offer medical advice on birth control. Until the 1950s, it was a crime for a white person to marry or live with a black person. Until the 1970s, a physician who carried out an abortion committed a crime.

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Medium 9781782200000

Chapter Six - The USA's Immigration Policy: The Sum of Conflicting Vectors

Meszaros, Judit Karnac Books ePub

It was in the immediate wake of the Anschluss that the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA)72 established the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration, as I will discuss in detail in a later chapter. Thus, the Emergency Committee sprang from a civil society initiative.

The significance of its establishment and operation can only be fully appreciated in the context of the US government's refugee and immigration policy. It is in the light of this that we can reconstruct the various domestic and foreign policy factors that determined and limited the organisation's room for manoeuvre. It is in this way that we can arrive at the answers to such questions as who the committee needed to co-operate with, how it managed to obtain support, who it could count on, and what resistance it met as it attempted to aid in the escape and resettlement of European peers in line with its set goals.

The backdrop of a restrictive policy

The immigration policy of the USA in the period preceding the establishment of the Emergency Committee on Relief and Immigration was shaped by four major factors:73

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Medium 9781780491929

Introduction: “The Soul Within the Symptoms”

Karnac Books ePub

Sue McNab

Curiously, and quite by chance, I sat down to write this introduction on the very day, 11 February, that Sylvia Plath took her life fifty years ago. Also by chance, it was snowing outside, but, unlike her, we were not in the grip of one of the coldest years on record, 1963. Various commentators, writers, and journalists are still weighing up Sylvia's life and death and, perhaps fittingly for this volume, they wonder how much of her untimely death can be ascribed to a lack of modern medicine and other medical treatments and/or attributed to the various contextual tragedies in her life.

On the day of her death, Sylvia was living in London with her two very young children, having recently separated from her husband, the poet Ted Hughes, whom she suspected had already embarked on another relationship with Assia Wevill. Sylvia, a highly intelligent woman, was trying to find her voice as a poet in the early 1960s in a land not of her birth. Her novel, The Bell Jar, which charts some of her earlier struggles with depression, had recently been published under a pseudonym. Her poetry told of the early death of her father and its effect on her. Her story—perhaps putting her brilliance to one side—is not so uncommon for those of us working in mental health services and its sense of complexity and tragedy seems somehow a well-timed place from which to begin a description of this book.

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Medium 9781855751439

3.Rationality and irrationality

R.D. Hinshelwood Karnac Books ePub

The key to what is permitted in medical practice is the degree of rationality (or irrationality) of the patient. This notion is philosophically and psychoanalytically complex. Psychoanalysis addresses irrationality itself—it cannot just respond ethically to it.

The place of reason in this is important. As an instrumental function of human beings, reason is regarded in the contemporary world as the underlying factor in the development of science and in the enormous explosion in the Western standard of living. Rationality and its role in enquiry and decision-making is, therefore, a fundamental principle of great value upon which our culture depends.

Reason also plays an important role in the way a person leads his life. It is a bedrock of the capacity for autonomous action, which has to be based upon rational decisions. In terms of the conditions of psychic reality itself, reason—as we shall see later— may form a bridge of thinking that can join up again the divisions in a mind. In this, its internal effects, it could rival those of reason applied to external reality.

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Medium 9781780490182

CHAPTER EIGHT: Spirituality in the therapy room—is it OK to pray?

Harborne, Lynette Karnac Books ePub

“… prayer, by which term I understand no vain exercise of words, no mere repetition of certain sacred formulae, but the very movement itself of the soul, putting itself in a personal relation of contact with the mysterious power of which it feels the presence …”

—William James (1985)

One of the most contentious areas of discussion in the exploration of psychotherapy and spiritual direction is that of the practice of prayer. In this chapter I shall explore what the word “prayer” actually means, the historical view of its role, the evidence for its effectiveness, and the possible benefits and pitfalls of its incorporation into the practice of psychotherapy and spiritual direction. I shall also consider the spiritual practice and prayer life of psychotherapists and spiritual directors themselves.

How do we define “prayer”? Is there a common understanding or definition? Once again we are faced with the difficulty of trying to describe with words something that is, in fact, indescribable and which reflects in some mysterious way the nature of our relationship, our encounter, with the Other, with God. As Richards and Bergin (1997, p. 202) point out, some form of prayer is advocated by most of the world faiths, although the form it takes may differ from one religion to another.

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Medium 9781855757721

CHAPTER SEVEN: Phenomenology of the self

Ormay, A.P. Tom Karnac Books ePub

“Take all my loves, my love, yea, take them all:
What hast thou then more than thou hast before?
No love, my love, that thou mayst true love call;
All mine was thine before thou hast this more.
Then, if for my love thou my love receivest,
I cannot blame thee for thou my love usest;
But yet be blamed if thou this self deceivest
By wilful taste of what thyself refusest.
I do forgive thy robb’ry gentle thief,
Although thou steal thee all my poverty;
And yet love knows it is a greater thief
To bear love’s wrong than hate’s known injury.
Lascivious grace, in whom all ill well shows,
Kill me with spites; yet we must not be foes.”

(Shakespeare, Sonnet 40, 1998)

It can be seen from the foregoing that the self plays a central role in our lives and is also present during group work. Generally, we could say, when we are working on a problem, it is important that the patient is able to own up to it. In the safety and love of the therapeutic space, the patients can relive in small portions the pain and fear in which they were once trapped, and one is able to find the part of one’s self that was torn away in the trauma. Only then are we able to work with the problem effectively. As discussed above in Chapter Six, under the section titled “Nos and anxiety”, we experience our self when we overcome existential anxiety.

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Medium 9781904658313

Nine of Cups

Zalewski, Chris; Zalewski, Pat Aeon Books ePub

The Nine of Cups shows that every cup has a lotus flower above it pouring out Azoth into each cup until it starts to overflow. This alludes to the expansive qualities of Jupiter. The symbol portrayed by the cup and hand positions is the alchemic symbol of Jupiter (one middle vertical column and three horizontal lines with a central hand below). This formation also forms a square above a cross, which is a symbol of Sal Alkali, which is known as the Salt of Wisdom “which causeth the Spirit to enter properly into bodies and permeate them”. Hermes Trismegistus said “… the vine of the wise is drawn forth in three …”. Projection is a violent action and now that a violent penetration has taken place from the previous card, this card depicts now the moment of transformation. The elixir pouring forth, is now composed of three virtues: Philosophically sublimated Mercury (white or red ferment), metallic water and sulphur.

The Holy name of Yesod of Briah is the Archangel Gabriel ('Power of his Mightiness’ or ‘Strong one of God'). This is the angel that appeared to the Virgin Mary at the Annunciation and because of this is directly associated with Divine Creation. His power is to create or be the herald of a new era, not only in religious thought, but also in political and new states of awareness (through music) or thought and as such, is the Archangel of a new generation. Gabriel works on vast international levels and is the instinct of the creative genius of men and women in all fields of endeavour (when for good).

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Medium 9781855757783

CHAPTER EIGHT: The personal and the professional: core beliefs and the construction of bridges across difference

Karnac Books ePub

Barry Mason


This is a chapter that has evolved out of practice, theory, and personal experience. It arises from a long-standing focus on the relationship between the development of my own personal core beliefs and the influence of those beliefs on my clinical work as a family and systemic psychotherapist working with individuals, couples, and families from different cultures and religions. A central question for me has become not only how I can help clients find a systemic both–and position, and how the therapeutic relationship can encompass a both–and position, but also, to what extent I can find such a position in relation to my personal beliefs and my professional task. Some of the content herein comes from a certain disillusionment with some of the more recent developments in family therapy, and could be said to be a continuation of the work that contributed to the publication of the book, Exploring the Unsaid (Mason & Sawyerr, 2002), which sought to encourage practitioners to take more risks in working cross-culturally. This was based on the view that interpretations of the developments in theory and practice were hindering, as well as aiding, us in creating effective clinical work. As Alice Sawyerr and I wrote in our introduction to that book, “to develop intimacy, to develop closeness of whatever kind, one has to be prepared to take chances and risk vulnerability” (p. xix). This chapter is written with that in mind.

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Medium 9781782202035


Karnac Books ePub

James Rose

The decision by a couple or an individual to create a family through donor conception often follows the discovery that they cannot have a baby in the conventional way. This might be as a result of infertility in one or both partners of a heterosexual couple; the absence of a partner for a single person; or of a partner of the opposite sex in lesbian and gay relationships. The use of donor gametes offers these couples and individuals an amazing opportunity: the chance to become involved in every aspect of the creation of a family, from choosing a donor if this is an option, through conception, pregnancy, birth, and raising children. The narratives of donor-conceived families referred to in this book suggest that despite the difficulties encountered on this journey, the joy of having a family amply justifies the decision. It is inevitable, however, that the inclusion of a third party in this intimate aspect of the lives of the assisted parents will stir up complex psychological and emotional challenges. As the title suggests, the involvement of a donor does not stop at the moment of conception but remains an ongoing fact: genetically, psychologically, and relationally, in the lives of all who are involved. UK legislation introduced in 2005 removed the anonymity of donors and gave donor-conceived children the right to trace their donors once they reach adulthood. This raises additional issues for consideration for all concerned; the long-term implications of this legislation will not start to become clear until after the first children with donor identifying information reach adulthood in 2023.

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Medium 9781855758308

1. Introduction

Erskine, Richard G.; Moursund, Janet P. Karnac Books ePub

Most psychotherapists date their beginnings from the work of Sigmund Freud. It was Freud who first attempted a detailed explanation of the way in which unconscious processes affect behavior and of the way in which early patterns of feeling and believing continue to shape how we think and feel as adults. Freud's “psychodynamic” approach became a touchstone of modern psychology. Except for the strictest of behaviorists, no psychotherapy is unaffected by Freud's work, though some schools of thought borrow from and build upon it more directly than others.

During the early decades of the twentieth century, Freud's version of psychotherapy dominated clinical practice in both Europe and America. To be sure, there were occasional exceptions—physically oriented treatments like complete bed rest, regimens of strenuous exercise, education and exhortative programs, or the use of hypnosis in treating mental disturbance—but these were small islands in a sea of treatment by “psychoanalysis.” By the 1930s, a new generation of therapists was emerging: among them Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Wilhelm Reich, Otto Rank, Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan. As their voices and influence grew stronger, they not only expanded the vision of psychotherapy beyond Freud's vision (Geiwitz & Moursund, 1979) but also contributed many of the essential concepts of integrative psychotherapy.

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Medium 9781910977125

Apêndice 4: O-gramas

Eigen, Michael Editora Karnac ePub

Figura 1 O-grama n.º 1 (Bion, 1994b, p.323)

Figura 2. O-grama n.º 2 (Bion, 1994b, p.325)

Bion escreve favoravelmente sobre as estruturas e funções dos ideogramas. Ele cita um livro que fala de caracteres chineses como poesia (1994b, p.323). O autor gosta da ideia de opostos combinados em uma única imagem, direcionalidade diversa em uma figura. Conota riqueza de experiência. As hierarquias do tipo que encontramos em ideogramas, e que ele esboçou, chamei de O-gramas. Cada um começa ou termina apenas com O debaixo de todos os processos e galhos que estão acima dele.

No Capítulo 1 (pp.23-24) escrevi sobre algumas das relações entre os O-gramas de Bion e a Cabala e a estrutura dos Sephirot. No O-grama n.º 1, O subtende “raiz”, que se bifurca em instrumento, Deus, pedra, linguagem, tinta. De um sentido-O primordial, ferramentas, espíritos, materiais expressivos emergem (linguagem, tinta, pedra) e, deles, música, religião, escultura, poesia e pintura. Bion cita do trabalho de Ernest Fenollosa sobre os caracteres chineses: “Meu assunto é poesia…”. Ele gravita em direção a gestos expressivos, necessidades expressivas, contato com a vida, e a pressão de extrair aquilo que esse contato faz surgir. No início há O. E O faz surgir a experiência encorajando a sobrevivência e a cultura, um tipo de monismo complexo. Já fiz um mau uso de O, que não deve ter nem começo, nem fim.

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Medium 9781780490571

Chapter Eighteen - A Child is Being Murdered

Miller, J.F. Karnac Books ePub


A child is being murdered

In Freud's famous paper, “A child is being beaten” (Freud, 1919e), the title captures the fantasy the masochist has of being identified with an imagined child being beaten (to death). The first thing we have to bear in mind is that this does involve a murder, or, at least, a culpable homicide. The masochist is sacrificing or destroying a child in some form in order to achieve a triumphant feeling of control, and to avoid responsibility for their own feelings and experience.

When this is physically acted out in a way which results in the death of a real, flesh-and-blood child, as in the case of Baby “P” (2008), society is horrified and a public inquiry is set up. The real causes or culprits, however, are not inadequate procedures, lack of training, poor leadership, insufficient money, or whatever, but the collusion of the masochistic, child-hating aspects of everyone involved, which includes society in general.

To understand what is going on, we need to look in detail at the various aspects of the child's experience and how, in later adult life, this forms the attitudes of the individual to the child parts of their own personality and to external children. The main thing that this brings into sharp relief is how fundamental is the experience of good dependency to emotional health and development. The baby is born emotionally, as well as physically, helpless. This means that, in addition to having physical needs of sustenance, warmth, hygiene, and protection from harm, the actual moment-by-moment experience of being alive can very quickly become unbearable and unmanageable unless the mother somehow relieves it. The main way in which this occurs is through emotional responsiveness and reflection. This might be most obviously visible in the way a mother holds, touches, and speaks to her child, but the quality of this comes from her own inner attitude to the child, herself, and life in general.

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Medium 9781780490113

12. Elsa: fear of the adolescent community

Harris, Martha; Meltzer, Donald Harris Meltzer Trust ePub

Nouhad Dow and Donald Meltzer

Therapist: Elsa is seventeen years old. She was referred to me by the doctor who has been treating her for weight loss for the last fve months. She had also asked to have a surgical operation to reduce her breasts. The doctor described her as a patient who alternates between periods of good response to the treatment and others when, out of uncontrollable voracity, she can put on fve kilos in a short time, for example over a weekend. What worried him the most in the patient was her state of mind after those episodes when she expressed a lack of desire to live, she isolated herself and took in large doses of diuretics combined with other tablets. This was a health risk and alarmed those around her.

She came to the initial interview with her mother, a good-looking woman who seemed younger than she said she was. I let them into my ofce together. My patient had made herself up very carefully and she was wearing the latest fashions. You could say that she is striking. Her hands are constantly playing with her hair as she talks. She is neither fat nor extremely thin. During the first half hour, although I was talking to both of them, it was the mother who spoke. I was even struck by her answers in the plural form: “We have decided to come to you because the doctor said we should”… “We are trying to lose weight”… “We trust whatever the doctor says”… “We are very close”… etc. She seemed very anxious and at times it was as if she were asking for help for herself rather than for her daughter. During that time my patient said very little, as if letting her mother do the work of expressing her problems, but once she was alone with me her attitude changed, she became more communicative. She started by saying that as she was feeling upbeat today it was difficult to describe what happens to her when she is feeling the opposite. Her main worries were, she said, having always felt diferent from other people, her craze for losing weight, and the unpredictable nature of her changes of mood. She does not understand how they come about.

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