13569 Chapters
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Medium 9781855755918

CHAPTER FIVE: A psychological perspective: psychodynamic therapy

Buckley, David Karnac Books ePub

As far as I know, unlike the subject of our last chapter, no blood has been shed over the differences within psychotherapy and counselling during its relatively brief history, although rivalry and wrangling has long since left its mark. For a good overview of the turbulent history of psychoanalysis in Great Britain see Peter Fuller’s “Introduction” to Psychoanalysis and Beyond (Rycroft, 1985, pp. 1—38). The contemporary scene of counselling services and of counselling training courses accessible to the general public, can be confusing to say the least. I shall resist the temptation of attempting to offer an overview of this complex array of counselling therapies since to do so would lead us away from the main aim in this chapter which is to indicate a psychodynamic perspective for using alongside the theological one of Chapter 4. It is as though a pair of spectacles were being made; a religious lens has been created and now a psychological one is needed. I have already prescribed a distinctive tint for this lens – the theory and practice of psychodynamic therapy – but that tells the reader little about how the lens is actually constructed. I shall now turn to this task, accepting that it will be just as much a personal prescription as the theological lens.

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Medium 9781782200055

Chapter Sixteen: Boosting Career Decision Making and Employability through Mental Toughness

Karnac Books ePub

Paula Quinton-Jones

The global job market has never been tougher and for new and returning entrants, the ability to stay focused and motivated coupled with a strong differentiation from the rest of the talent pool is key. To offer support to international business students facing the realities of this employment challenge, Hult International Business School has embedded mental toughness into its core career services delivery. Hult has found that mental toughness is a unique and practical tool for students to use in key areas of job searching and career development:

It is the first two of these areas that we have found deliver most value in career coaching and we will focus on them here.

Hult is the world's largest business school by graduating class with approximately 2,000 graduates per year. This has been achieved through very rapid growth and a network of five global campuses in Boston, San Francisco, London, Dubai, and Shanghai as well as rotation campuses in Sao Paolo and New York. The student body is highly diverse with in excess of 100 nationalities represented and no one nationality makes up more than twenty per cent of the student body on any campus. Whilst many of the employment challenges faced by Hult students are the same as for any graduates entering the employment market today, there are several unique aspects of the Hult experience that intensify this challenge. The structural elements of the programmes offered, specifically the one year duration and the fact that students can choose to rotate to two additional campuses for the last four months of their programme, mean that the Hult year is out of synch with the recruitment timetable for many MBA and graduate recruiters and that for many students their time to explore career ideas and get “market-ready” is realistically only six to eight months. The result? Hult students need to be creative about finding channels to market and creating opportunities. They also need to “hit the ground running” and be prepared to make decisions and follow through with actions, sometimes in the face of limited information and often running two or three career searches simultaneously.

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Medium 9781608681297

CHAPTER TEN: Losing and Recovering Our Equilibrium

MFT Linda Graham New World Library ePub


Losing and Recovering Our Equilibrium

Serenity is not freedom from the storm but peace amid the storm.


“KEEP CALM AND CARRY ON” was one of the mottoes of the British government during World War II. When we feel we are under siege ourselves, enduring our own personal version of the bombings during the Blitz, we need to call on the CEO of resilience and use body-based tools (somatic resources) to regulate the progression of worry, fear, and panic in our nervous system that could cause us to freak out or fall apart. The somatic intelligence that flows from a well-functioning prefrontal cortex allows us to stay calm, stay steady in our wise mind, and deal.

That place of calm steadiness that the prefrontal cortex reliably returns us to is a physiological state known in modern neuropsychology as the window of tolerance. This is our baseline state of physiological functioning when we’re not frightened, stressed, overtired, or overstimulated. When we’re in this window, we’re grounded and centered, neither overreacting to other people or life events nor failing to act at all. Being able to meet the storms and struggles of our lives from that place of steadiness, and being able to return quickly to that window when we are pushed out of it, is the somatic prerequisite of resilience.

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Medium 9781782200727

Chapter Six: Werner Bohleber (Germany)

Karnac Books ePub


Werner Bohleber, DPhil, is a psychoanalyst in private practice in Frankfurt am Main. He is a training and supervising analyst, and former president of the German Psychoanalytical Association (DPV). He is the editor of the German psychoanalytic journal Psyche. Dr Bohleber has authored several books and numerous articles. He was the recipient of the Mary S. Sigourney Award in 2007. WBohleber@gmx.de



Werner Bohleber (WB), Kerry Malawista (KM), Bob Winer (BW)

In Prague, we met with the distinguished German analyst Werner Bohleber. In his quiet, warm way, Dr Bohleber shared with us his many years of clinical experience and leadership in the development of psychoanalytic thinking in Germany. Dr Bohleber stressed that an analyst must understand a patient's history and memories in the cultural context in which they occurred. For him, that meant understanding how his clinical work is linked to Germany's Nazi history.

What are we to make of the limits of our understanding if we have not had a particular experience ourselves? In some situations, the gap is obvious—if we have never fought on a battlefield, never been raped, never been fired from a job we cared about, never lost a parent in childhood, never lost a child, we know that our patient's experience of having had this happen to them will always be, in important ways, beyond our ken. Dr Bohleber says that he only really knew about loss “from out of the box” until his son and his mother died (and we don't know which came first). We think that our own understanding of the nuances of parenthood were limited until we became parents ourselves. Dr Kogan gave us her example of this when she recognised the helplessness of her granddaughter in the face of danger. For sure, this doesn't mean that we can't usefully treat someone whose life experiences have been quite different from our own. But where an unfamiliar trauma of one sort or another has been a key part of the story, we know that our ability to “get it” will be incomplete, and it will be useful for us to pay attention to our patient's experience of that gap. We do the best we can, and usually we can do enough to be really helpful. And as some of our interviewees pointed out, there is also a back side to this: having shared the same traumatic experience may lull us into thinking that we understand our patient's experience better than we actually do. In this sense, there are advantages in being a stranger, including, for example, advantages in being from a different culture, so that, so to speak, nothing can be taken for granted.

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Medium 9780946439010

Reflecting With Bion

Karnac Books ePub

Ignacio Matte-Bianco

–0. 1 Foreword

From the ocean of Dr. Bion’s golden harvest I have gleaned a few grains. Beyond them as well as in them there is the homogeneous indivisible unity. 2 I have looked at them with my humble eyes, and tried to express the multiplicity in my own way; and also tried to translate the unity into transparent words. This is the result.

I take it for granted that the reader is familiar with Dr. Bion’s contributions; I must, unfortunately, add that unless he has some familiarity with my own efforts he may find that whatever transparency I may have succeeded in achieving may appear to him dark and impenetrable. In order to facilitate understanding I have made some hints as to where there is something in my writings which may help at certain moments.


Where to begin? Where to follow? The early Bion is perhaps better known. The later Bion-that from the Brazilian lectures to the “Memoir” to the Roman lectures … and God only knows where to: the future Bion …seems to me a realisation of the first. We no longer hear much of projective identification, of bizarre objects, alpha- or beta-elements, of K or the grid. At times he even seems impatient with the restrictions that such notions put on the understanding-of, and fusing-with, his present self-whole: the drama of the difference and at the same time the identity between part and whole.

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Medium 9781855752580

Chapter 2: The dynamics of the parent–infant space

Acquarone, Stella Karnac Books ePub

The parent–infant space is complex. To walk into it is to walk into known and unknown risks. It is a seemingly endless walk in a seemingly never-ending maze of rooms and corridors, where the walls, ceilings, and floors can move and what is done in one part of the maze seems to affect what difficulties are encountered in other parts. Everywhere there are restrictions and constraints that can add to feelings of anxiety, fatigue, or hopelessness.

But the shape of the space and the dynamics of walking through it are not so complex. The integrity of the parent–infant space—what pulls, shapes, holds, and collapses it—is based on two triangles: a real relationship triangle and an internalized one. The points of the triangle are held together by invisible bonds. Although we cannot actually see these bonds, we certainly can feel them. They keep us together. Without them, we gradually grow apart.

Mother–baby–father are bonded in their inner, real worlds and imagined dynamics of attachment and separation. Development and relationships play out with anxiety and repression, and the parent’s own memories of growing up—good ones along with long-held resentments and buried trauma—are important factors for the professional to consider. Without early intervention and a professional to provide a reflective space, these conflicts are replicated, renegotiated, or stay unresolved.

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Medium 9781855757776

CHAPTER FIVE: The evidence of Dr Cross

Haney, Janet Karnac Books ePub

Now it is the turn of the registrant at the centre of attention. Dr Cross is invited to take the witness seat, and is questioned first by his own lawyer, who establishes that he is who he says he is, and adds the qualifications he has, before launching into the detail. First, Mr Tyme establishes that Dr Cross made the restaurant reservation for the dinner on the night in question and then drew out the details of the accreditation process. In this way we learn that the relevant papers are received about twenty-eight days before the meeting, and web-based documents are consulted before attending the meeting. Was there anything special about this particular meeting? Yes, the accreditation was so close to the HPC takeover that it made sense to conduct the visit with this in mind. However, under the old scheme it was quite normal for conditions or recommendations to be made in the accreditation process, but under the new regime this would mean that the course would not be recognized as one which could pass students onto the HPC register, which would be disastrous for the students and for the university. It was therefore absolutely essential that the university avoid such a catastrophe—they had to pass first time.

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Medium 9781910444177

CAPÍTULO UNO - El proyecto Tempo Lineare

Jeanne Magagna Ediciones Karnac ePub

Patrizia Pasquini

El proyecto financiado por el gobierno “Tempo Lineare para niños de 0–3 años y sus familias” está disponible en el centro de Roma para las familias interesadas. Establecido en 1999, ofrece un lugar de encuentro donde los padres y abuelos pueden jugar con sus niños, así como recibir el apoyo de los psicoterapeutas y educadores que entienden las necesidades de desarrollo de los niños pequeños. A los padres de los niños pequeños (desde el nacimiento hasta los tres años) se les da la oportunidad de conocerse e intercambiar experiencias, dudas y puntos de vista en relación al crecimiento y la educación de sus hijos. Tempo Lineare es, por lo tanto, un servicio en el que el personal colabora “con”, y no solo “para”, los usuarios. La familia no delega la responsabilidad, sino, más bien, participa activamente en la labor del servicio.

Tempo Lineare está situado en una antigua casa en Testaccio, un barrio alegre de clase trabajadora en el corazón de Roma. Desde 1999, cuando fue fundado, Tempo Lineare se ha convertido en el espacio físico y en el espacio contenedor donde esta experiencia, abierta a veinticuatro familias cada año, se ha hecho realidad. Desde entonces, más de 280 familias han recurrido a Tempo Lineare: 180 asistieron con regularidad al servicio, un centenar más pudo beneficiarse semanalmente de este lugar de escucha. Se creó una red social que apoya a este grupo de padres, niños y profesionales a través de un programa de observación que los padres agradecidos establecieron después de que los niños, a los cinco años, dejaron Tempo Lineare. Las donaciones de los padres se utilizaron para alquilar unas instalaciones donde los padres antiguos de Tempo Lineare continúan desarrollándose junto a sus hijos. Se llevan a cabo allí grupos de discusión, grupos de padres y actividades para los niños.

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Medium 9781574415247

Chapter 12. Waiting

Kathryn U. Hulings University of North Texas Press PDF


As Michael approached his fifteenth birthday, he became energized

by the upcoming promise of gifts and cake and maybe a party. His birthday is in February. In November, on a Monday, during dinner time conversation, Michael asked Jim how long it was until his birthday.

“Your birthday will be in eleven Mondays, Michael,” Jim offered.

Jim is an engineer, a scientist, and he can reduce everything to equations and numbers.

I glared across the table. “You’re kidding, right?” I said.

“Eleven Mondays?” Michael piped in.

“No, Michael,” I interrupted. “Your birthday is not for a very long time. Let’s think about something we can do today that is fun, okay?”

“Wait,” Jim said. “Hey, Michael, let’s get out a calendar and mark the eleven Mondays!”

And so they did. Michael had a calendar with the eleven Mondays until his birthday marked with big, red, Xs. Jim went to work for the next eleven weeks and solved engineering problems that are versed in terms and ideas completely disconnected from the daily lives of most folks. I spent the next eleven weeks answering Michael’s daily, sometimes hourly question: Is it Monday? Is it Monday? Is it Monday?

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Medium 9781855753235

CHAPTER SIX. Sibling trauma: a theoretical consideration

Karnac Books ePub

Juliet Mitchell

In 1928, introducing the topic of psychoanalysis and siblings to the American Psychiatric Association, Oberndorf claimed:

The very presence of the second sibling, irrespective of age or sex, creates an entirely different and determining environment and one finds it not infrequent that the one sibling so centres his interest upon the other that this relationship almost literally represents all the world to him … In the very early years of child life, the sibling relationships may quite overshadow anything else in the environment. [Oberndorf 1928, pp. 1013, 1019]

One colleague, a Dr Gregory, raised a question to open the discussion. He asked for an opinion on a patient with murderous hatred of her mother. The President-Chairman questioned the relevance to the siblings. Dr Gregory could not discover the relevance and Dr Oberndorf was left describing the hatred that succeeds fantasies of maternal incest—the Oedipus complex. There was no other discussion; siblings, as far as one can tell from the report, were not mentioned.

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Medium 9780946439706

X: Notes on the Theory of the Life and Death Instincts

Karnac Books ePub


ANEW psychological era began with the discovery by Breuer and Freud1 that the hysterical symptoms of their patient were caused by unsolved intra-psychic conflicts. Following the observations made in this particular case Freud continued to investigate his patients’ emotional life, and his researches into the nature of conflict led him to the discovery of the Unconscious. From this point he proceeded to explore the dynamics and structure of the mind and to evolve his theories about mental illness and mental development. One might, therefore, call the systematic investigation of emotional conflict—up till-then outside the sphere of medical science—the birth of psychoanalysis.

Freud traced emotional conflicts to the operation of basic forces with opposite aims, Le. antagonistic instincts. Throughout his work he maintained a dualistic approach to psychological processes and stressed the necessity to understand the nature of the instincts. At first, following the generally accepted contrast between hunger and love, he saw the opposing instinctual forces in the self-preservative and sexual instincts, later he differentiated between ego instincts and sexual instincts and thought that this dualism was in keeping with the human being’s double role of an individual and a representative of his species. But advances in his work did not corroborate this distinction, and ultimately he arrived at the conclusion that a life instinct and a death instinct are the prime movers of human behaviour.

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Medium 9781782204459

Chapter Three - Cultural Interpretation of Disability

Karnac Books ePub

Charles Gardou

This chapter is devoted to the cultural productions that determine how disability is viewed and that inform behaviour and practice. It derives directly from a trip made with researchers from twenty different countries (Gardou, 2011) to the Oceania continent (the Kanak region and the Marquesas Islands, where we lived for a number of years), to North America with the Inuits in the far north and Canada, South America (Brazil and the Amerindian territory, Surinam and Guyana), the Asian continent (China and the Lebanon), Africa (Senegal and Brazzaville in the Congo, Algeria and the Island of the Reunion), and the European continent (Italy, Norway, Germany, the United Kingdom, Portugal and France).

Our investigation sought to respond to three essential and closely interrelated questions. How is disability actually seen in daily life across the different continents? How can sense be made of the maze of conceptions surrounding disability? Finally, beyond cultural diversity, is there a central unity behind these different visions?

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Medium 9780946439003


Foulkes, S.H. Karnac Books ePub


This group-analytic situation as here described has features which are without precedent in the patient’s life. It is not unusual for it to produce a reaction of bewilderment and shock in the beginning, as for instance expressed in prolonged silence. In such a situation the group cannot avoid accepting responsibility and must rely more and more upon its own resources instead of turning to a leader or other authority for guidance.

These features are also not realised in any other form of Group Therapy,- even if oriented towards a psychoanalytic approach, as for instance Wender’s and Schilder’s. Moreno’s stress on spontaneity points in the same direction, but he is not psychoanalytically oriented at all, and considers catharsis and acting out as the essentials of psychotherapy. I insist, on the contrary, on the essential value of verbal formulation and articulate communication for the final conclusion of the therapeutic process. This is also essential for the ultimate formulation of our experiences in scientifically accessible terms. What one has fully experienced and understood one can also express in words. Only what one can express in words can be fully detached from the self, a detachment which is the ideal of therapy, in so far as pathogenic influences and past traumatic experiences are concerned. This is true for individual—and group—analysis alike. W. R. Bion’s approach, so far as I know it, is essentially related or possibly identical, as far as the group analytic situation goes. However, in my view, the Leader and his basic authority, as invested in the group Conductor, are absolutely essential for the group-analytic situation to arise, to be maintained, and for it to serve therapeutic ends. The Group Analyst continuously leads the group, directs the group, although from behind the scenes, as it were, on which he appears sparingly, but often at decisive moments. That, in the last resort, he uses this authority, in order to wean the group from such Authority, is another matter. He should eventually become superfluous, but this is, at the same time, the ideal end of all treatment. I also believe, that the Content, the subject matter discussed, and its analysis, is as important as the interpersonal relationships which develop, and become subject to analysis in their turn.

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Medium 9781855753068

CHAPTER FOUR: The psychotherapy relationship

Karnac Books ePub

Susie Orbach

There are so many ways of describing how psychotherapy works and the purpose of this book is, of course, to try to address particular facets of it. I shall restrict myself to a discussion of how entrenched ways of being that cause distress can change through the therapy relationship.

The aims, conventions, and experience of therapy makes for an encounter that creates the conditions for reflection, feeling, analysis, and experimentation to occur. Reflection, feeling, analysis, and experimentation lead to a reinscribing of experience in which the individual’s present feels made by, but not bound by history and in which her or his past is animated by new thoughts and understandings. Transformation of the individual’s subjective sense of self is the outcome of a successful therapy: the individual experiences her or himself as an actor in their own life who has the flexibility to respond in novel ways to the emotional demands upon her or himself.

Psychotherapy is a very personal human endeavour. What I mean by this is that unlike psychological treatments, which are essentially procedural such as CBT or phobia desensitization, psychotherapy involves the therapist and patient in a relationship with one another. The therapy relationship itself is akin to a human laboratory for the exploration of change and risk. Although there for the benefit of the patient, the therapy relationship also affects the therapist in often profound ways. It can make the most enormous demand on the therapist as well as delivering considerable emotional and intellectual satisfaction (Orbach, 1999).

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Medium 9781782200055

Chapter Twenty-Two: Anxiety and Anxiety Control

Karnac Books ePub

Sharon Bryan

Anxiety is something that can affect anyone no matter what age, background, sex, status, or social grouping. Mentally tough individuals are better able to deal with this.

This chapter describes some work carried out with young people in relation to stress management. It is a personal account and is deliberately written from a practitioner's perspective. I hope you find some of the tools and techniques helpful.

At some point in their life, many young people experience anxiety. This can vary from the classic “exam nerves” through to something as extreme as OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder).

From our experience of working with both young people and adults, we know that many such conditions can go undiagnosed and unaddressed for years.

We all form our own unique “maps of the world” during adolescence. In this development period, our ability to deal with stress begins to be defined, sometimes for better, sometimes for worse. It can be argued that if we can learn how to be anxious, which is certainly part of the growing up process, we can learn how not to be!

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