1525 Chapters
Medium 9780253012234

2 The Summit of South America–Arab States: Historical Contexts of South-South Solidarity and Exchange

PAUL AMAR Indiana University Press ePub

This chapter traces the emergence of ASPA (the Summit of South America–Arab States) established by diplomatic concord in 2003 among the heads of state from the two world regions. ASPA constitutes a set of transregional diplomatic agreements and functioning institutions for educational, cultural, and commercial cooperation that have achieved broad success and visibility. Farah analyzes, in particular, the ASPA-related institutions that support cultural, educational, linguistic, and commercial exchanges and solidarity. Then this chapter does the important work of setting these new transregional connections into their historical context. He points out that the processes of integration with Muslim Africa and the Middle East are not new, but are part of the essential fabric of the Americas and date back more than two hundred years. A detailed social history is narrated here, of regional cultural, linguistic, and commercial integration. This history is animated by transnational circuits of forced and free migration, particularly to Bahia in the northeast (capital of anti-slavery unrest and Afro-Muslim cultural survival), and São Paulo in the southeast (capital of Levantine migration and commercial achievement).

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Medium 9781626566743

22 American Republic vs. Global Empire

Perkins, John Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

“I’ll be frank,” Paula said one day, while we were sitting in a coffee shop. “The Indians and all the farmers who live along the river you’re damming hate you. Even people in the cities, who aren’t directly affected, sympathize with the guerrillas who’ve been attacking your construction camp. Your government calls these people Communists, terrorists, and narcotics traffickers, but the truth is they’re just people with families who live on lands your company is destroying.”

I had just told her about Manuel Torres. He was an engineer employed by MAIN and one of the men recently attacked by guerrillas at our hydroelectric dam construction site. Manuel was a Colombian citizen who had a job because of a US Department of State rule prohibiting us from sending US citizens to that site. We referred to it as the Colombians Are Expendable doctrine, and it symbolized an attitude I had grown to hate. My feelings toward such policies were making it increasingly difficult for me to live with myself.

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Medium 9780253020864

5. The Reagan Years (1981–88): Letting the Democratic Process Work

Lee H. Hamilton Indiana University Press ePub

WHEN RONALD REAGAN BECAME PRESIDENT THERE WAS SOME skepticism among Washington insiders about how well the administration of this actor and two-term governor would do. But historians looking back over the years give his presidency fairly high marks.

Reagan had strongly held conservative beliefs, but it always seemed to me that he was more pragmatic than is generally recognized. In his first inaugural address, he talked about government being the problem rather than the solution, but he signed every appropriations bill funding the government and he didn’t try to abolish any federal departments. Earlier in his career he had denounced Medicare as socialism, but as president he did not try to repeal it and instead tried to protect it. He called the Soviet Union “the evil empire,” but he did not aggressively challenge it and shifted to a “trust, but verify” approach. He wanted steep reductions in income taxes, but realized that he went too far with his first tax bill and corrected course by supporting a large tax hike.

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Medium 9780253009678

1 The Great Recession: Definition, Duration, and Impact

Kristin Seefeldt Indiana University Press ePub

A recession is an overall slowdown in economic activity in a geographic region, as opposed to a slowdown in sales by a particular company or in a specific industry sector. The key measures of economic activity are Gross Domestic Product (GDP), income, employment, industrial production, and sales of goods at the wholesale and retail levels. The GDP is a measure of the overall value of goods and services produced by the economy. It is widely watched by market actors to determine whether the economy is expanding or shrinking.

Countries around the world vary in how a recession is defined and who is empowered to make the determination. In the United Kingdom, for example, recessions are generally defined by the government with a strict numeric definition: two consecutive quarters—or a total of six months—of negative growth in GDP constitutes a recession. The term “negative growth” means that the overall size of the economy is actually declining rather than increasing, as is typical of a healthy economy.

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Medium 9781626560734

6 The Rise of the agilistas

Hassan, Zaid Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Sometimes at Edwards they used to play the tapes of pilots going into the final dive, the one that killed them, and the man would be … screaming into the microphone, but not for Mother or for God or the nameless spirit of Ahor, but for one last hopeless crumb of information about the loop: “I’ve tried A! I’ve tried B! I’ve tried C! I’ve tried D! Tell me what else I can try!” And then that truly spooky click on the machine. What do I do next?

— Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff

In reflecting on the labs we ran, it became clear that first-generation social labs suffered a serious challenge. We called this the challenge of the right-hand side, which referred to the right-hand side of the U Process, concerned with realizing or cocreating. The right-hand side was all about action and in some ways the most familiar part of the work we did, and hence, most prone to habitus. Moving into action required the skills of crystallizing ideas and then prototyping. Beyond that, however, things got rather murky. While prototyping as an activity made sense, what did a prototype actually look like? Where does one take prototypes? What do you do with a successful prototype?

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