1388 Chapters
Medium 9781934989128

Confusions and Convictions

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253331472

Four. “You in front of Me, I in front of You”: Heidegger in the University of Life

David Farrell Krell Indiana University Press ePub

Heidegger and politics. The theme is dreariness itself, dreariness relieved only by disgust. My aim in this chapter, which is on the way toward a politics of life, is threefold. First, I want to write something—very little, very briefly, very carefully—about Heidegger’s silence after 1945 concerning the Extermination. It is of course foolish to write summarily about something that cries for time, thought, and recognition; but it is death itself to perpetuate that silence and to forget the enormous consequences of a topic I have just called “dreary.” Second, I want to report on several of Heidegger’s activities as rector in 1933–1934 that have only recently, that is, in the past five or six years, come to light. I mean his efforts to precipitate the end of the “liberal” constitution of the German university, as envisaged in Kant’s Conflict of the Faculties (Der Streit der Fakultäten, first published in 1798), by eliminating the frontier between power and knowledge, state and university, heteronymy and autonomy. His efforts can be summed up in a single very ugly word, Gleichschaltung, the “streamlining” of the university, the “meshing of gears” between Party-State and university, the “synchronizing,” better, the total submission to Party and to state power by the German university between 1933 and 1935. Or, if irony might help us to confront and bear ugliness, the rectification (from Recht, right, far right, erectile, rectal, rectoral) of the German university. Third, I want to discuss one of Heidegger’s earliest statements concerning the university in a lecture course taught at Freiburg in 1921–1922, “Introduction to Phenomenological Research.” Whereas the 1929 inaugural address, “What Is Metaphysics?” (W, 1–19; BW, 91–112), the 1933 rectoral address, Heidegger’s 1945 plea in his own defense, and the Spiegel interview of 1966 have long been available, this early text, only recently published, is Heidegger’s most detailed and most astonishing avowal concerning the university—as the university of life.1

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12. Note on the Theory of the Economy of Research

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

72

W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

Note on the Theory of the Economy of

Research

P 160: Coast Survey Report 1876, 197-201

When a research is of a quantitative nature, the progress of it is marked by the diminution of the probable error. The results of nonquantitative researches also have an inexactitude or indeterminacy which is analogous to the probable error of quantitative determinations. To this inexactitude, although it be not numerically expressed, the term "probable error" may be conveniently extended.

The doctrine of Economy, in general, treats of the relations between utility and cost. That branch of it which relates to research considers the relations between the utility and the cost of diminishing the probable error of our knowledge. Its main problem is how with a given expenditure of money, time, and energy, to obtain the most valuable addition to our knowledge.

Let r denote the probable error of any result; and write s = —. Let

Ur • dr denote the infinitesimal utility of any infinitesimal diminution, dr, of r. Let Vs • ds denote the infinitesimal cost of any infinitesimal increase, ds, of s. The letters U and V are here used as functional symbols. Let subscript letters be attached to r, s, U, and V, to distinguish the different problems into which investigations are made.

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3. Insistence and Hospitality: Mary and Martha in a Postmodern World

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub

 

Now as they went on their way,
he entered a certain village,
where a woman named Martha
welcomed
(hypedexato) him into her home.

                                         —LUKE 10:38

The name of God is the name of trouble. The insistence of God means that God calls for a response or, since God is not somebody who “does” things like call, it means that the calling takes place in the middle voice, in and under the name of God. God calls in the middle voice. The call is perfectly figured in an unexpected and insistent knocking on our door. A disturbing visitation in the night is an uncertainty in which all the sting of “perhaps” is perfectly concentrated, in which the dynamics of “perhaps” and a theology of insistence is both modeled and put in play. Hospitality means to say “come” in response to what is calling, and that may well be trouble. We might say that hospitality is an example of an event, but if so it is an exemplary one, a paradigm, maybe even a surname for any and every event, which can come at any moment, like a wayfarer in need of a cup of cold water unless, perhaps, he is a thief in the night. As an ancient virtue in the Bible, where the very life of the desert traveler depended upon being made welcome, hospitality cuts deeply into the fabric of the biblical name of God, where the invisible face of God is inscribed on the face of the stranger, as if God were looking for shelter. Well beyond its status as a particular virtue, hospitality is a figure of the event, a figure of the chiasm of insistence and existence, of call and response.

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2: Light and Dark

Ó Murchadha, Felix Indiana University Press ePub

DESIRE, BEYOND NEED, articulates itself in the intersection of light and dark. Such articulation expresses the self-understanding of existence. In vocation existence understands its being-called as personal or impersonal, as self-affirmation in transcendence or as self-annihilation in immanence—as ecstasis or depression. Here, metaphysical desire conflicts with transcendent desire—desire for world with desire for that which disrupts the world. The visible glory against the glory of the invisible.

Metaphysical desire journeys from a sensual light through a certain darkness to light as its own source, a journey expressed paradigmatically in Plato's allegory of the cave. Philosophies of enlightenment find their historical starting point and their abiding topology in this allegory. It structures the relation of humanity to divinity across theistic, deistic, and atheistic understandings: Darkness as the absence of light; light as the shining forth of a central radiance.1 Hierarchies of being, teleologies of knowledge, desire of goodness and truth all radiate around a spiraling journey toward the light: light as the source of being and of knowledge. But behind such accounts stands the figure of fire, the source of light robbed from the gods of the sky by a god of the earth (Prometheus), all-consuming, ultimately blinding, destructive of being and knowledge. In this ambivalence of light lies the anxiety of metaphysics, driving toward that which is beyond human capacity in the name of the inhuman, divine animating principle of non-earthly knowledge. The ultimate struggle of metaphysics is not between body and soul, material and immaterial, but rather between the earthly and the celestial, the soil beneath and the sky above. The human is a being of the earth but directed toward the sky; hence the human fascination with birds and flight (from Icarus to space travel) indicates its ultimate ambitions and metaphysical goals.

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