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18. Orientalism Inside/Out: The Art of Soody Sharifi

Peg Zeglin Brand Indiana University Press ePub

CYNTHIA FREELAND

“Orientalism” is a term made prominent by critic Edward Said in his 1978 book of that title. It is often used now in a loose way to denote an attitude of scornful superiority toward anything “Eastern” (including both the Middle and the Far East), with this “Other” seen as exotic and alluring but also barbaric and strange. In fact, Said specifically used the term to designate a field of self-constituted experts who proposed to explain the Orient to the West. Among its other features, he explains, Orientalism was a system of expertise in which,

standing before a distant, barely intelligible civilization or cultural monument, the Orientalist scholar reduced the obscurity by translating, sympathetically portraying, inwardly grasping the hard-to-reach object. Yet the Orientalist remained outside the Orient, which, however much it was made to appear intelligible, remained beyond the Occident. This cultural, temporal, and geographical distance was expressed in metaphors of depth, secrecy, and sexual promise: phrases like “the veils of an Eastern bride” or “the inscrutable Orient” passed into the common language.1

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Chapter 45: Help

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9781934989128

Time, Habit and Ideals

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253011688

4 Reproaching Heaven and Serving Heaven in the Mèngzǐ

Franklin Perkins Indiana University Press ePub

THE MÒZǏ AND Dàodéjīng both claim that we share common goals and that following the regular patterns of nature allows us to effectively reach them. In this sense, both can be seen as opposing the fatalism that developed near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, restoring a model analogous to the early Zhōu doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven. The disorder and suffering of the times, however, suggested that the fit between heaven and human was not so neat. Given the condition of the world, good people might not want to follow its patterns—they might even feel the need to oppose it. Although the Mòzǐ and Dàodéjīng at least aim toward the harmony or unity of heaven and human (tiānrén héyī), the conditions of the time pointed more toward recognizing their division (tiānrén zhīfēn). We have already seen the outlines of such a position in the fatalistic tendency among some of the early Ru. Mèngzǐ’s philosophy can be seen as a more complex and developed account of this position, primarily adding two dimensions. One is a detailed account of human motivation in terms of an analysis of xìng , our natural or characteristic tendencies and dispositions. The other is an attempt to shift the locus of our relationship with heaven away from the external patterns of nature and toward these natural dispositions that heaven gives us. Together, these two points allow Mèngzǐ to take the problem of evil more seriously than any other prominent Warring States philosopher, leaving him closest to something like a tragic worldview.

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31. Methods of Reasoning

Peirce, Charles S. PDF

Methods of Reasoning, 1881

245

Methods of Reasoning

MS 397: Fall-Winter 1881

FIRST METHOD. The simple consequence.

By a p r o p o s i t i o n , is meant, in logic, anything which can be held for true, or which can be supposed to be so held. Thus, "all men are free and equal," is a proposition, and it is at the same time composed of two propositions, that all men are free and that all men are equal. It is plain that any compound of propositions forms a proposition.

R e a s o n i n g is accepting a proposition as true, while recognizing some other proposition as the reason for it. By recognizing a proposition as the reason for another, is meant recognizing that the belief in the former causes the belief in the latter in a way in which true propositions will not, (at least usually,) produce belief in such as are false.

A proposition accepted on account of a reason is called a e o n e l u s i o n , and is said to be i n f e r r e d from that reason. The reason, itself a proposition, is generally conceived as composed of several propositions, and these are termed the p r e m i s e s of the inference.

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