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Medium 9781934989111

Chapter 8: Conflict-Freedom-Relationships

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780856832574

A Summary of Epinomis

Arthur Farndell Shepheard-Walwyn ePub
Medium 9780253357021

1 Thinking beyond Platonism: Bergson’s “Introduction to Metaphysics” (1903)

Leonard Lawlor Indiana University Press ePub

Near the end of “Introduction to Metaphysics,” Bergson says, “The partial eclipse of metaphysics since the last half century has been caused more than anything else by the extraordinary difficulty the philosopher experiences today in making contact with a science already much too scattered” (CENT: 1432/CM: 200). Science has become scattered “today” because it is based on acquiring knowledge by analysis, that is, by taking up separate and particular viewpoints on things, from the exterior. Analysis is the work done by one faculty, the understanding (in French, l’entendement or, in German, der Verstand: the intellect). The understanding breaks things up and for each separate perspective, it assigns a symbol—so that knowledge looks to be based on symbols, relative to them, and metaphysics, based on relative knowledge, becomes impossible. For Bergson, analysis must be overcome. It is overcome by means of a different faculty, the faculty of intuition. Based in intuition, and not in symbolization, knowledge is immediate and absolute. Through intuition, then, metaphysics is possible once again. According to Bergson there is a second reason why metaphysics went into eclipse in the nineteenth century. In “Introduction to Metaphysics,” again near its end, Bergson speaks of modern philosophy as the reversal of Platonism, reversing the relation of idea (or form) and the soul (or experience). No doubt, Bergson is thinking of Descartes. Yet in the prioritization of the soul, Platonism persists insofar as the understanding—here too in modern metaphysics—defines cognitive activity. Here Bergson is thinking of Kant. No one more than Kant (the Kant of The Critique of Pure Reason, where the faculty of the understanding or the intellect, der Verstand, plays such an important role1), for Bergson has misunderstood the soul. Therefore, insofar as Bergson wants to overcome analysis, we can also say that he wants to overcome modern metaphysics. And if we can say that, then we can say that Bergson’s project bears strong similarities to Heidegger’s project of overcoming metaphysics.2

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Medium 9781907556579

4 Ball Games

Alan Hyde M-Y Books Ltd ePub

Chapter

1

1.     Medal Strokeplay Record all strokes taken, then take off the individuals allowed strokes (handicap) this is their Medal score, lowest score wins

2.     Medal Stableford Highest Stableford score wins.

3.     Chicago All players play off scratch (no shots allowed) and score normal Stableford points. Players final score is total Stableford score + their handicap (rounded to nearest whole number .5 goes up) 39. Highest score wins. E.g Player with handicap of 10 scores 30 points off scratch = 30+1039=+1

4.     Medway All players start with 45 points. They then score normally under Stableford points system. They take this score from 45 and lowest score wins.

5.     Skins A Skin is when 1 player wins the hole outright. The Player with the most skins at the end of the round wins. If no one wins the hole outright then that skin can be carried over, so the next holes is worth 2 skins to an outright winner.

1.     Matchplay The player who wins most holes wins (see definition of Matchplay)

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Medium 9780856833656

Summary of Euthyphro, Concerning Holiness

Ficino Ficino Shepheard Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd ePub

EUTHYPHRO IS WHOLLY controversial. This is because some followers of Plato have called this book into dispute, just as they have Euthydemus and Hippias . But in truth, while Socrates refutes the false opinions of Euthyphro concerning holiness, he indicates, for those hunting the truth, the tracks that lead to holiness.

In this book, therefore, as well as in Gorgias , Plato gives the name holiness to that part of justice which attributes to God what is His own when one renders to God what has been received directly from God. As Plato argues in his book On Nature , we have received our body from the four elements, the natural constitution of our species from the celestial spheres, the parts of the soul which are drawn by desires from the daemons and the souls of the constellations and spheres, but reason and mind, the image of our Father, we have received from the Creator of the whole world Himself without any ministry from the heavenly host or the daemons. Therefore these are of God, these are to be given back to God, and this repayment, which is preceded by piety and followed by religion, is called holiness. For piety is the acknowledgement of God the Father. Holiness is the repayment to the acknowledged God of what is Gods. Religion is the indissoluble binding to God Himself of what has been given back to God, by faithful meditation and just works.

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Medium 9780253009227

7 - Accessible Futures, Future Coalitions

Alison Kafer Indiana University Press ePub

A vital moment in coalitional political rhetoric is its ability to construct connections among struggles that may be not only diverse, but opposed to one another in many respects.

—Catriona Sandilands, The Good-Natured Feminist

WHEN DESCRIBING DISABILITY studies to my students, I often draw on Douglas Baynton's insight that “disability is everywhere in history once you begin looking for it.”1 For Baynton, “looking for it” entails not only recovering the stories of disabled people or tracing histories of disability discrimination but also exploring how notions of disability and able-mindedness/able-bodiedness have functioned in different contexts. Baynton issues his provocation to historians, but disability studies scholars in other fields have extended its reach, pushing their own colleagues to recognize disability as a category of analysis. Deeply influenced by and indebted to this work, I use this final chapter to read Baynton's assertion differently. Rather than direct his insight outward, to those not currently working in disability studies, I turn inward, directing it to the field itself. If “disability is everywhere…once you begin looking for it,” where do we, as disability studies scholars and activists, continue not to look? Where do we find disability and where do we miss it? In which theories and in which movements do we recognize ourselves, or recognize disability, and which theories and movements do we continue to see as separate from or tangential to disability studies?

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Medium 9780253356734

9. Luke 18:13

Kierkegaard, Søren Indiana University Press ePub

[ 9 ]

Lord Jesus Christ, let your holy spirit truly enlighten and convince us of our sin, so that we, humbled with downcast eyes, acknowledge that we stand far, far off and sigh: “God be merciful to me a sinner.” But then let it also happen to us by your grace according to your word about that tax collector who went up to the temple to pray: he went home to his house justified.1

My attentive listener, the sacred text just read, as you know, is from the gospel about the Pharisee and the tax collector.2 The Pharisee is a hypocrite who deceives himself and wants to deceive God; the tax collector is the sincere person whom God justifies. But there is also another kind of hypocrisy, hypocrites who resemble the Pharisee while having chosen the tax collector as a model, hypocrites who, according to the scripture’s words about the Pharisee, “trust in themselves that they are righteous and despise others,”3 while nevertheless shaping their character in likeness to the tax collector, sanctimoniously standing far off, unlike the Pharisee, who proudly stood by himself, sanctimoniously casting their eyes to the ground, unlike the Pharisee, who proudly turned his eyes toward heaven, sanctimoniously sighing, “God be merciful to me a sinner,” unlike the Pharisee, who proudly thanked God that he was righteous—hypocrites who, like the Pharisee blasphemously said in his prayer, “I thank you God that I am not like this tax collector,”4 sanctimoniously say, “I thank you God that I am not like this Pharisee.” Alas, yes, no doubt this is so. Christianity came into the world and taught humility,5 but not everyone learned humility from Christianity; hypocrisy learned to change masks and remained the same, or rather, became even worse. Christianity came into the world and taught that you shall not proudly and vainly seek the place of honor at a banquet but shall sit at the foot6—and soon pride and vanity sat conceitedly at the foot of the table, the same pride and vanity, oh no, not the same, one even worse. So one might perhaps think it necessary to invert this and nearly all gospel texts, in view of the fact that hypocrisy and pride and vanity and the worldly mind may want to invert the relation. But what good would that do? Indeed, it can only be the intention of a sickly shrewdness, a conceited sagacity, to want to be so ingenious that it can prevent misuse by sagacity. No, there is only one thing that conquers and more than conquers, from the beginning has infinitely conquered all cunning, the simplicity of the gospel, which simply lets itself be deceived, as it were, and yet simply continues to be simplicity itself. And this is also the upbuilding element in the gospel’s simplicity, that evil could not get power over it so as to make it sagacious, or get power over it so that it would want to be sagacious. Truly, evil has already won one and a very dangerous victory when it has induced simplicity to want to be sagacious—in order to protect itself. For simplicity is made secure, eternally secure, only by simply letting itself be deceived, however clearly it sees through the deceit.

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Medium 9780861967254

Chapter 15

Tony Grey John Libbey Publishing ePub

The wooden palisade, its entire length set alight by the flaming arrows, is receding into charred stumps, and the town that was to be Jir-Jir’s permanent residence is slumping into a shapeless mound that will soon be abandoned to oblivion. A senior officer comes up to the Han Commander in Chief and says,

“Colonel Chen, during the battle we saw something curious outside the gate on the eastern side of the town. It seemed like a giant creature covered in fish scales. When we looked closer, it was a group of soldiers with round eyes like Sogdians but in uniforms we’ve never seen before. They’re there now. I counted them. There’re a hundred and forty-five.

“During the battle they showed a lot of discipline, holding their formation stubbornly against our attacks. They may look odd but they’re impressive soldiers, and big, taller than our men.”

The officer leads Chen and other senior commanders over to the Romans. A detachment including Gan and Kang goes with them. The legionaries are silent and still, holding their shields with the bottoms on the ground and their swords pointing down. They’re passive but ready to defend themselves. They expect to die and intend to charge a high price for their lives. It’s what honour demands.

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Medium 9781608682294

9. Diogenes and the Art of Anarchy

Jules Evans New World Library ePub

IN FRONT OF THE SOLEMN PILLARS of St. Paul’s Cathedral, a multicolored mushroom patch of tents has sprouted. Businessmen hurrying to the London Stock Exchange ignore the signs covering the columns of Paternoster Square: “The beginning is nigh,” “Say no to usury,” “Kill the policeman in your head,” “We are fantasy.” There’s a man in medieval armor and a Guy Fawkes mask clanking around the tents. Another is carrying a large plastic skull and a banner saying “Dance on the grave of capitalism.” Several people are dressed as zombies (it is Halloween) and are practicing the jerking shuffle of the undead. There’s a food tent, a “tranquillity center,” a makeshift cinema, and a “tent city university” with a full schedule of daily workshops on everything from meditation to well-being economics. This, of course, is the Occupy London camp, or #occupylsx as it’s known on Twitter, one of several anarchist occupations that appeared at the end of 2011 like an outbreak of boils on the face of global capitalism. Mainstream media commentators looked on in scorn, then in wonder, then in genuine confusion: “Who are they? What do they want? What are their demands?”

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Summary of Protagoras

Ficino Ficino Shepheard Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd ePub

THERE SURVIVES among the Greeks that absolutely true saying about Plato to the effect that Phoebus begat two sons in particular, Aesculapius and Plato: Aesculapius to heal bodies, and Plato to heal souls. All the followers of Socrates bear witness that Socrates, too, had been sent by God to purify mens souls.

Now disease of the soul is seen to consist in false opinions and bad ways of living. But there is no easier way of imparting such a great evil to innocent souls than by means of the Sophists.

Philosophers, of course, are those who assiduously seek the truth from simple love of truth itself, while Sophists pursue opinion from love of opinion. For Sophists are like traders and dealers in learning: they indiscriminately assemble from all directions a variety of opinions which they can think about or talk about in any way they choose and which they later sell like merchandise to rich young men in exchange for wealth and vainglory. Thus they possess nothing of any worth, whether they are learning and teaching what is true and good or whether they are learning and teaching the opposite; but they create confusion and pour out streams of errors in all directions every day, without any principle of true discrimination, solely to amass riches and to chase after fame at its lowest level.

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Medium 9780253005892

5. Schematism

John Sallis Indiana University Press ePub

There are articulations that are older than any of those by which things as a whole are divided. They are older than the articulations by which the various regions of things and the various kinds of things are distinguished, living things, for instance, from those that are inanimate, sublunary or terrestrial things from those in the heaven. They are also older than those articulations by which origins are differentiated from what issues from them, from what originates from them. They are older than the difference between what is fundamental and what is based on it, what rests on the fundament. These older, more anterior articulations cannot therefore even be called fundamental; or, if they were so called, then it would be necessary to say also that they are more fundamental than the fundament itself, that they antedate the very differentiation that sets the fundament apart from the founded and determines thereby the very sense of fundamental.

More fundamental than the most fundamental of things, more originary than every origin, these anterior articulations form the joints that belong to the spacing of the elements, of elemental nature. Their anteriority lies in the precedence that this spacing has over the manifestation and differentiations of things. It is only within the enchorial spaces of the elementals, preeminently within that delimited by earth and sky, that things can come to show themselves. Nearly all things that become manifest do so as they come to pass upon the earth and beneath the heaven. Even for the Greeks, as the example of Socrates demonstrates most profoundly, one who exceeds these limits, who asks about things in the heaven and beneath the earth, risks incurring suspicion and even punishment by the majority who would confine life within these limits. Yet, in becoming manifest, things also show themselves from within the compass of other elementals. Fog, rain, the light of day, the sea—such elementals can frame the manifestation of things, thus determining how things show themselves. For instance, through thick fog or heavy rain, only the vague, almost colorless forms of things are visible. It is quite different in the silvery light of a clear winter day, in which the surfaces of things, now sharply defined, shine radiantly and gleam with color. Motion in relation to an elemental broaches still another configuration, as when, borne away across an expanse of sea, things become ever more indistinct and finally fade into the distance, as if engulfed by the sea. When things come to show themselves such that they can be differentiated into kinds and the fundamental or originary set apart in its originary, founding capacity, the spacings of the elementals will always already have taken place. In and through these spacings, various elementals come together, and it is precisely their concurrences that define the anterior articulations. Wherever and whenever various elementals meet, there are joints, seams, articulations. Preeminent among these is the horizon, the articulation that separates and yet joins earth and sky. Prominent, too, is the shoreline defined by the concurrence of land and water, of earth and sea. In the sky, where spacing is inseparably linked to time, there is the border where day passes over into night, the expansive border that is called twilight or dusk.

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Medium 9780253013835

12 Countercurrents: Theology and the Future of Continental Philosophy of Religion

CLAYTON SCOTT CROCKETT Indiana University Press ePub

Noëlle Vahanian

THE GENERAL THEME of this current volume is that of the future of Continental philosophy of religion. One could focus on established or more recently introduced authorial paradigms—for instance and to name but a few, Derrida, Deleuze, Caputo, Malabou, Goodchild, Westphal, Laruelle, and so on—and assess their legacy, debate their future, or perhaps even establish a vanguard. But in the vanguard or not, these contemporary thinkers and their followers attest to the recent so-called return to religion of Continental phenomenological thought. Cast in this way, the volume’s theme could suggest not merely that faith and religious thought have regained ascendency over reason and scientific dogmatism, but more problematically, that this dichotomous relationship is not only one that is perpetual, it is, as it were, ontological, a fait accompli. This latter assumption is one that I reject and condemn. To be upfront at the outset about some of the main points to follow: I will say first, that the artificial separation between theology and philosophy is untenable in a postmodern world; second, that when philosophy turns to religion this only makes evident how language is theological and thought is animated by a theological desire to no end (note: theological desire is not to be conflated with a messianic hope); and finally, that the future of Continental philosophy of religion is most certainly not theology as it is proclaimed in most of today’s seminaries.

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Medium 9780253372048

28. [Jevons's Studies in Deductive Logic]

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

238

W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

[Jevons Js Studies in Deductive Logic7

P 198: Nation 32 (31 March 1881): 227

Studies in Deductive Logic. By W. Stanley Jevons, LL.D. (London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1880.)

Some forty years ago the two mathematicians, De Morgan and

Boole, commenced a reform of formal logic. Their researches were continued by a number of other excellent thinkers (Mr. Jevons among them) in different countries, and the work is now so far advanced that the new logic is beginning to take its place in the curriculum of the universities, while many persons have imagined that some almost magical power of drawing conclusions from premises was to be looked for, and that logic would prove as fertile in new discoveries as mathematics. Concerning such hopes Professor Sylvester says: "It seems to me absurd to suppose that there exists in the science of pure logic anything which bears a resemblance to the infinitely developable and interminable heuristic processes of mathematical science."

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Medium 9780253372086

THE MONIST METAPHYSICAL PROJECT

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF
Medium 9780946439980

27 July 1959

Wilfred R. Bion Karnac Books ePub

I think the fear of dreams must contribute to making the patient anxious to avoid the dream-work of the conscious state. Should it simply be introjection that is avoided? No: because according to me the process of introjection is carried out by the patient's ‘dreaming’ the current events. Introjection –)– Dreaming, would be the formula [see p. 58].

Anxiety in the analyst is a sign that the analyst is refusing to ‘dream’ the patient's material: not (dream) = resist = not (introject). It may be worth considering, when a patient is resisting, whether the resistance bears characteristics relating it to phenomena Freud described as ‘dream-work’. But Freud meant by dream-work that unconscious material, which would otherwise be perfectly comprehensible, was transformed into a dream, and that the dream-work needed to be undone to make the now incomprehensible dream comprehensible [New Introductory Lectures, 1933a, SE 22, p. 25]. I mean that the conscious material has to be subjected to dream-work to render it fit for storing, selection, and suitable for transformation from paranoid–schizoid position to depressive position, and that unconscious pre-verbal material has to be subjected to reciprocal dream-work for the same purpose. Freud says Aristotle states that a dream is the way the mind works in sleep: I say it is the way it works when awake (New Introductory Lectures [1933a, SE 22], pp. 26–27). Freud says the state of sleep represents a turning away from the world, the real external world, and ‘thus provides a necessary condition for the development of a psychosis’. Is this why X talks of losing consciousness? It follows on dream-work which is intended to be destroyed, or has been destroyed, as part of an attack on linking.

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