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Medium 9780253015235

3 Authority, Khilāfat, and the Lahori-Qadiani Split

Adil Hussain Khan Indiana University Press ePub

3  Authority, Khilāfat, and the Lahori-Qadiani Split

The Setting for the Split

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad passed away in the early morning hours of May 26, 1908, while visiting Lahore. His body was transported back to Qadian where Maulvi Hakim Nur al-Din, a close companion and disciple, led the funeral prayer after unanimously being chosen as Ghulam Ahmad’s successor by the Ahmadis participating in the procession. Although the events may have taken some time to unfold, the selection of Hakim Nur al-Din was not contested by the nearly 1,200 members in attendance, who offered him their bay῾at (allegiance).1 Nur al-Din had been the first person to take Ghulam Ahmad’s bay῾at in Ludhiana in 1889 and had always been regarded as one of Ghulam Ahmad’s most trusted friends. During his reign as khalīfa, Nur al-Din did little to assert his authority over the Jama῾at. His mild-mannered personality and strict adherence to Ghulam Ahmad left little room for objections. It was not until his own death six years later that the underlying differences within Jama῾at-i Ahmadiyya began to emerge.

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Medium 9780253010018

11. A Nihilism of Grace: Life, Death, and Resurrection

John D. Caputo Indiana University Press ePub


Martha said to Jesus, “Lord if you had been here,
my brother would not have died.
But even now I know that God will give you whatever you ask of him.”
Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.”
Martha said to him,
“I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.”

JOHN 11:21–24    

I return now to the hard hypothesis, that life is a passing feature of the universe, an interim phenomenon, not an ultimate or permanent part of the cosmic furnishings. An ineluctable fate lies in store for us—terrestrial, solar, galactic, and universal death in entropic disintegration, that point when there is no chiasm or poetics, no life or religion. What then of God, perhaps?

To this end we can do no better than to return to the cold, disenchanted, demythologized, disappointing, reductionistic, realistic, rationalistic world view of one of the critics of continental philosophy, best encapsulated in all of its apocalyptic fury in the brassy materialistic brio and bravado of Brassier's Nihil Unbound. Let us unbind nihilism and let it all hang out. Let us expose ourselves to the terrible trauma of the real, our heads bloodied but unbowed by the degree zero of being-nothing, which boils away both substance and subject, art, religion, and philosophy, bios and zoë, physis and techne, dissipating everything fideistic and correlational. Let us leave behind the luxurious plenitude and lush planes of the Lebenswelt for the thermal equilibrium of entropy unbound, where being-in-itself is nothing-for-us, nothing to us, and we nothing to it. What is being degree zero to me or I to it that I should weep for being-nothing?1

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Medium 9781934989128

Freedom from the Known

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9781934989159

Seeing without the Word

Jidda Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub

The very awareness of what is is a liberative process. So long as we are unaware of what we are and are trying to become something else, so long will there be distortion and pain. The very awareness of what I am brings about transformation and the freedom of understanding.

Ojai, 5th Public Talk, May 5, 1946 The Collected Works, Vol. IV, p. 75

As long as you are looking for transformation, a result to be gained, there will be no transformation. As long as you are thinking in terms of achievement, in terms of time, there can be no transformation, for then the mind is caught in the net of time. When you say you are thinking in terms of immediate transformation, you are thinking of yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Such transformation within time is merely change, which is modied continuity. When thought is free of time, there will be a timeless transformation.

As long as a problem is thought about, the problem will continue. Thought creates the problem. That which is the result of the past, the mind, cannot solve the problem. The mind can analyse, can examine, but it cannot resolve the problem. The problem, however complex and however close, ceases only when the thought process comes to an end.

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Medium 9780253006868

V. The event The vocabulary of its essence

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub

Regarding the introduction to The event



The following delimitation is to make less ambiguous the otherwise still-fluctuating lexicon which must constantly maintain a transitional breadth.

The event

expresses the explicitly self-clearing inceptuality of the beginning. The inaugural truth of beyng preserves in itself, as inceptual unification, the inaugural unity of the appropriating and the appropriated. The word “inceptual” always means: appropriated out of the beginning and consigned to the inceptuality. But it does not mean incipient in the sense of mere starting. Being does not start and stop, nor does it exist “perpetually” in the duration of beings. Being begins and does so essentially: it is the appropriating beginning. The event lights up the clearing of the beginning in such a way that the beginning does not merely emerge and bring to appearance along with it something inceptual, as in the first beginning, but, instead, such that the beginning, qua the beginning, is consigned to the truth of its inceptuality, a truth which is therefore illuminated.

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Medium 9780253017543

11 Senses of Magic: Anthropology, Art, and Christianity in the Vula’a Lifeworld

Afterword by Michael Jackson Edited by Indiana University Press ePub

Deborah Van Heekeren

Rather than apply to his work dichotomies more appropriate to those who sustain traditions than to those men, philosophers or painters, who initiate these traditions, [Cézanne] preferred to search for the true meaning of painting, which is continually to question tradition.

—Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Sense and Non-Sense

It is time to appreciate ethnographers who produce works of art that become powerful vehicles of theoretical exposition.

—Paul Stoller, The Taste of Ethnographic Things

I HAVE LONG ADMIRED Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s writing on Paul Cézanne because it provides insight into the artist’s practice beyond the general conventions of art history. The philosopher saw the painter as a paradigm example of the essence of perception.1 As he writes, “Cézanne did not think he had to choose between feeling and thought, between order and chaos. He did not want to separate the stable things which we see and the shifting way in which they appear; he wanted to depict matter as it takes on form, the birth of order through spontaneous organization” (Merleau-Ponty 1964 [1945]: 13).

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Medium 9780856833656

Summary of the Apology of Socrates

Ficino Ficino Shepheard Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd ePub

THE ANCIENT theologians of the races of mankind are divided into three groups. Men in the first group merely sacrificed to daemons, for they lacked faith, I think, that the prayers of men would reach the beings in heaven. Men in the second group, however, worshipped the heavenly beings, believing that these possessed life and intelligence and that, by means of their rays, they looked around upon all things and heard all things, so that they graciously beheld the ceremonies of the sacrifices and hearkened to the praises and prayers of their suppliants. They believed, however, that the prayers of souls living in these bodies on earth were unable to reach those gods that have no dealings with physical bodies.

Men in the third group worshipped these gods above all others, deeming that whatever befalls the human race is fully embraced by the supreme causes through their consciousness and power. But they gave the name of gods to the visible bodies in the heavens as well as to the invisible super-celestial beings which our people call angels and which they themselves think of as the most intimate contemplators and ministers of the supreme God.

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Medium 9780253006424

5. Worldwide Women

PEG Z BRAND Indiana University Press ePub


In a season rife with related events [i.e., 2007], the Brooklyn Museum’s “Global Feminisms: New Directions in Contemporary Art” is an eagerly anticipated component of a nationwide reevaluation of feminist art. It takes its place alongside the presentation of “WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution” at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, and the installation of Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party (1974–79) and opening of the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art at the Brooklyn Museum, for which “Global Feminisms” acted as the opening salvo; there are also numerous panels, lectures, and other activities around the country. While “WACK!” reviews the contributions of feminist artists in the late 1960s and ’70s, “Global Feminisms” is meant to bring the story up to date with work by a generation of women artists born after 1960, and to represent the global sweep and diversification of the feminist art movement. As such, it was designed to appeal to a younger generation that has been resistant to the feminist label.

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Medium 9780253332721

Six. Forgiveness and Slavery

Jr.Howard McGary Indiana University Press ePub


The American slave experience provides us with the opportunity to examine the best and the worst of human behavior. As we have argued, the slave narratives have proven to be an excellent source for those who want to know more about slavery and its aftermath.

An often neglected issue in discussions of slavery is the attitudes of slaves and the recently emancipated toward their former oppressors. There are studies, of course, which examine the conflict between blacks and whites surrounding the freeing of slaves. But it is ludicrous to think that the end of slavery eliminated the enormous resentment that blacks felt toward slaveholders after years of brutalization and dehumanization.

In fact, it would be preposterous to think that any human beings subjected to centuries of brutality and subjugation would simply forget their past and go on with their lives. This would be doubly surprising because, as argued in chapter 1, the end of slavery did not bring about the end of black oppression.

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Medium 9780253372086

35. On the Number of Dichotomous Divisions: A Problemin Permutations

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


On the Number of Dichotomous

Divisions: A Problem in Permutations

Spring 1891

Houghton Library

In the calculus of logic, a proposition is separated by its copula, R, into two parts, as A R B. But these parts may again be separated in like manner, as (A R B ) R C and A R (B R C ), and so on indefinitely. It becomes pertinent to inquire how many such propositional forms with a given number of copulas there are. The same problem presents itself in general algebra, where R is replaced by any non-associative sign of operation; and, indeed, the question not unfrequently arises; but I do not know that the solution has been given.

We may consider a row of letters, A, B, C, etc., which we may call the ABC, separated into two parts by a punctuation mark, and each part

(not consisting of a single letter) into two parts by a subordinate punctuation mark, and so on until all the letters are separated. I shall call the resulting form an ABC-separation. The following are examples



Let n be the number of punctuations; then, the number of letters will be n ϩ 1. Let F n be the number of ABC-separations with n punctuations, or say of n-point separations. Then, if i be the number of letters to the left of the highest punctuation, so that n ϩ 1 Ϫ i is the number to the right, the number of ABC-separations of the row to the left is

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Medium 9781934989142

A. Seeing, perception, understanding, is action

J Krishnamurti Krishnamurti Foundation America ePub
Medium 9780253018182

5 The Revival of Pragmatism

Deborah Whitehead Indiana University Press ePub

Religion, it must be said, has not played a very significant role, except perhaps negatively, in the recent renewal of pragmatism. There are no doubt many reasons for this, but none is more important than the responsibility that Richard Rorty deservedly bears for helping to promote this revival and the connection he has made between the development of pragmatism and liberalism’s project of disenchanting the world religiously.

Giles Gunn, “Religion and the Recent Revival of Pragmatism”

Especially in the United States, the revival of pragmatism in the form of neopragmatism has presented itself as the only tenable alternative to theory.

Beatrice Hanssen, Critique of Violence

IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTER I argue that one way of telling the story of pragmatism is as a gendered rhetoric of mediation. James’s construction of pragmatism as a feminine-gendered “mediator” and “reconciler” between opposing “attitudes” such as religion and science and between philosophical positions such as rationalism and empiricism was conditioned and circumscribed by contestations over race, gender, and class occurring in his late nineteenth-/early twentieth-century cultural context. I now extend my analysis of gender and religion in the pragmatist tradition into the present to discuss the ways that some neopragmatist formulations evidenced a similar construction of pragmatism as mediator. Though the feminist debates covered here have been treated in other works, my aim is to demonstrate that the pragmatist rhetoric of mediation can also be seen in the late twentieth-century neopragmatist turn in feminist theory and theology. In the examples discussed, pragmatism is invoked in the desire to produce consensus or convergence, either to bridge the theory/practice divide or to forestall an either/or choice in a particular theoretical debate by carving out a middle position that incorporates the best qualities of each side.

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Medium 9780253342485

Part One: Methodological Introduction Philosophy, Factical Life Experience, and the Phenomenology of Religion

Martin Heidegger Indiana University Press ePub


Methodological Introduction
Philosophy, Factical Life Experience,
and the Phenomenology of Religion

Chapter One

The Formation of Philosophical Concepts
and Factical Life Experience

The Peculiarity of Philosophical Concepts

It is necessary to determine the meaning of words of the lecture's announcement preliminarily. This necessity is grounded in the peculiarity of philosophical concepts. In the specific scientific disciplines, concepts are determined through their integration into a material complex; and the more familiar this context is, the more exactly its concepts can be fixed. Philosophical concepts, on the contrary, are vacillating, vague, manifold, and fluctuating, as is shown in the alteration of philosophical standpoints. This uncertainty of philosophical concepts is not, however, exclusively founded upon this alteration of standpoints. It belongs, rather, to the sense of philosophical concepts themselves that they always remain uncertain. The possibility of access to philosophical concepts is fundamentally different from the possibility of access to scientific concepts. Philosophy does not have at its disposal an objectively and thoroughly formed material context into which concepts can be integrated in order to receive their determination. There is thus a difference in principle between science and philosophy. This provisional thesis will prove itself in the course of these observations. (It is due to the necessity of linguistic formulation alone that this is a thesis, a proposition, at all.)

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Medium 9780856831843

Translating Ficino

Michael Shepherd Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

If each of us, essentially, is that which is greatest within us, which always remains the same and by which we understand ourselves, then certainly the soul is the man himself and the body but his shadow. *

THIS was the first letter our particular translation group was given to translate thirty years ago. As members of the School of Economic Science, which studies Economics and Philosophy, some of us became interested in the writings of Marsilio Ficino, the Renaissance humanist and philosopher. No full English translation existed of his volumes of letters, and so we undertook the work. The group consisted of three or four people and apart from one lady who had a Double First in Classics our Latin was rusty. Our intention was to translate the letter above at home, and return the next week when a final version would be hammered out in the group.

The work at home was laboured, the 16th century Basle text was unfamiliar, the sentences were littered with pronouns which did not seem to relate to anything in particular and there was no insight into the Latin construction, let alone the subtleties of philosophical thought. When the translation was presented to the group a week later the lack of practice and comprehension was all too obvious. Over the following weeks the work was slow, people were reluctant to surrender a well-turned phrase or a specific understanding of the text or anxious not to make a mistake and appear an idiot. There were one or two who dominated either through greater skill in Latin or English or force of personality. If a passage was particularly difficult I arrogantly believed Ficino had got his grammar wrong until the same construction by Cicero was discovered in Kennedy’s Latin Primer or the Lewis & Short Dictionary.

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Medium 9780253354839

3. Penguin Family Values: The Nature of Planetary Environmental Reproductive Justice

Catriona Mortimer-Sandilands Indiana University Press ePub


In 2005, a nature documentary entitled The March of the Penguins was a surprise hit, winning an Academy Award in 2006 for best documentary. The beautifully filmed story of the improbable but gorgeous Antarctic Emperor penguins and their incredible effort to produce and nurture their babies was a tale of terrific difficulties overcome with amazing persistence. In an interesting twist, and to the astonishment of the director, Luc Jacquet, right-wing fundamentalist Christians in the United States adopted the film as an inspiring example of monogamy, traditional Christian family values, and intelligent design. At around the same time, apparently unbeknownst to right-wing fundamentalist Christians, penguins had become a symbol of the naturalness of gay marriage.

Meanwhile, in other political and cultural discourses, penguins (along with polar bears) became popular symbols of what we would lose to global warming. Relatively invisible in the public cultural arena, in contrast, were the growing and unequal effects of the pollution of our atmosphere on marginalized human beings such as indigenous peoples in the Arctic regions, who are struggling to preserve their cultures and societies in the face of rapid climate change. Instead of attention to these issues, penguins have become the newest terrain on which to fight culture wars over human reproduction, while at the same time they have become the latest environmentalist icons. What is the connection between these popular cultural trends? Does it matter in terms of environmental consequences what kind of familial and sexual arrangements we make?

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