31 Chapters
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5: Trade in Some Key Animal Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Some Key Animal

Products: Dairy, Wool and Fur

5

5.1  Introduction

The primary purpose of keeping agricultural animals has been for the production of meat. However, two key commodities, milk and wool, were highly instrumental in the development of the farming of animals because they did not require the animal to be destroyed. Both were involved in the original domestication of sheep and cattle and have remained of major significance to this day. A third commodity, fur, developed because of the need for people to keep warm, and the use of animal skins for this purpose dates back to before domestication, when hunters in cooler climes had no alternatives to keep warm other than the use of animal skins. In contrast to milk and wool, which can be obtained without animal slaughter, the terminal consequences of obtaining an animal’s skin and, nowadays, limited need to use fur to keep warm because of the many alternatives available, has given users of fur the image of decadence and cruelty as a result of the trapping and farming methods used.

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9: Trade in Wildlife and Exotic Species

Phillips, C.J.C. CABI PDF

Trade in Wildlife and Exotic

Species

9

9.1  Introduction

Wildlife animals have been traded for millennia, probably even before the

­domestication of animal species for the production of food and clothing. Yet despite the development of a small number of domesticated species to provide for most of our needs, we have continued to harvest and trade in wildlife and exotic species. Exotic species are those that are not indigenous to the region, which usually precludes the domestic livestock species. These are kept by zoos, for the entertainment of the public and increasingly for conservation and for scientific purposes. Their use for entertainment in circuses is diminishing as public recognition of associated cruel practices in training and transport between venues has increased, creating public pressure for legislative control. They are also kept by a growing number of members of the public for display and a variety of other reasons that will be outlined later. Wildlife animals are harvested for food as well and may be traded with other regions because their exotic and novel nature encourages people to try eating them. The biggest harvest of wild animals, indeed the biggest of any food animals, is that of fish from the oceans. However, many other animals are harvested from the oceans and our scant knowledge of populations in the past has led to many manmade catastrophes, with populations decimated because of high demand for the products and mechanized harvesting of ever ­increasing efficiency.

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Medium 9781608682195

Part 6. The Emotional Lives of Animals: The Ever-Expanding Circle of Sentience Includes Depressed Bees and Empathic Chickens

Marc Bekoff New World Library ePub

The Ever-Expanding Circle of Sentience Includes Depressed Bees and Empathic Chickens

ANIMALS HAVE rich and deep emotional lives. We’ve known this for a long time, and solid scientific research is supporting our intuitions. The different species of animals that fall into the emotional area, the circle of sentience, is constantly expanding, and we’re learning more and more about the incredible diversity of emotions they experience, ranging from joy and happiness to empathy and compassion to grief and despair. Emotions serve as social glue and are the reasons we’re so attracted to other animals. It’s also why they are drawn to us. Our own emotions are the gifts of our ancestors. How lucky we are to have inherited our own passionate lives from these awe-inspiring beings.

One surprising member of the expanding circle of sentience is the honeybee, who, it turns out, isn’t always a happy worker, collecting pollen and making honey with legendary industriousness. Bees can become just as depressed on the job as people. Bees also use their right antenna to tell friend from foe. Please read on.

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10. Breed-Specific Health Problems

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

T

he process of adopting a dog starts with deciding whether you want a mixed-breed dog or a purebred dog. Mixed-breed dogs, also known as mutts, mongrels, and Heinz 57s, are just as the names implya mixture of breeds. Mixed-breed dogs have a significantly larger genetic background than purebred dogs, so they are not as prone to health problems as purebred dogs. Purebred dogs are man-made dogs whose genetic background is limited by the breed and the specific line within the breed that is created by the breeder. Purebreds can easily become inbred, which exaggerates both positive traits and weaknesses, for example a predisposition to illness.

Mixed-breed dogs, although generally healthier than purebred dogs, have high incidences of the most common health problems. If you have a mixed-breed dog and can connect her to a specific breed, or breeds, such as a German-shepherd mix or a Labrador-retriever and golden-retriever mix, familiarize yourself with the health problems for the breed(s) your dog is related to.

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6. A Flea-Free Household

R.Ph., Ph.D, Earl L.. Mindell Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

R

ight now, you probably feel less affection for the flea than you do the mosquito.You think of fleas as blood-sucking creatures that were put on this earth to torment you and your dog. A flea is a parasite, so in a way you are right. Parasites are organisms that survive on another organism without contributing anything. I felt tortured and tormented by fleas until one wonderful hot summer came and went without one flea bath, daily vacuuming, or trip to the vet.We had a flea-free summer. Not once did my dog look at me with those sad, please-help-me eyes, after biting and scratching for ten minutes.

My miracle cure was garlic. Knowing the great health benefits of garlic, I had recently started giving my dog garlic with every meal and found that it is a highly effective way to have a healthier, flea-free dog.

Fleas are tiny, brown, wingless insects that thrive on blood and can jump 100 times their height to get to the source of the blood. Pet owners collectively spend millions of dollars every year on an endless quest to rid their furry friends of this minuscule menace.These tiny insects not only cause endless aggravation, they can cause your dog to become seriously ill. Dogs that are allergic to flea saliva experience severe itching and welts from each flea bite.The allergic reaction is triggered by a chemical in the fleas saliva that prevents the dogs blood from clotting until the flea has finished its meal. If left untreated, the dog will chew her skin raw, creating open sores and the possibility of infection.The dogs skin isnt the only thing affected.The immune system becomes weaker and over-sensitized with every bite, leaving the dog vulnerable to additional chronic health problems. On the outside, the dog is biting and scratching, and on the inside the immune system is working overtime to fight the allergic reaction and heal the sores caused by the itching and biting.

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