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Chapter 11 Deregulation, Privatization and the Changing Global Media Environment

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

Today, the level of economic restructuring and consolidation is unprecedented in the history of international business and commerce. The globalization of economic activity has forced many nations of the world to carefully consider their national economic policies. The once sacrosanct government monopolies of the past, including airlines, telecommunications and steel, are feeling the international winds of change. There is a growing realization that if such government protected monopolies do not move fast enough in providing advanced services at the right cost, they will soon find themselves being outperformed by their international rivals.

The result is a worldwide movement to deregulate government involvement in business and to privatize (or sell off) state-owned companies.

In a transnational economy, the allocation of resources is predicated upon market goals and efficiencies. This is especially true in the fields of media and telecommunications whose business models are decidedly global and where success is dependent on the free flow of trade across national borders. The combination of international deregulation and privatization trends coupled with advancements in new media and telecommunications technology has forever changed the global media landscape. This chapter will examine the principles of deregulation and privatization and how both sets of factors have transformed the business of media and telecommunications.

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Chapter 1 Over There

James W Castellan John Libbey Publishing ePub

This book is a book on film. However, it starts as primarily a newspaper story. There are several reasons. In 1914 newsreels were still very young. While some major studios such as Pathé and Universal were already in the newsreel business, newspapers were entering into an intense period of competition and were seeking new ways to improve profits. It was a cutthroat war between vigorous and expanding entities, imitating what was happening among nations overseas. So there was a rush to send the journalists to the war. As the appeal of newsreels became ever more apparent to the newspapers, there was also a great need for cinematographers, who in many cases had been press photographers until very recently. It is a credit to them how quickly they adapted to lugging and working with 150 pounds of cumbersome film equipment after having worked for years with a Kodak or Graflex.

Since many of them were newspaper people, it was very difficult in many cases to distinguish much difference between the journalists and the cameramen, although there may have been a type of caste system giving deference to the writers. Once overseas they suffered the same problems and shared the same successes. They were in bed together, literally. In October 1914 in Antwerp as it was being shelled by the Germans, Edwin F. Weigle, cinematographer for the Chicago Tribune, Donald C. Thompson, photographer for the New York World, Arthur Ruhl of Colliers and Edward Eyre Hunt, who wrote War Bread, were cowering under the same roof at 74 rue du Péage. Later Horace Green wrote about the same shelling, and James H. Hare, another famous war photographer, photographed the battered facade of the building, American flag still flying, for Leslie’s Weekly. It was a new kind of war, and the journalists and photographers were in it together.

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3 Robespierre Has Been Lost: D. W. Griffith’s Movies and the Soviet Twenties

Jennifer M Bean Indiana University Press ePub

Yuri Tsivian

The monument to Robespierre erected a few days ago in the Aleksandrovsky park has been destroyed by “unidentified criminals.”

Anatolii Mariengof, The Cynics (1928)

STREET VENDOR: Fur-trimmed brassieres, fur-trimmed brassieres!

(Enter Prisypkin, Rozalia Pavlovna and Bayan).

VENDOR: Fur-trimmed …

PRISYPKIN (IN EXULTATION): What an aristocratic pair of bonnets!

ROZALIA PAVLOVNA: What do you mean bonnets, these are …

PRISYPKIN: Do you think I have no eyes? What if we have twins? This one will be for Dorothy, and this one for Lillian … Decided: I’ll give my twins these aristocratic-cinematic names … they’ll walk side by side. See? My home must be a horn of plenty. Buy them, Rozalia Pavlovna!

Vladimir Mayakovsky, The Bedbug (1929)

WHAT D. W. Griffith’s films did for Soviet editing is widely known. We learn this from Sergei Eisenstein, Leonid Trauberg, and Dziga Vertov, each of whom used kind words to repay their debt to Intolerance (1916)—Vertov in two sentences,1 Trauberg in a paragraph,2 Eisenstein in the space of a sizeable treatise.3 It is less widely known, however, what Soviet editing did to Griffith’s films—and it is this other side of the coin that my essay will address.

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Over There: The Maciste Series, World War I, and American Film Culture

Jacqueline Reich Indiana University Press ePub

DURING WORLD WAR I BOTH MACISTE (1915) AND MACISTE alpino (1916) received extensive distribution across the United States. The series’ first film was released in the spring of 1916 as both Maciste and Marvelous Maciste, and the second as The Warrior in 1917. The films were extremely well received from coast to coast as contemporary newspaper reviews, advertisements, and other published testimonials attest. Italians had clearly seen the potential of exporting their films to help create consensus for their cause. Giaime Alonge cites an undated archival document from the Sezione cinematografica dell’esercito titled “Propaganda in America” that sustained that film was a particularly apt tool for presenting the Italian point of view of the war in the United States.1 The publicity surrounding the transatlantic exhibition of the Maciste films continued the mobilization effort aimed at maintaining popular support for the war while at the same time reinforcing Maciste’s popular appeal as character and star. It was a balancing act that was not uncommon in the era as the American film industry attempted to reconcile its desire to use the medium to create consensus for the war effort as well as entertain the masses. The American distribution of Maciste and Maciste alpino, which I have reconstructed from newspaper articles and film trade periodicals, speaks to that exigency, to the saturated geographic diffusion of the films, and to the unique characteristics of the popular American serial form – in particular that of its heroines, heroes, and stars – that exploded in the 1910s.

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13 Orrin Orates

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

I remember Keystone Korner in these early
days, and, you must remember, I come
from New York; I am a jazz person.

Orrin Keepnews

Orrin Keepnews

First of all, to set the time context, I got to San Francisco in October 1972 and I came out here specifically to work for Fantasy Records, which at that time had just acquired all the masters that had originally been Riverside Records. Fantasy was a San Francisco–based, very esoteric, mostly jazz label, although Lenny Bruce was one of their biggest items. That’s where Dave Brubeck started. And that label was taken over by a guy, Saul Zaentz, who had been the office staff and sales manager there. He had decided to take a chance with the band of the kid in the mailroom: John Fogarty. The band was Creedence Clearwater, which became the biggest thing [in the music industry]. Suddenly, Fantasy found itself with all the money in the world and, possibly the first time this had ever happened, used it to further their devotion to jazz.

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