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Medium 9780253020659

1 Disimmigration as a Remedy for the Illness of Immigration in Ismaël Ferroukhi’s Le Grand voyage

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

On November 2, 2009, a grand débat (great debate) was initiated by Eric Besson, Nicolas Sarkozy’s minister of the lengthy and ambitious Ministère de l’immigration, de l’intégration, de l’identité nationale et du développement solidaire (Ministry of immigration, integration, national identity, and solidarity development). The debate on national identity soon turned into a reflection on how to assert one’s Frenchness, and the consequent stigmatization of the supposedly “non-integrate-able” Other, embodied by the North African, the Arab, and in the post-9/11 era, the “out of place” Muslim in “secular” France. The goal was to win the votes of the most conservative fringe, but confusion and controversy caused the debate to be dropped within a few months. Racist comments were made by average French citizens and governmental officials alike, as was evidenced by many unfortunate statements that circulated on television and the internet. The debate was an avenue for what some may deem slippages of speech, and for others, a willful decision to say aloud what many were thinking softly. Such a discourse evolves in a Foucauldian sense as a discursive practice and is thus subject to power structures. It is a production that becomes a grid, reading the Other and confining him behind it. The national debate showed its limits and its sinister nature. Aware of its stigmatizing effect, many politicians warned the government against the second debate that Sarkozy asked his government to initiate, le débat sur l’Islam (the debate on Islam), right before the cantonnales (local elections, which took place in spring 2011), and a few months before the French presidential elections of May 2012.

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Medium 9780253021359

Appendix D Norman Film Manufacturing Company: Production and Theatrical Release Dates for All-Black-Cast Films

Pearl Bowser Indiana University Press ePub


* Released only in Oklahoma in 1921.

** Norman usually negotiated a 50–50 split with theatre managers, and 60–40 or 70–30 with churches and schools. However, he released The Green-Eyed Monster, The Love Bug, The Bull-Dogger, The Crimson Skull, and Regeneration as straight rentals, then did a 50-percent split on second runs (or if theater operators could not afford rental prices). After a certain amount of time, the films were contracted out for straight rental, sometimes in combination with another film. The Green-Eyed Monster started at $100-a-day rental. He did show The Flying Ace mostly at 50 percent, due to “hard times for colored films.” The price of the tickets ranged from 5–20 cents for children and from 25–50 cents for adults. Occasionally there was a 75-cent charge for adults.

Publicity still for The Flying Ace (1926). With J. Lawrence Criner (Captain William Stokes), Steve Reynolds (“Peg,” Stokes’s mechanic), and Kathryn Boyd (Ruth Sawtelle).

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Medium 9781864620542

Seeing Seeing: Hermann von Helmholtz and the Invention of the Ophthalmoscope

John Libbey Publishing ePub

[W]ith the relative autonomy of a technical apparatus, indeed that of a machine and of a prosthetic body, this artifact that is the university has reflected society only in giving it the chance for reflection, that is, also, dissociation. … The time for reflection is also the chance for turning back on the very conditions of reflection, in all the senses of that word, as if with the help of a new optical device one could finally see sight, could not only view the natural landscape, the city, the bridge, but could view viewing.1

In 1850, Hermannvon Helmholtz published a short treatise entitled Description of an Ophthalmoscope. Near its beginning, he describes his objective in the following words: ‘The present treatise contains the description of an optical instrument by which it is possible to see and recognize exactly in the living eye the retina itself and the images of luminous objects which are cast upon it.’2 Helmholtz’s invention frequently is described as an event of foundational importance in the field of ophthalmology, an event that, indeed, creates that field in its modern sense.3 While such claims are not exaggerated, the ophthalmoscope nonetheless should be situated within a long tradition of reflection upon the eye.

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Medium 9780253014078

4. In the Beginning Was Sound: Tarāng (Wave)

Laleen Jayamanne Indiana University Press ePub

Isaw Tarāng for the second time at the Australian Cinémathèque at QAGOMA during the 2006 APT with Jon Bywater, a critic from New Zealand who later sent me the above description expressing succinctly and perceptively the multiperspectival epic compositional logic of the film, what he calls the freedom to experience the action “from a range of positions with their own values . . . intact,” after having seen it just once. I have begun to appreciate these random conversations and exchanges that films have a way of generating among strangers, especially immediately after screenings. It is as though the energy generated by films reaches out toward anyone just glancing at a stranger, activating a desire to speak of what one has heard and seen and felt, especially in a cinémathèque milieu, and in this instance enhanced by the intensity and joy of the APT. As Theo Angelopoulos once said, film can create a community of two.

Tarāng is Shahani’s second film and was over ten years in the making, due in part to funding problems related to Satyajit Ray’s condemnation of Māyā darpan as an un-Indian film.1 It was also the work done after Shahani’s cross-cultural study of the epic form on a Homi Bhabha scholarship both in India and in Europe. The film is shot in Cinemascope, which enhances the screen with the greater compositional freedom he had internalized from his study of the epic form of theater in Kerala called Kutiyattam. Shahani saw that this mode of performance continually radiated energy from one center of the body to another, with the focus of attention shifting in a centrifugal rather than a centripetal direction. He observed how the frontally staged mise-en-scène, with the elaborately dressed and masked performers, who did not move spatially much at all, was nevertheless part of an intensive, mobile choreography activated by drum beats, song, flickering flames from large oil lamps placed close to the performers, and gestural work of face and hands narrating and expressing the epic drama. These material forces activated wave-like emanations of intensive energy.2 Shahani drew cinematic sustenance from this ancient theatrical mode of centrifugal intensive mobility, which would enable him to work toward strategies of undermining the centering principle inherent in the linear perspectival bias of the lens in constructing space, time, and emotion. He activates this potential in the composition of his mise-en-scène by flattening the image (making it frieze-like) with the lateral alignment of Cinemascope. So, contrary to the usual historical claim made for Cinemascope as offering greater realism of scale and depth, Tarāng presents an image upfront that activates a kind of impulse to observe the visual field as a surface, making one aware of turning one’s neck to see and make sense of the spatial relations of a scene (as though one were walking in the caves of Ajanta looking at the protocinematic Buddhist iconography) when viewed on the big cinematic screen. The image thereby becomes a legible and readable surface, not because it is essentially language-like, though the epic signs are indeed familiar and accessible in their over-coding to those within the culture. What Shahani then does with these excessively familiar epic signs is create a transaction or exchange of sorts on values set by ethico-aesthetic imperatives rather than on the terms set by capital and its monetary equivalence, which functions as the “obverse of the film image,” its most “intimate enemy.” Tarāng refuses to editorialize for the viewer, which I think is the “freedom” that Bywater referred to in the opening quotation. Shahani finds his freedom, I imagine, by forging his own descriptive elaborations on the thick traditions of which he is an heir. Elaboration, thought of as modulation, which implies difference and repetition in ornamentation, is a dense idea in Shahani’s modern aesthetic practice. This will be taken up in the following chapters in relation to the traditional art forms he works with in elaborating his modern iconic and even iconoclastic conception of the human figure/actor and the ideas of sequence and rhythm as well.

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Medium 9780861967155

Chapter 26 Nun Notes and Deviant Longings

Edited by David E James and Adam Hyman John Libbey Publishing ePub

Erika Suderberg

The development of the women’s movement is, in my opinion, at least as important as the discovery that the earth is round.
– Helke Sander

I’m an experienced woman; I’ve been around . . . well, all right I might not’ve been around, but I’ve been . . . nearby.
– Mary Richards in The Mary Tyler Moore Show

My head is like a radio set . . . my nightmares don’t project my dreams.
–The Slits, “FM” (1976)

Until all women are lesbians there will be no true political revolution.
– Jill Johnston

The US is out of Vietnam. Patty Hearst goes rogue and underground. Anita Bryant declaims, “I don’t hate the homosexuals, but as a mother, I must protect my children from their evil influence”. The homosexuals don T-shirts emblazoned with “Anita Sucks Fruits” and cease consumption of Florida orange juice. Mary Tyler Moore as Mary Richards in the Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–77) is a character that is single, independent, childless, ebullient, and pursuing a career. Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman has a volatile year on TV, filled with dysfunctional unabashed weirdness, a star who says she shot the whole thing coked out of her mind, and a devoted following of fans who relished the explosion of the American dream in primetime. Sonny and Cher divorce but reunite on camera for the sake of the show. The Queen of England, in her tiara, dances with President Ford. Ford then loses to Jimmy Carter. The underage Runaways form and release a cherry bomb, whilst in England, members of The Flowers of Romance and The Castrators start The Slits and encounter a backlash against their chosen moniker. Their first LP is adorned with a picture of them bare breasted in loincloths anointed in mud. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak roll out the Apple 1 which looks like a typewriter tethered to a remainder bin at Radio Shack. And Radio Shack sells you the Bicentennial Everything System for $499. The TV grid hosts The Bionic Woman, All in the Family, Donny and Marie, Charlie’s Angels and M*A*S*H. Barbra Streisand decides it’s a good idea to remake A Star Is Born. Both Alix Dobkin’s Living With Lesbians and Patti Smith’s Horses are released. David Bowie falls to earth in androgen confusion. Billie Jean King has an affair with a woman and struggles in public to repair her marriage while battling Bobby Riggs at ping-pong on an episode of The Odd Couple. The Flying Nun is still healthily in syndication as Matsushita introduces the VHS home video cassette recorder. Sony’s Betamax dies a quick death. Two Vikings land on Mars, while the US, China, and the USSR are busy with underground nuclear testing. George Bush becomes director of the C.I.A. Elections in Vietnam are held for a National Assembly to reunite the country. The Supreme Court upholds a woman’s right to unemployment benefits during the last three months of pregnancy. Alice Paul’s 1923 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) again fails ratification. 1976 is a rocky schizoid trail, an incongruous timeline that tastes of gumbo and speaks of untold repercussions and remainders resplendent as signposts for our current day. It serves also as a scene setting apparatus for nuns, deviants, and queer shape-shifting sisters from all environs.

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