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Medium 9780253006882

3 Signature Crimes: 1946 and the Strange Case of the Lost Scene (as Well as the Stranger Case of the Missing Auteur)

Rashna Wadia Richards Indiana University Press ePub

1946 and the Strange Case of the Lost Scene (as Well as the Stranger Case of the Missing Auteur)

The scene that exposes the former Nazi’s identity is rather unremarkable. Standing in a phone booth at a local drug store, Charles Rankin (Orson Welles) draws his signature, almost inadvertently, on a notepad hanging on the wall. There is no mistaking this symbol. What he signs is not his personal name but the moniker of Nazism itself. A standard over-the-shoulder shot captures Rankin sketching a swastika on the notepad, while he faintly whistles “Deutschland über Alles” (Figure 3.1). Then, just before his wife Mary (Loretta Young) appears at the other end of the line via a cutaway, he begins to cancel the signature with brief diagonal strokes that distort the swastika’s symmetrical design, ending with an X across the page (Figure 3.2).

While intriguing in itself, this revelatory moment from Orson Welles’s The Stranger is unexceptional. It is not visually stunning. And yet, it carries a peculiar cinephiliac appeal. It has none of the poignancy of the close-up of quivering lips slowly whispering “Rosebud” in Citizen Kane (1941) or the solemnity of the long shot of a fading artist walking off into an apocalyptic evening in F for Fake (1973). Nor does it have the flamboyant, innovative flair of the hall of mirrors sequence in The Lady from Shanghai (1948). Quite simply, the “signature” shot in The Stranger is highly unlike a classic Wellesian moment. It appears almost banal and does not support neatly our understanding of the Wellesian aesthetic. For me, this is precisely its appeal.

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Medium 9780253010407

9 Bobby and Bags

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

He just hits one note. He
crushed me with one note.

Eddie Marshall quoting Bobby
Hutcherson on Milt Jackson

Stuart Kremsky

The thing about Keystone, and what I think Todd’s greatest skill was, was putting together interesting combinations of musicians. Nobody else would put Max Roach and Art Blakey on the same bill, but Todd did that.

Todd Barkan

I put lots and lots of bands together. I mean, that’s part of what I do and what I’ve done for the last thirty years. I do it here [in New York] at Dizzy’s. And I did it there in the ’70s – put bands together. I’m the one that put George Cables with Charles McPherson.

Putting Bobby Hutcherson and Milt Jackson together was something that I just wanted to do for many years. I knew [from] Bobby that Milt was his hero, number one, and I knew that Milt was often very resistant about the idea of playing with another vibes player. That took quite a long time to happen. Milt Jackson had to approve it because Milt was the boss. Bobby was only one of his children. One of his progeny. Now, Bobby is the boss and Stefon Harris and Joe Locke are his children. Generations. I suggested that [they perform together] three or four times before it happened. And even the week that it happened, it wasn’t supposed to happen. Milt said, “No.” Then, finally, in the middle of the week, he said, “Man, have Bobby come in.” And, of course, I didn’t have to bend Bobby’s arm; Bobby wanted to do it from the very beginning. So Bobby came, and it was a great thing.

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Medium 9781864620542

The Interactive Filmmaker’s Challenge

John Libbey Publishing ePub

The earliest cinema of Méliès and Lumière has more than once been likened to the current state-of-the-art interactive ‘new media’, and more specifically to non-linear interactive movies. Implicit in this observation is the fact that the sophistication of interactive movie language is awaiting the passage of time and the development of technology before it matures. It has been frequently noted that computers are still waiting for the first great visionary genius to take us into a new dimension.

This essay demonstrates how computer technologies can now offer completely new interactive movie paradigms and structures; that the expectations of the audience need redefining, and that to develop these works we can inherit from the 100-year history of cinematic images. A range of the author’s (and other) experimental works will be discussed to demonstrate how the interactive filmmaker’s challenge is not to wait for technological change or advance, but to discover specific non-linear models and subjects that make sense for the viewer, and support their fundamental leap of faith from observer to participant. Only in this way is it possible to make movies do things they haven’t done before.

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Medium 9780861966967

Chapter 16 Sculpting With Light: Early Film Style, Stereoscopic Vision and the Idea of a ‘Plastic Art In Motion’

Klaus Kreimeier John Libbey Publishing ePub

In early writings on the development of film style, the medium’s artistic potentials and the possibilities of unfolding cinematic space beyond the limits of the screen, film theoreticians, critics and practitioners frequently alluded to the metaphor of film as a ‘Plastic Art in Motion’.1 In his essay ‘The Birth of the Sixth Art’ (1911), Ricciotto Canudo saw in the cinema a ‘superb conciliation of the Rhythms of Space (the Plastic Arts) and the Rhythms of Time (Music and Poetry)’.2 According to Canudo, film should not only turn into animated painting, but evolve into a ‘Sculpture developing in Time’.3 In a similar vein, Vachel Lindsay (1915) spoke of the alternation between long tableau shots and close-up shots in film as producing ‘dumb giants’ and bodies ‘in sculptural relief’.4

Hence, when Hugo Münsterberg (1916) famously referred both to the visual arts and to stereoscopy as models for creating the perceptual illusion of plasticity and depth in order to clarify the difference between the film spectator’s object of knowledge and his or her object of impression, he could already build on a well established line of thinking about cinematic space as an interface for different media intertexts and modes of aesthetic experience. For Münsterberg,

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Medium 9780861967148

Part IV Intermedial Performance

Kaveh Askari John Libbey Publishing ePub

Ludwig Maria Vogl-Bienek

Do you see the screen? When people assemble to gaze at a white wall or screen, they usually don’t actually want to see that surface. We don’t consider this behaviour as absurd because we are familiar with this cultural tradition and the related expectation that we will see something moving, attractive or informative appear there (Figure 1).

Technically, the projection surface, the screen, has always stayed the same. This principle applies for all forms of projection media and, figuratively speaking, for their history as well. The screen was firmly established as a part of international cultural life at the end of the nineteenth century. The rapid success of standardised photographic slides and cinematography at the turn of the twentieth century owed much to this art of projection and was historically regarded as a part of it.

The long history of performances with the magic or optical lantern, or simply the projection apparatus, culminated in the establishment of the cultural, economic, artistic and technical bases for these related screen media at the end of the nineteenth century. Above all, the new media of cinematography and photographic lantern slides used the same arrangement or dispositif between screen and audience which had been common for decades. The same was true for the theatrical principle of the performance: the appearances on screen were carefully arranged in a dramaturgical timeline and were always part of a live performance including lecturers, narrators, reciters, singers and musicians. This constellation also enabled the creative blending of traditional and new projection media within the same performance.

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Medium 9780253006790

2 The First Blockbuster of the New Nation

Stephen M. Norris Indiana University Press ePub

Nikita Mikhalkov’s Studio Tri-te understandably exudes confidence. The studio’s offices and location mirror the centrality of its creator, the Oscar-winning director of 1994’s Burnt by the Sun. Located between Pushkin Square and Patriarch’s Ponds in central Moscow, Studio Tri-te inhabits an entire Soviet-era apartment building. It is one of the Russian film industry’s hubs and ground zero for the turn to “audience-friendly blockbusters” that dominated the zero years.

Studio Tri-te is a perfect representation of the connections between post-Soviet commercial concerns, patriotism, and personalities. Founded in 1988 and named for “three-Ts: creativity [tvorchestvo], comradeship [tovarishchestvo], and labor [trud],” the studio’s symbol has a Russian bear gripping three Ts in its paws. As a combination of Russian and Soviet patriotic culture, Studio Tri-te’s symbols would be hard to top. Clear to anyone who visits the premises, though, this studio is a center for promoting the persona of its founder, Nikita Mikhalkov. On its website, Studio Tri-te describes him as “an elegant man, a conqueror of women’s hearts, a nobleman of the new Russia, a famous film director, a distinguished politician, and an ardent apologist for the Russian national idea.”1

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Medium 9780861967223

Chapter 3 Jonathan Spencer Dennis and the early years

Emma Jean Kelly John Libbey Publishing ePub



Barry Barclay described Jonathan Dennis’ work and his “stumbling prescience back in the first years …” which “… showed, at least in film archive circles, certainly in this country and perhaps internationally too, how he was much ahead of his time” (Barclay, 2005 p.107). Conal McCarthy’s text, Museums and Māori: Heritage Professionals Indigenous Collections Current Practice (2011) also briefly commented on Dennis’ work during the early 1980s which he said “demonstrated through an active public programme and community outreach how a small cultural organisation such as the archive could begin to take on board Māori values and practices” (McCarthy, 2011 p.42). Both authors specifically name Jonathan Dennis as the person who developed an “active public programme” in relation to film archiving and indigenous communities, but their words raise more questions than they answer. Most immediately, how did Dennis come to his practice? What were his influences and who guided him? Why did this Pākehā have such passion for Māori process? How had the social, cultural and political issues of his day affected his work? How did film archiving itself relate to these issues? Could Dennis’ practice be used as an example for others? But first of all, where did Dennis come from and why did he choose his particular path in life and work?

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Medium 9780861966820

Endings and Beginnings …

Marie Beardmore John Libbey Publishing ePub


With Yellow Submarine wrapped up and delivered and the worst of the financial problems solved, John was falling more in love with Chris, spending increasing amounts of time with her, finding excuses to get home late, and fulfilling all the marriage break-up clichés … .

The affair had started when John was working insane hours on the film as well as deal with the stress of TVC’s near bankruptcy. All this took a toll and the normal calm and unflappable John had resorted to taking sleeping pills for the first time in his life. Yellow Submarine was nearly at the end of production and most of the main team was located at TVC’s new premises in Soho square. Chris, together with another girl, Annie, had painted on Lucy in the sky with diamonds and were two of the few people left at TVC’s old offices … John would go up on Sundays to talk to the crew, with the ulterior motive of chatting up Chris who he was already falling for. One Sunday, Annie was unwell so Chris was on her own … John kissed her … It was April 1968.

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Medium 9780861967131

Chapter 6 The Industrial Process and the Father

Harrington, Seán J. Indiana University Press ePub

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was a costly venture for Walt’s company. Initially the proposed cost of production had been $150,000, but by the time work had finished it had cost Disney $1.5 million and was threatening to bankrupt the studio. From the time of its release it became immediately obvious that the feature-length cartoon was going to be a success. Snow White grossed $8.5 million and delivered Disney an Academy Award in 1939. With the production of cartoon shorts Disney began to cover its costs. The introduction of a successful feature-length animated film started to make sizeable profits and the studio was able to move to a new location in Burbank, California. The new location was a sterile industrial environment, which reportedly altered the company’s earlier ‘company as family’ dynamic. Animators were in a separate building to story-men, editors and painters. This separation was made to streamline the production process, but invariably led to the production house becoming a more factory-like environment. This new production setting created an efficient animation machine, not just in terms of streamlining production, but for streamlining the creation of mass consumable fantasy. With the new bureaucratic organisation in place Walt was able to manage the complex process of animation production in a more precise fashion. He was able to make editorial decisions that would be carried out by the relevant people without the negotiation that a smaller scale work-place had involved (Shortsleeve, 2001).
As the studio grew and the process of making the cartoons became progressively industrialised, the Disney animators developed their own lexicon to describe and guide their work. This lexicon allowed the animators to communicate the principles of animation aesthetics: the dimensions in which the image could be manipulated. These principles were collected and put together as teaching aids for new animators. They are concisely described and listed in Thomas and Johnston’s text Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life (1984), and are as follows:

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Medium 9781855759527

CHAPTER FOUR: Negotiating the antagonism between feminine and maternal spheres

Mariam Alizade Karnac Books ePub

Jacqueline Schaeffer

“There is [a] particularly constant relationship between femininity and instinctual life…”

Freud, 1933a (1932)

The advent of the menopause brings once more to the forefront—but this time in a particularly sensitive way—the question of the antagonism between women’s erotic feminine and maternal aspects. If this contradiction is denied, the fact that the maternal dimension is drawing to a close may entail the shipwreck of the erotic feminine aspect—or, conversely, a hitherto thwarted feminine dimension may well take support from this antagonism and finally come to fruition. Everything depends on the way this development—a major turning-point in every woman’s life—is negotiated.

It is generally agreed that the feminist movement has been a factor of considerable progress particularly in two respects: the conscious possibility of dissociating women’s erotic desire from their wish to bear children, and their capacity to decide for themselves whether or not to procreate. Feminism, however, haone nothing at all to liberate women from the primitive mother-image or to enable them to have access to their feminine dimension within a sexual relationship of ecstatic pleasure.

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Medium 9780253016447

6. Daoud Abd El-Sayed: Parody and Borderline Existence (Egypt)

Edited by Josef Gugler Indiana University Press ePub

Viola Shafik

Classified at first as one of Egypt’s “New Realists,” Daoud Abd El-Sayed (Dawud ‘Abd al-Sayyid) was in fact one of the least productive representatives of this wave that started in the 1980s. Like other New Realists, he faced major problems in finding willing producers to venture into more committed subjects. Yet despite his sporadic output, he developed and cultivated his own style, leaving behind any early classifications: epic in his narratives, often theatrical, though deeply lyrical, and at the same time ironic to the point of cynicism, he deserves to be labeled an auteur filmmaker even though he has never—unlike Youssef Chahine and Yousry Nasrallah—tailored his films for an international audience or for the European art house. Largely his own scriptwriter, he likes to send his protagonists on unsettling journeys and expose them to extreme or absurd situations. His evident social criticism quite often translates into parody; he hides the existential strife of his heroes and heroines behind an entertaining mainstream structure, ranging from thriller to musical. Despite his readiness to entertain, his insistence on quality and his critical mind still made producers shy away even after his major box office hit in 1991. This is why in forty years his work comprises only eight full-length fiction films (the ninth is currently in preparation) and six documentaries.1

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Medium 9780861966608

Chapter 11 Deregulation, Privatization and the Changing Global Media Environment

NoContributor John Libbey Publishing ePub

Today, the level of economic restructuring and consolidation is unprecedented in the history of international business and commerce. The globalization of economic activity has forced many nations of the world to carefully consider their national economic policies. The once sacrosanct government monopolies of the past, including airlines, telecommunications and steel, are feeling the international winds of change. There is a growing realization that if such government protected monopolies do not move fast enough in providing advanced services at the right cost, they will soon find themselves being outperformed by their international rivals.

The result is a worldwide movement to deregulate government involvement in business and to privatize (or sell off) state-owned companies.

In a transnational economy, the allocation of resources is predicated upon market goals and efficiencies. This is especially true in the fields of media and telecommunications whose business models are decidedly global and where success is dependent on the free flow of trade across national borders. The combination of international deregulation and privatization trends coupled with advancements in new media and telecommunications technology has forever changed the global media landscape. This chapter will examine the principles of deregulation and privatization and how both sets of factors have transformed the business of media and telecommunications.

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Medium 9780253010971

10 - Beyond the Boundary: Vernacular Mapping and the Sharing of Historical Authority

Edited by Julia Hallam and Les Roberts Indiana University Press ePub


It's easy to lose the humanity when you start showcasing tech.


We are damned by the arrogance with which we ignore the immensity of the territories we presume to tame with our absurdly precise instruments of measure, and redeemed by a cunning, even courageous naiveté that persuades us to believe that they are approachable, knowable, chartable.


For the past ten years, a substantial international community of cinema historians has been drawing attention to factors that traditional cinema studies had a tendency to overlook: first, that wherever cinema attendance is a social habit, it is not exclusively or even strongly shaped by the content of films themselves, but by the attractions and distractions of public cultural participation; and second, that what is social is also inevitably spatial.1 Surviving evidence of the mass commercial orchestration of cinema as a cultural practice has offered digital historians a gold-edged invitation to count, to measure, to analyze, to aggregate, and above all to map.2 Several project teams internationally, some of which are featured in this book, have spent years developing large-scale digital collections of historical data related to cinemagoing and have been doing so in a way that increases the potential to share commonly managed data across collections. The potential of this kind of global collaboration in the humanities is dazzling; it tempts us to imagine an “histoire totale” of cinema attendance founded on rigorous analysis of statistically significant changes to the routines of commercial, political, and social regulation of cinema markets worldwide, over more than a century. The opportunity to build capacity for this kind of panoptic overview is surely equal to those in which we have treated the history of films and their production as matters of industrial scale or presumed wide cultural impact.3

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Medium 9780253356772

Appendix 7. “Makiyolobasi Must Stop Bewitching at Night”

Harri Englund Indiana University Press ePub

A story submitted to Nkhani Zam’maboma but rejected in 2008, followed by translation. The transcription is a copy of the original sent to the MBC, and no attempt has been made to amend its spelling and grammar.

Mai Wenzulo sadaname kuti Makiyolobasi ndi satana weniweni ndipo asayime pa upresidenti padziko la Malawi

Zikomo Mkonzi

Makiyolobasi asiye kutamba usiku

Mnyamata wina kuno ku Thyolo wakhala ali kudandaulira kuti adalemba masiku ndi miyezi yomwe Makiyolobasi amabwera muufiti atasanduka khoswe. Komanso Makiyolobasiyu ali ndi anzake womwe amasanduka galu, muleme, mphemvu, kangaude ndi zilombo zina ndipo akuti Makiyolobasiyu ali ndi makoswe ambiri woti adzawagwirilitse ntchito povota mavoti a chaka cha m’mawa 2009. Komanso anzakewo ali ndi ndege zitatu zoti zizanyamule mavoti usiku. Ndipo mnyamatayu wati atengera Makiyolobasi kukhoti pogwiritsa malamulo a Dziko ndime 16 komanso amubwezere zonse wawononga pamatenda ake.

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Medium 9781864620542

Seeing in the Dark: Early X-ray Imaging and Cinema

John Libbey Publishing ePub

The phenomenon of temporary blindness to dim light after exposure to intense illumination is an experience we have come to accept as, in one way or another, common to all people. Yet, despite the familiarity and apparent simplicity of dark adaption, physiologists of vision have shown it to be a highly complex affair. And what is more interesting, the uses and meanings of scotopic vision are so rich that it could well be said to have a cultural history of its own. This paper focuses on dark adaption as a site for early X-ray imaging and cinema.

Both the science of radiology and popular cinema were ‘born’ in 1895. That year the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered the ‘new light’ and the Lumière brothers gave their first public demonstration of the cinématographe. However, historians have not paid much attention to this coincidence. Rather, they have tended to treat the careers of these two technologies as separate stories. But as recent publications have begun to show, the histories of X-ray imaging and cinema touch upon one another in a number of concrete ways. For instance, as early as 1897, the Scottish physician John Macintyre took a series of X-ray photographs of the movements of a frog’s leg, and combined them to make a short animated filmstrip which was screened for a group of scientific and lay viewers. Subsequently, X-ray motion pictures of the physiology of the heart, the stomach, and the lungs were produced. This topic has been explored by Lisa Cartwright in her pioneering study of the development of science film (Fig. 1).1

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