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Medium 9780861967025

Suffragettes –Extremists of Visibility in Berlin

Edited by Martin Loiperdinger John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

Feminism is increasingly being declared outdated, a mere museum piece: there is, the argument runs, nothing more to fight for and the agenda of the 1970s is well and truly obsolete.1 It was against this apparently postfeminist backdrop that a film programme entitled Frühe Interventionen: Suffragetten – Extremistinnen der Sichtbarkeit (Early Interventions: Suffragettes – Extremists of Visibility) ran at the Zeughauskino, the cinema of the Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, and met with an overwhelming response.2 The project was based on the observation that the women’s suffrage movement became radicalised at almost exactly the same time as cinema, still in the process of self-invention, began to consolidate itself and to shrug off nineteenth-century forms of expression. This historical conjunction is revealed in numerous newsreels and comedies. My choice of title for the series was intended to show very clearly where my primary interest lay: in the portrayal of rebellion, activism and an often high-spirited intervention against the ruling order at a time when cinema was itself experiencing a radical upheaval. I also wanted to show not only that the films made between 1900 and 1914 generally satirise the movement for emancipation, but also that the movement itself strategically deployed public images. My contention was, finally, that the films of this period intervene into the audience’s space in a very special way. How to keep this last aspect in sight was a question that recurred again and again during the planning of the programme.

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Medium 9780861967131

Chapter 12 The Consumerist Utopia

Harrington, Seán J. Indiana University Press ePub

The purpose of this last chapter is to describe the narrative and structural changes that took place in the 1950s and 60s, before the company would loose its figurehead in 1966. While there is a tremendous wealth of critical study of Disney theme-parks, this area shall be referenced but not discussed in detail. While in-depth studies of these aspects of Disney are important, the project of this text is to create a theoretical artifice: that of the archetypical consumer who interacts within the Disney apparatus. This apparatus has been addressed primarily in terms of the viewer who engages within the Disney cinematic apparatus and how this engagement provokes consumption, ideological or otherwise. It is in this context that Disney theme-parks and television will be referenced, as they represent avenues of expression for this compulsive consumption. It is this idealised consumption that can be identified as the core of the Disney apparatus and the object of Part Three of this text: the consumerist regressive utopia.

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Medium 9780253020659

6 Heading Home: Post-Mortem Road Narratives

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

It is perhaps at the occasion of the death of the migrant that one can grasp his real place with regard to the migratory space that he took up more than a generation ago. Standing on his feet or lying in a coffin, he will return to his place of origin where something stronger than him snatched him one day.

—Yassin Chaïb, “Le Lieu d’enterrement comme repère migratoire”

Born, or arrived in France at a very young age, schooled and brought up in France, they will have to work there all their lives, and they will die in France (and maybe unlike their elders, they will have tombs in France; because the conditions and reasons of a post-mortem repatriation, which is almost the norm nowadays, will have ceased).

—Alain Gillette and Abdelmalek Sayad, L’Immigration algérienne en France

The choice of burial place for French citizens of North African ancestry is a pressing issue not only because death is inevitable, but more importantly because for Maghrebis and their children, burial cannot always follow rules of tradition, which are essentially practical. Indeed, it is customary to bury loved ones in local cemeteries. It is logical that one should want to keep close to home that which is close to heart. But this is not an inevitability for Maghrebis and Beurs. From the moment of their arrival in France and even more so when they realized France was to become their “home,” Maghrebis have had to ponder the question of what was to be the final “home” for them and their children. Available scholarship in the humanities, and in the realm of cultural studies in particular, has treated the notion of home, uprootedness, exile, and biculturalism. But the notion of final “home” has understandably not yet concerned scholars, for the generation of immigrants who arrived in France in the middle of the past century has just started to pass away en masse. Questions related to their burial have been tackled in various disciplines, such as sociology and (clinical) psychology, which deal with the practical and economic aspects of this phenomenon. One can only hope that the humanities will catch up soon. This will become more likely when a higher number of fictional accounts and biographies are produced, thus provoking humanistic studies. Indeed, as of today only a few of these have appeared. A dead individual cannot by definition write the account of his own passing away, just as with illiterature the experience of the death of the other is often told by external “witnesses,” humanists, writers, relatives, etc. But what the available literature and cinematography teaches us is that a reflection on the issue is taking place a priori. It is characterized by investigative journeys, the unknown, and rituals of initiation. According to writers and filmmakers, these narratives imposed themselves as an inevitable source of creative productions through personal confrontation with death. Put differently, these writers and filmmakers’ experiences of the death of a loved one have led them to ponder the sensitive subject. Consequently, retirement, death, and burial sites have taken center stage in their fictional works. This emergence in migrant literature and cinema often concerned with questions of identity in the here and now is a significant move that is bound to raise a few important questions for experts. This is no new matter for the North African community based in France; indeed, the epigraph from French journalist Gillette’s and Algerian sociologist Sayad’s L’Immigration algérienne en France dates back to 1976. It highlights the essential and continual concern: will Beurs be buried back home like their ancestors? The quote starts with the expression of an objective vision: French citizens of Maghrebi heritage will pass away in France. It includes a statement introduced by “maybe” and framed by parentheses. The embedded hypothesis indicates that one is to expect the ending of a trend, which consists of taking the corpse of a family member to Algeria to bury it there.1 Why do the authors assume that this practice is likely to come to a close?

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Medium 9780253356680

Appendix B: Primary Filmography

Florence Martin Indiana University Press ePub

NB: The following selection of directors reflects a desire to reference not only women’s cinema in the Maghreb but also the “accented cinema” by women directors born in the Maghreb and residing in Europe. This is by no means an exhaustive filmography: it highlights women filmmakers who either have made – or are currently in the process of making – at least one feature fiction film, for which details are given below, or are directors of at least one long documentary. Hence, many talented Maghrebi directors who have made shorts exclusively do not appear below.

 

Al Dowaha/Les secrets/Secrets (91 min), Tunisia, 2009

Selection at the Mostra, Venice, 2009

Grand Prix, Arte Mare Mediterranean Cultures and Film Festival, Bastia

Best Feature Film, Milano Festival 2010

Director and Script: Raja Amari

Cinematography: Renato Berta

Sound: Patrick Becker

Music: Philippe Héritier

Editing: Pauline Dairou

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Medium 9780253011046

12 The Music of Landscape: Eisenstein, Prokofiev, and the Uses of Music in Ivan the Terrible

Edited by Lilya Kaganovsky and Masha Sal Indiana University Press ePub

Joan Neuberger

SERGEI EISENSTEIN WROTE repeatedly about sound and music in cinema, from his contribution to the collective “Statement on Sound,” co-authored with Vsevolod Pudovkin and Grigori Alexandrov in 1928, through his discussion of audiovisual cinema and “vertical montage” in the montage essays of 1938 to 1940, to his late-1940s articles on Sergei Prokofiev, and color and sound.1 Each of these built on the earlier work and confirmed his original commitment to sound as an active element in film art rather than a naturalistic underpinning for realism or affect. From his initial insistence on sound “as a new element of montage,” Eisenstein developed increasingly complex multimedia, multisensory ideas about the ways sound contributed to producing meaning and experience for film viewers.

In this regard, it is surprising that more attention has not been paid to his eponymous chapter in Nonindifferent Nature, subtitled “The Music of Landscape and the Fate of Montage Counterpoint at a New Stage.”2 In that chapter, music is less a subject for analysis than it is the reigning metaphor for his current understanding of the structures of artistic composition. Written in 1944 and 1945, while editing part 1 of Ivan Groznyi (Ivan the Terrible, part 1, 1944; part 2, 1958] and finishing part 2, Eisenstein developed his earlier thoughts on montage and the “montage image,” incorporating many of the insights he gained through work on the film.3 The subject matter expanded far beyond the role of film sound and montage counterpoint, however, to explore the structures of artistic composition that make it possible to communicate thought and feeling in art and elicit responses from the audience. In short, Eisenstein argued that for a work of art to achieve universality and immortality, its composition must, first of all, correspond to our physical and psychological structures of feeling and cognition.4 The artist must be able to break down a subject or idea into constitutive parts that are resonant with one another in multiple ways that then allow the viewer to reconstitute the parts into a new, higher, unified emotional and intellectual experience. That synthetic unity, which he called the “montage image,” contained an abstract understanding of the subject at hand that derives from the process of joining disparate elements:

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Medium 9780253010643

2 “Have You Talent?”: Norman’s Early Career

Barbara Tepa Lupack Indiana University Press ePub

Richard Edward Norman JR. was born on July 13, 1891, in Middleburg, Florida, a small rural town outside of Jacksonville. The oldest child of Richard Edward Norman Sr. (1855–1942), a pharmacist who owned his own store, and Katherine (Kate) Kennedy Bruce Norman (1861–1939), he had two brothers—Earl Redding Norman, who volunteered and served with the Royal Canadian Forces during World War I and who later drowned at a Florida beach, and Kenneth Bruce Norman, who became a partner with Richard in the film production business before leaving to pursue other interests.1 After high school, Richard attended Massey Business School in Jacksonville, where he honed a number of the skills that would serve him well throughout his career.

According to his family, Richard was an industrious young man. As a teenager he began working at a local Jacksonville theater, where he often entertained audiences by playing the piano, possibly providing musical accompaniment to some of the early silent pictures screened there. After his parents separated in 1910, Richard and his brothers moved with their mother to Kansas City, Kansas, to be closer to her relatives. In Kansas City and later in Chicago (where he met and married his first wife, Ethel), Richard found employment with several film companies and also pursued some of his own entrepreneurial ambitions.

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Medium 9780861967131

Chapter 4 The Conceptual Homunculus

Harrington, Seán J. Indiana University Press ePub

The term homunculus has its origins in medieval alchemy, but as a concept it can be traced to antiquity. Paracelsus used the term to describe an alchemically created artificial man. When this man (grown in a test tube) develops into an adult, he has the capacity to reach either positive or negative extremes. He can be either a giant or a pygmy, a great or monstrous man (Campbell, 2010). The homunculus is also the most basic unit of man in preformationist thought (which supposed that the sperm cell itself contains a tiny man, who in turn contains a tinier man and so on into an infinity of smallness). This infinity that is structurally expressed in the homunculus is the expanse of the primordial abyss: the state of pre-subjectivity in which the child exists with the archaic mother.

The production of the homunculus was considered significant as it was done without the female organs; and represented an object of a purely masculine nature (Campbell, 2010). This distillation of masculinity seems to reaffirm a culturally constructed male centrality. The homunculus of Paracelsus is therefore a distillation of the male gaze; an absolute and pure object that satisfies a male egoic idealisation. The Jewish Golem is another apparition of the homunculoid form, though instead of being formed from a single sperm cell, it is birthed by virgin soil. Like the homunculus described in Goethe’s Faust (1832), the Golem is servant to man’s will. Both involve a simultaneous servitude to masculine designs and result in death and destruction (Campbell, 2010, p13). This duality of function is key to the homunculus’ status as a fetish object in service of the gaze.

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Medium 9780253016447

3. Michel Khleifi: Filmmaker of Memory (Palestine)

Edited by Josef Gugler Indiana University Press ePub

Tim Kennedy

From his first film, Fertile Memory (La mémoire fertile / Al-Dhakira al-Khisba, 1980), Michel Khleifi displays the narrative-documentary style that he goes on to develop to such great effect. He also announces some of the major themes that permeate his later work: the centrality of the land to Palestinian identity; the preservation of collective memory and culture; the difficulty of telling the history of the nation; the common humanity of Arabs and Jews; the trauma of defeat, displacement, and exile; and his critique of the weakness and paralysis of what he considers to be an archaic Arab society.

Stylistically his films subtly mix reality and fiction—Fertile Memory and the shorter Ma’loul Celebrates Its Destruction (Ma’loul fête sa destruction, 1984) fashion fictional spaces from fragments of the political reality of defeat and disorder; the feature Wedding in Galilee (Noce en Galilée / Urs al-Jalil, 1987) steers a fictional narrative through the tensions of an incipient uprising against the reality of military occupation; and the formally innovative Canticle of the Stones (Le cantique des pierres / Nashid al-Hajjar, 1990), the dreamlike Tale of the Three Jewels (Le conte des trois diamants / Hikayatul jawahiri thalath, 1994), and his exploration of memory, Zindeeq (2009), create an often uncomfortable tension between fiction, myth, and the actuality of oppression and active resistance.

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Medium 9781864620009

What is animation and who needs to know?

Edited by Jayne Pilling John Libbey Publishing ePub

 

There are many definitions of animation. The most obvious source of one, the Webster dictionary, says animation is:

a: a motion picture made by photographing successive positions of inanimate objects (as puppets or mechanical parts), b: Animated Cartoon, a motion picture made from a series of drawings simulating motion by means of slight progressive changes.

This is a fairly common understanding of the term animation, but it reflects a limited exposure to what the artform has to offer. Whether one agrees with it or not, the Webster definition is useful because one can learn something about who is doing the defining. In this case, the folks at G. & C. Merriam should be encouraged to attend an animation festival.

In the international animation community, many definitions have become established by various organisations and entities. We scholars, teachers and filmmakers would probably not be able to agree on a precise definition, but we would be able to compile a nice list of them. Definitions of animation vary from one another for many reasons, including historical development, production and marketing requirements, and aesthetic preferences.

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Medium 9780861966967

Chapter 10 ‘Under the Sign of the Cinematograph’: Urban Mobility and Cinema Location in Wilhelmine Berlin

Klaus Kreimeier John Libbey Publishing ePub

While urbanisation was one of the principal facets of modernisation, new means of transportation were prior to almost every other innovation, as Wilhelmine Berlin grew and expanded to become a modern metropolis. Sometimes called ‘Chicago on the Spree’ – and definitely the most modern European capital at the time – Berlin’s infrastructure of road and rail networks constituted the core of urban communication. In the year 1900, more than 80 million passengers used the city’s public transportation network.1 A similar infrastructural assumption serves as the guiding principle of this study on urban mobility and transportation, population density and cinema as a new media institution. This essay, in short, argues that transportation facilities and pedestrian traffic are the definitive factors to describe and understand the dispersion of the early Berlin Kintopps (the equivalent of the US nickelodeons).

Alan Trachtenberg once noted that historical knowledge seems to declare ‘its true value by its photographability’.2 Hence, besides conveying aesthetic ideals and media practices, photographs and films record ephemeral actions and events of everyday life (or at least give this impression). One of the more striking photographs of Berlin’s rapid urban development during the Wilhelmine era was taken by Waldemar Titzenthaler in the winter of 1907 (see Figure 1). It portrays an almost deserted Reichskanzlerplatz. Situated on the western brink of Charlottenburg – not yet a district of Berlin, but a city of its own – it was, indeed, remote at the time. In the 1900 Baedeker guide to Berlin and its environs, the Reichskanzlerplatz was regarded as too inaccessible to be included on the main map.3

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Medium 9780253008343

2 Deceptions: Shoot the Piano Player (1960), The Soft Skin (1964)

Gillain, Anne Indiana University Press ePub

AN ARTIST, AN UPPER-MIDDLE-CLASS PROFESSIONAL MAN, TWO men who are uncomfortable with who they are; a meeting with a new woman, the hope of renewal . . . and, at the end of each story, two gunshots that echo one another. With Shoot the Piano Player and The Soft Skin, separated by only three years, the filmmaker anatomizes both the faking of success and the faking of a couple’s relationship. There is little doubt that autobiography played a role in the genesis of these two works. Each of them was made in the wake of moments of exhilaration that Truffaut, by his own admission, found hard to bear: “I have experienced periods of emptiness and sadness more often after successes than failures: I had violent bouts of depression after The 400 Blows and Jules and Jim, for example.”1 Shoot the Piano Player and The Soft Skin are the works that followed, respectively, each of those two films. More specifically, what Truffaut was analyzing through their twin protagonists was the loneliness of men who live a hidden life, closed in upon themselves, and whose deeply concealed self only reveals itself through the interior monologues of Charlie Kohler or the secret activity of Pierre Lachenay: stolen glances, furtive telephone calls, secret rendezvous. The former lives in silence, the latter lives a lie. The first looks for places to hide; the second prepares himself for flight in advance. The dissociation between appearance and reality, both as it pertains to the individual and to the environment, superficial and deep, is conveyed in the case of Shoot the Piano Player through narrative fragmentation, and in the case of The Soft Skin through visual fragmentation. Both the atomization of the story and that of the images reflect, in this instance, the splitting up of the self, experienced as internal self-mockery or externalized drama, by masculine heroes who are unable to bear their need and desire for women.

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Medium 9780253006486

3 Playing Dead, Take One: Euro Horror Film Production

Ian Olney Indiana University Press ePub

EURO HORROR FILM PRODUCTION

Euro horror movies encourage performative spectatorship because of the way in which they are made. I want to be mindful of the danger of overgeneralizing about the common identity of these films, despite – or rather because of – the fact that they are regularly lumped together by their contemporary American fans. After all, Europe comprises over fifty countries, two dozen languages, and a wide array of cultural, social, economic, political, religious, and artistic traditions. The challenge that such diversity poses to anyone wanting to make grand statements about “the” nature of European cinema is obvious. As Ernest Mathjis and Xavier Mendik write:

 

There is hardly a more difficult object of media study than European cinema. Although seemingly evident by its geographical boundaries, from the Atlantic to the Urals, from the Arctic Circle to the Mediterranean, its cultural, aesthetic, economical, political and ideological demarcations are far from clear. European cinema cannot be pinned down to a small number of production strategies, or reduced to a limited series of intentions or ideological perspectives; it does not even fit barriers of language or nations. It cannot be defined through audience and reception practices, nor through its range of textual meanings. There are no straightforward genres to hold on to, no uncontested canon, not even an undisputed series of countries (Flemish cinema? Yiddish cinema? Turkish cinema? Yugoslavian cinema?), people (Alfred Hitchcock, Luc Besson, Paul Verhoeven?) or texts (Stranger than Paradise, Buena Vista Social Club?). (“Introduction” 1–2)

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Medium 9780253010407

6 Taking Care of Business

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

I always got paid, so I have
nothing to complain about.

Flicka McGurrin

Eddie Marshall

You never saw Todd riding around in a Cadillac [laughs] or doing anything but paying rent when he could make it.

Calvin Keys

He would take chances. He would hire musicians from back east, not knowing whether he was going to make any money with them but knowing that a lot of people out here wanted to see them. Where else did Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers play in San Francisco? He must have made some kind of a living, but he didn’t make a killing. I guess the big ones paid [for] the little ones.

Eddie Marshall

People came out here and they couldn’t bring their own rhythm section. I mean, it really kills me when people say that Todd was such a shyster. A shyster from what? Hell, you know, even then, what it cost to bring somebody out here to play plus put them in a hotel? And knowing [Todd] was going to have to have some kind of benefit, or get money from his dad – or [have to face] the rent going up . . . ? He could never, never afford [all those rising costs]. There was no way, I’ll tell you. He just did it anyhow. Those people that own that building, they kept raising the rent, and they wanted that to be a commercial venue, so he was always under fire.

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Medium 9780253016454

7 Fake Pastors and Real Comedians: Doubling and Parody in Miraculous, Charismatic Performance

Jesse Weaver Shipley Indiana University Press ePub

The pastor pours drinking water, but claims that it’s holy water.

Rap lyrics, Grey of the Mobile Boys

THIS CHAPTER EXAMINES how, in millennial Ghana, the figure of the false prophet or pastor—and fear of fakery more generally—plays a dynamic and productive role in shaping an emerging sphere of moral uncertainty to which performance and its assessment are central. Since the 1980s an increasing number of popular Ghanaian performers have been moved by the Holy Spirit and been “born again” as Charismatic pastors. From highlife musician and concert party theatre leader, Nana Ampadu, known for his sequined jumpsuits and irreverent Ananse-based hit songs, touched by the Holy Spirit in 1988, to Promzy, a hip-hop/hiplife musician known for his tough gangster image who was born again in 2014, artists have rejected their bawdy entertainments in favor of pious celebrations of Christ. However, the public has often remained skeptical of the sincerity of these conversions. Rampant concerns that they are faking their new beliefs in order to garner publicity reveal how intricate links between sincerity and fakery lie just below the surface of all sorts of theatrical social action. Rather than a tale of how new Christian movements reshape the public sphere, the interplay between pastors and artists demonstrates a complex blurring of sacred and profane in popular realms and raises questions about the contextually specific logic of reiteration (Meyer 2004a; J. Shipley 2013b). Ghanaian conversion narratives are not signs of how people make a “complete break with the past,” severing ties to older kin and social networks (Meyer 1998a) but demonstrate something of the performance logic in which belief and meaning are made and assessed through public self-presentations. A new identity’s coherence relies on authoritatively embodying that self in the moment rather than on maintaining contiguous links to past selves and previous performances.

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Medium 9780253018618

The Last Bird

IU Press Journals Indiana University Press ePub

The Last Bird

morning up in the middle

relative to all high above

witness barely in the sky

a black dot soar until it hurt

the eyes.

away until the end of the mirror

liquid memory more taken than

goodness of gravity for granted,

watched bittersweet vanishing

goodness in theory in perspective

courageous up the middle of

blue dash without reflection

like an unmarked confederate grave

the ground still steaming blocking the

sun after sherman’s burning sky

into the narrowing of morning blazed

into the middle of the red hurt my eyes

all the way to the end of the mirror the

last bird in the sky.

all relative to outlook no night

promises no star can keep like

harlem after Malcolm disappeared

into a little black dot straight up

into the middle of the morning air

after learning nothing from war

the last cry heard but barely

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