787 Chapters
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Medium 9780253007896

Fine Arts in the Dunes

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Hyndman Gallery at the Lubeznik Center for the Arts. Rich Manalis

Five “nymphs” in the 1915 Prairie Club production The Awakening. Note the drummer in the background on the left. Arthur Anderson, Calumet Regional Archives

The visual and performing arts have a long history in Duneland. Earl Reed’s sketches, Arthur Anderson’s photographs, and Frank Dudley’s paintings were widely seen and helped spread the word about the dunes and their beauty. “Artie” Anderson’s photographs appear throughout this volume. Indeed, this entire book can be thought of as a tribute to the hundreds of photographers and artists who have captured the beauty of Duneland over the years. They’ve made it possible to enjoy the Dunes, even when one is away from them.

Michigan City’s Silver Cornet Band got its start in 1869. Dance bands entertained both young and old at Carr’s Beach and at Washington Park more than a hundred years ago. The Prairie Club had a history of pageants in the dunes before its huge 1917 pageant, The Dunes Under Four Flags.

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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 12 Environmental Impacts

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub

GUILLERMO HORTA-PUGA

The coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are subject to many natural and anthropogenic environmental stressors (Tunnell 1985, 1992; Chávez 1989; Botello et al. 1992; Chávez and Tunnell 1993; Lang et al. 1998). Natural threats include hurricanes, winter cold fronts, freshwater inflow carrying suspended sediments, bleaching, red tides, and massive die-offs. Coral reefs, especially those of the Campeche Bank, are in the path of hurricanes. The meteorological phenomenon known as norte (winter front) induces strong winds over the whole southern Gulf of Mexico and can be as destructive as hurricanes. The Gulf of Mexico is a semi-enclosed oceanic basin that receives the outflow of many river systems carrying a high load of suspended solids that settle down on the continental shelf. In the flood plumes of riverine systems, seawater turbidity increases and salinity decreases periodically with increased river flow volume.

Human activities, sometimes in concert with natural impacts, are an increasing threat to the natural environment. In general, the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances are decreased biodiversity, changes in community structure, increased concentrations and varieties of chemical pollutants, and landscape (reefscape) modification. The degree of environmental degradation is usually associated with distance from disturbance sources. Thus, the nearer the source, the greater the impact. Fortunately, the reefs of the Campeche Bank lie more than 50 km away from shore, and the primary threats to them are impacts from oil and gas exploration and production and overfishing. The Tuxpan Reef System (TRS), although located near the coast and the city of Tuxpan, is not heavily impacted, and anthropogenic threats are restricted to oil and gas activities on Isla de Lobos, the occasional presence of tourists, and overfishing. The reverse is true at the Veracruz Reef System (VRS) because it is offshore from the largest city in the southern Gulf of Mexico and the largest port in all of Mexico. Additionally, because it is under the influence of the flood plumes of at least two large river systems that drain municipal and industrial sewage waters from various inland cities, as well as from agricultural lands and paper pulp mills, the sources of environmental impact are numerous. Consequently, most impacts are in the vicinity of Veracruz city.

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Medium 9781603445887

5. Predicting Storm Surge

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Clint Dawson and Jennifer Proft

Every hurricane has the potential to inflict damage in one or all of the following ways: wind, rainfall, tornadoes, and surge. Of these, storm surge has been responsible for some of the most devastating hurricane-related damage. Storm surge occurs when sea levels rise in the face of low barometric pressure. The resulting mass of water is pushed onto shore by strong hurricane winds as described in chapter 3 (fig. 5.1). Long known for its damaging effects, storm surge is difficult to predict and has been responsible for the loss of thousands of lives and billions of dollars in damages along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf coasts. Sea walls, levees, bulkheads and the like have all been built in attempts to protect lives and communities from the onslaught of this powerful force. However, as residents move towards coastal areas in greater numbers, the potential for significant loss continues to increase.

As in any natural hazard scenario, the safety of a community is directly tied to the ability of forecasters to successfully predict the location and timing of storm surge and respond. To do this, it is necessary to understand the causes and physical effects of surge, both on the meso- and the micro-scale. Recently, computer modeling has become an effective tool for studying storm surge mitigation. Modeling lets forecasters predict the location and severity of storm surge prior to hurricane landfall. Prior to the advent of computer-based modeling, one could only make an educated guess based upon historic, empirically observed data (Resio et al. 2008). For example, if a historical Category 2 hurricane resulted in a 5-foot storm surge, a future storm with similar wind speeds would be expected to have roughly the same surge effects.

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Medium 9780253000958

The Mystique of Money

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Anyone who pays attention to the state of the planet realizes that all natural systems on which human life depends are deteriorating, and they are doing so largely because of human actions. By natural systems I mean the topsoil, forests, grasslands, wetlands, rivers, lakes, oceans, atmosphere, the host of other species, and the cycles that bind them together into a living whole. By human life I mean not merely the survival of our species, although in the long run that will surely be in question; rather I mean the quality of our existence, the prospects for adequate food, shelter, work, education, health care, conviviality, intellectual endeavor, and spiritual growth for our kind far into the future.

So the crucial question is, Why? Why are those of us in the richest countries acting in such a way, individually and collectively, as to undermine the conditions on which our own lives, the lives of other species, and the lives of future generations depend? And why are we so intent on coaxing or coercing the poorer countries to follow our example? There are many possible answers, of course. It may be that on average we humans are too short-sighted and dim-witted to take stock of our situation and change our behavior. It may be that evolution has ill-fitted us to restrain our appetites. It may be that selfish genes and tribal instincts prompt us to define our interests too narrowly, excluding regard for people whom we perceive as different from ourselves, not to mention other species and unborn generations. It may be that the otherworldly religion preached so fervently across our land has convinced many believers that Earth, indeed the whole universe, is merely a backdrop for the drama of human salvation, destined to evaporate once the rapture comes. It may be that we have been so stupefied by consumerism and around-the-clock entertainment that we have lost the ability to think clearly and take sensible actions. It may be that global corporations have achieved such a stranglehold over the mass media and the political system as to thwart all efforts at reforming our way of life. It may be that the logic of capitalism, based on perpetual growth, is incompatible with a finite planet. It may be that preachers, pundits, pitchmen, and politicians have deluded us into thinking that financial wealth represents real wealth.

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Medium 9781574414486

Agradecimientos

Bernard Goffinet and Ricardo Rozzi and Lily Lewis and William Buck and Francisca Massardo University of North Texas Press PDF

AGRADECIMIENTOS

Este libro es el resultado de una década de trabajo de inves gación, educación, conservación y ecoturismo en el Parque Etnobotánico Omora. Agradecemos a los numerosos amigos del parque, voluntarios, autoridades, profesores, periodistas, ar stas, estudiantes graduados y de pregrado, que cada año han tomado el curso de conservación biocultural de la Universidad de Magallanes desde el 2003, y han ayudado a construir el Sendero de los Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos y a crear la narra va del ecoturismo con lupa. Agradecemos especialmente a Mauricio Zárraga,

Carlos Catrin y Jaime Godoy, quienes hicieron posible las primeras expediciones al Cabo de Hornos a bordo de la “Maroba”, en el 2000 y el 2001, y a los profesores María Anguita, Carlos Soto, Fernando

Saldivia, Francisco Fernández, y Nelson Cárcamo, con quienes hemos mantenido los talleres de “Los

Bosques en Miniatura del Cabo de Hornos” en el liceo de Puerto Williams por más de diez años.

La fotogra a es mayoritariamente a Adam M. Wilson (adamwilson.us) y Oliver Vogel, con la colaboración de Gonzalo Arriagada, Ricardo Garille , Bernard Goffinet, Kris n Hoel ng, de

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Medium 9780253355089

5. Structure and Function of the Sauropod Respiratory System

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub

STEVEN F. PERRY, THOMAS BREUER, AND NADINE PAJOR

Because dinosaur lungs do not fossilize, reconstruction of the sauropod respiratory system must rely on indirect evidence. We combine extant phylogenetic bracketing and functional morphological approximation to draw conclusions on the structure and function of the sauropod respiratory system. The combination of these techniques leads to strong evidence for the presence of lungs that consisted of two parts: a gas exchange region that was attached to the ribs and vertebrae, and a sac-like region below the exchange region, close to the liver and intestine. This respiratory system is similar to the efficient lung–air sac system of birds. It is highly adaptable and could have served to supply oxygen, remove carbon dioxide, and help with temperature control.

Indirect evidence for the reconstruction of the respiratory system of extinct animals can come from the skeleton itself, mainly from the ribs and the rib cage. Most interesting here is the morphology of the uncinate processes, the course and density of Sharpey’s fibers within the ribs, and the heads of the ribs and their articulation to the vertebrae.

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Medium 9781574411546

10 There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

go to work because there was a snake under the hood of her car, curled up right next to her engine. She had no idea what to do.

We told the woman to put a line of flour or baby powder around her car so that we could keep track of the snake. If he was to leave without anyone seeing, the woman would still think he was in her car. By placing a line of powder around the car, we would be able to tell if the snake had slithered off at any point because he would leave a track.

The next step was to try and get the snake to leave her car. Snakes generally crawl up under the hood of cars because they like the warmth from the engine. Snakes are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperatures are the same as their surroundings. The warmer the environment, the more active they are. Underneath a hood is also a quiet, dark hiding place. Often, the midday sun is too hot for a snake. They like to keep warm, but they don’t like to bake in the sun during the hottest time of the day. Engines can be ideal resting places.

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Medium 9780253356024

13. Exotic and Invasive Species

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

Exotic and invasive species are a big conservation problem of our time, a consequence of habitat disturbance, global trade and travel, and the relentless tendency of any species to reproduce to the utmost when given the opportunity (as first pointed out in 1859 by Charles Darwin, who described examples of exotic species explosions in The Origin of Species). Since 1800, many organisms have entered or been brought into Indiana and established viable populations. Undoubtedly, many others have entered the state and failed to establish, though this is rarely documented.

Flora

There are about 800 exotic plant species in Indiana, including some highly detrimental invasives; the most troublesome are indicated in Table P-14. Two important exotics are garlic mustard (Figure 13.1) and purple loosestrife (Figure 13.2). The percentage of exotics among the state’s vascular plants (approximately 29%) is much higher than for any of the animal groups treated here. Exotic species have been introduced from foreign lands by intentional means, e.g., bringing in plant materials for food, building materials, medicine, ornamental use, etc., and unintentionally, such as weed seeds transported in soil or crop seed mixes. Regardless of the source, some exotics are having a tremendous, negative environmental and economic impact on the state.

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Medium 9781574411751

NOTES TO AFTERWORD

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

NOTES TO AFTERWORD

1. Maxine Johnston, “Twenty-five Years of Milestones: Big Thicket National Preserve,” manuscript found in Big Thicket National Preserve Library,

Big Thicket National Preserve, Beaumont, Texas, 1999, p. 1.

2. See above, pp. 162–64.

3. Johnston, “Twenty-five Years,” 1–3.

4. “Complete the Preserve,” Beaumont Enterprise, November 11, 1981, sec. A.

5. Joe Fohn, “Big Thicket Group Upset by Stalled Land Acquisition,”

San Antonio Express, November 26, 1982, sec. B.

6. Richard Connelly, “Out of the Thicket,” Texas Lawyer, April 20, 1992, p. 16.

7. Steve Moore, “Title Hassles Snag Thicket Land Sales,” Beaumont Enterprise, October 8, 1978, sec. D.

8. “Jewell Honored,” Big Thicket Bulletin, no.11 (September 11, 1994): 8.

9. Pete A.Y. Gunter, The Big Thicket: An Ecological Reevaluation (Denton,

TX: University of North Texas Press, 1993), 99–100.

10. Geraldine Watson, Reflections on the Neches, Temple Big Thicket Series 3 (Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 2003), 248–50.

11. National Park Service. Briefing Statement for Jennifer Yezek, aide to

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Medium 9780253353139

A Few Earthy Words

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

It might be said that all much-used,
debased words are looking for restoration,
for revivifying contexts.

—STEPHEN DUNN

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Medium 9781603442015

Springing to Life Keeping the Waters Flowing

Ken W Kramer Texas A&M University Press ePub

Dianne Wassenich

SPRINGS seem miraculous to me. Water pouring from the ground! The sight of it reminds me of the nature books I read as a child, like Gene Stratton-Porter’s Freckles and A Girl of the Limberlost and the fairy tales that told of spring water having magical properties.

Go stand on the lowest porch of the Texas Rivers Center in San Marcos and look at one of the springs that feed the San Marcos River flowing into Spring Lake. It is a strong flow, strong enough to ripple the surface in a rainy year when water is plentiful. But even in the dry years, when the sight may be different, I’m drawn again and again to this deep blue spring. I think of the countless people who have admired the flowing water at this spot, one of the oldest continually inhabited sites in North America.

Central Texas can be dry, with predictable droughtlike stretches in summer for at least a few hot months. Though the archeological records include longer and far worse drought periods, the local yardstick remains the great drought of the 1950s, when nearby Comal Springs stopped flowing and San Marcos Springs slowed to a trickle.

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Medium 9780253000804

10: Future Expansion of the Arctic Dinosaur Record

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

The Colville River: The Red Deer River of the Arctic?

The southern Alberta buffalo plains greet you with their vast grain and forage fields, slight topographic undulations, endless skies, scattered ranches, and small sleepy towns as you proceed eastward from the hustle and bustle of urban Calgary. If you had no previous knowledge of the region’s geography, within an hour you would find yourself trying to fend off the boredom of what seems to be endless flatlands that characterize most of the 90 miles (145 kilometers) to Drumheller. When you finally see the sign that directs you towards Drumheller, you turn north and slowly descend through a series of roadcuts that fail to stimulate even the ardent field geologist. However, this soon changes in dramatic fashion as you reach the outskirts of the small town of Drumheller and the gently meandering Red Deer River. The stacks of sedimentary strata interspersed with dark lenses of coal, lens-shaped ancient channel sands and conglomerates complexly sculpted into labyrinthine badlands delight even the jaded geologist’s eye. Drumheller is about midway along the Red Deer River, which winds its way east, then south, then east again for over 400 miles (650 kilometers) as it seeks a confluence with the Saskatchewan River. This incised river valley was host to important early twentieth-century coal mining operations. It is now the heart and soul of Alberta’s Cretaceous dinosaur country. This is where the magnificent Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology is to be found nestled within the Red Deer River badlands, just a few miles to the northwest of the center of Drumheller. If you follow the Red Deer River as it winds its way over 100 miles (163 kilometers) southward from Drumheller, you will come upon Dinosaur Provincial Park.1 The park with its dinosaur research station, labs, and outdoor dinosaur exhibits is, like Drumheller, set within the spectacular Red Deer River badlands. Whether you are a paleontologist or a “dino” tourist, the Dinosaur Provincial Park will exceed your greatest expectations and impress you with its extraordinarily rich record of dinosaurs and the world they roamed in. This is why the Park was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

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Medium 9781780647128

2: Grapevine Endophytes and Plant Health: A Culture-Independent Approach

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

2

Grapevine Endophytes and Plant

Health: A Culture-Independent

Approach

S. Yousaf,1* M. Anees2 and A. Campisano3*

Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University,

Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam

University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3IASMA Research and Innovation

Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all’Adige, Italy

1

Introduction

An endophyte is a bacterial (including actinomycetal) or fungal microorganism that spends the whole or part of its life cycle colonizing healthy tissues of the host plant, either intercellularly and/or intracellularly, and typically causes no apparent disease symptoms

(Wilson, 1995; Sturz et al., 2000). The endophytic population of a given species varies from several to a few hundred bacterial and fungal strains (Strobel and Long, 1998).

The ecological role of these organisms is still not well determined but most of them have positive effects on host plants, which include promoting plant growth, improving resistance to multiple stresses, maintaining a reliable supply of nutrients, biocontrol of plant parasites and microbial synthesis of metabolites antagonistic to predators (Schulz et al., 2002; Schulz and Boyle, 2005), as well as protection against diseases and insects (Rodriguez et al., 2008). Endophytic microorganisms are also presumed to play an active role in enhancing the host defence response against infection by phytoplasmas (Musetti et  al., 2011). Factors responsible for improving plant growth and health are the microbial synthesis of phytohormones (Tudzynski, 1997;

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Medium 9780253007896

1890 Washington Park

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Martin Krueger. Old Lighthouse Museum

Washington Park was the dream, and is now the legacy, of six-term Michigan City mayor Martin T. Krueger. The city’s lakefront was a wasteland when Krueger was first elected mayor in 1888. Commercial fishing and shipping were in decline. Yet selling the idea of a lakefront park was not easy, and for access to the site the city would have to build a bridge across Trail Creek. At that time, there were no parks along the Lake Michigan shoreline in Indiana. This one would be the first.

Today, Washington Park is so well-used and in such a perfect location that it is hard to imagine the opposition that arose to Krueger’s idea. The bridge would be too expensive; it would harm navigation; it would be a “bridge to nowhere.”

Evidently, Mayor Krueger was as persistent as he was persuasive. In 1890, he succeeded in getting some county money and bonds approved to pay for the bridge. In 1891, a new state law allowed cities and towns to create and to levy taxes for public parks. Fortunately, the editors of the Michigan City Dispatch supported him. The bridge was built, land was acquired, and every citizen was asked to provide a tree. The park was born.

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Medium 9781780647128

14 Esquive® WP Limits Development of Grapevine Trunk Diseases and Safeguards the Production Potential of Vineyards

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

14

Esquive® WP Limits

Development of Grapevine Trunk

Diseases and Safeguards the Production Potential of Vineyards

E. Mounier,1* F. Boulisset,1 F. Cortes,1 M. Cadiou,1

P. Dubournet2 and E. Pajot1*

Agrauxine, Groupe Lesaffre, Beaucouze, France; 2Bayer SAS,

Lyon, France

1

Introduction

Grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) such as Eutypa dieback, esca decline of vines and black dead arm (BDA), which are widely believed to be caused by multiple fungal pathogens acting in concert, although the causes may well be more complex, cause great damage to vineyards. Since the banning of two key fungicides (sodium arsenite and carbendazim/flusilazole) in 2001, no chemical products have been available to growers to reduce GTD. However, the vine industry is today facing a significant resurgence of GTD (see Viguès et al., 2007). According to a study carried out by the Observatoire National des Maladies du Bois (French National Grapevine Trunk Disease

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