787 Chapters
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Medium 9781623491376

4. Water: Privately Owned

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub


In the hydrologic cycle, surface water, before it becomes water in a watercourse, likely gets to the watercourse by running off the ground. Diffused surface water is rainwater or the water in our rare snowmelts—runoff—that stays on a landowner’s property before it enters a bed or channelized flow.1 This diffused surface water is owned by the landowner and is subject to capture without obtaining a permit from the state. If the landowner is able to capture the runoff water, defined as “casual or vagrant” water, before it joins a natural gully, stream, or watercourse, the landowner owns this water.2 This captured diffused water can be sold or used as the landowner sees fit. However, the moment this captured water enters a watercourse, its ownership transfers to the state. Water left standing in upland areas after a flood recedes may also qualify as diffused surface water, even though actual floodwaters cannot be captured because they are owned by the state.


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Medium 9781585446179

Chapter 5 Reef Zonation and Ecology: Veracruz Shelf and Campeche Bank

Tunnell, John W. Texas A&M University Press ePub


For decades, the ecology and zonation of coral reefs have dominated ecological studies in tropical regions of the world. Along with the geologic history of an area, physical environmental parameters govern ecological and geographical distribution of reef organisms. Benthic habitats and communities are usually similar and typical in various geographic regions, but understanding the reef types characteristic of any given region can be critical to understanding the ecological processes. Platform reefs are the characteristic reef type in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

Coral reefs are generally classified by their shape and proximity to the shoreline. Major types include atoll reefs, shelf or platform reefs, fringing reefs, and barrier reefs. Atolls are the common reef structure in the central Pacific Ocean. These reefs are typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon and develop on igneous rock emerging from the deep ocean. Atolls often have emergent margins (reef flats and islands that are also known as keys or cays) and may also have patch reefs in their sediment-dominated lagoons. A shelf or platform reef is a reef bank emerging from a continental shelf rather than the deep ocean. Located near or far from the mainland coast, the reef platform may include a shallow lagoon with sand keys. In cross section, these reefs look like flat-topped mountains (Fig. 5.1), and when viewed from above, their outline is often ellipsoidal. Fringing reefs are found on or near the shoreline and are composed of only a reef front or forereef slope.

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Medium 9781603448147

12. February—Bald Eagles on the Mississippi River

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

12. February

Bald Eagles on the Mississippi River

Are we seriously recommending wildlife watching in Minnesota in the dead of winter? Well, “you betcha.” True, Minnesota in February is cold and, for much of the state, seemingly lifeless. But an exception is the unfrozen reaches of the Upper Mississippi River where thousands of bald eagles congregate, attracted by the hundreds of thousands of ducks, geese, and other waterfowl. And much of this fantastic wildlife viewing is close to the millions of people of the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area. The National Park Service manages much of this amazing wildlife-watching area in partnership with numerous other agencies and organizations. The story of the bald eagle, and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, is a fitting conclusion to our twelve-month story of wildlife watching in national parks.

What’s Remarkable about Bald Eagles?

The story of the bald eagle is a microcosm of the country’s wildlife history. Our Founding Fathers were impressed by the power and majesty of the bird, so much so they made the bald eagle our national symbol (contrary to popular lore, there is no strong evidence that Ben Franklin seriously preferred the turkey as a national symbol). Yet despite this admiration, some perceived the bald eagle as standing in the way of progress, so we waged war on the bird by shooting, trapping, poisoning, and persecuting it. Inevitably, the eagle soon disappeared from large parts of the country.

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Medium 9780253007896

1915 Diana of the Dunes

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Of all the people who have lived in the dunes, the best known still today and perhaps the least understood is Alice Mabel Gray, far better known as Diana of the Dunes.

Alice arrived in the dunes in 1915 before the Dunes Highway was built and before the Porter County lakeside residential communities were established. The dunes she came to know so well were still wild, inaccessible, and unknown to most folk. In the ten years she lived there, she became a local legend largely because several newspaper reporters felt no need to stick to the truth. Fiction apparently sold more newspapers than facts.

Reporters claimed that she was a beautiful young woman who bathed naked in the lake and then danced around like a nymph to dry off. From early on, she was incorrectly described as the daughter of a well-to-do Chicago doctor. She was said to be like a goddess—the goddess of the woodlands, of wild animals, of the hunt, and of the moon. She was the Roman goddess Diana, “Diana of the Dunes.” Long after her death, her ghost is said to still inhabit the dunes. In fact, nearly a hundred years after her arrival, Wikipedia claims that Diana of the Dunes is one of the best-known ghost legends of Indiana. The ghost seems to always be either wearing a long, flowing gown or bathing sans attire in the waters of the lake. There’s a section about Diana and her ghost in Weird Indiana by Mark Marimen, James Willis, and Troy Taylor.

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Medium 9780253353139

The Warehouse and the Wilderness

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

The world is made, not of atoms,
but of stories.


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Medium 9781603444750

10. Sex and Age Ratios

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 10.1 Sex and age ratio data are relatively easy to collect from harvested bobwhites. This information can be used to gain insight on bobwhite survival and productivity. (Photograph provided by Dale Rollins)

THE SEX AND AGE of bobwhites in the harvest provides information that may be used to index or induce additional attributes of populations such as production, survival, and distribution of hatches during the breeding season. As was the case with population counts, this information may be useful in evaluation of management efforts or habitat types. For example, estimates of average annual survival may be used to evaluate quail responses between a pasture with a grazing system and one with continuous grazing. Hatching distributions may be used to evaluate if supplemental feeding in a pasture influences the length of the hatching season differently than in a pasture with no feeding. Age ratios may be used to compare the productivity of bobwhite populations among habitat types or properties.

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Medium 9780253002303

Appendix 3. Equations Used to Estimate Body Masses Based on Dental and Skeletal Measurements and Their Respective Sources

Fariña, Richard A. Indiana University Press ePub




Sum of humerus + femur circumference (H9 + F8)

mass = 0.000084 (H9 + F8)2.73

Anderson et al. (1985)

Humerus length (H1)

log mass = 3.4026 × log H1 −2.3707

Scott (1990)

Humerus length (H2)

log mass = 3.3951 × log H2 −2.513

Scott (1990)

Condylar width (H3)

log mass = 2.7146 × log H3 + 0.2594

Scott (1990)

Trochlear width (H4)

log mass = 2.4815 × log H4 + 0.4516

Scott (1990)

Distal width (H5)

log mass = 2.5752 × log H5 + 0.2863

Scott (1990)

Transverse diameter (H7)

log mass = 2.485 × log H7 + 1.0934

Scott (1990)

Anteropost diameter (H8)

log mass = 2.4937 × log H8 + 0.876

Scott (1990)

Radius length (R1)

log mass = 2.8455 × log R1 − 1.8223

Scott (1990)

Distal articular surface width (R2)

log mass = 2.5894 × log R6 + 0.9092

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Medium 9781780647128

5: Potential of Two Bacillus Antagonists for Biocontrol of Grey Mould

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF


Potential of Two Bacillus

Antagonists for Biocontrol of

Grey Mould

S. Ben-Maachia,1,2 R. Errakhi,1,3,4* F. Mathieu1 and A. Lebrihi1

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan, France;


Centre Régional des Recherches en Agriculture Oasienne à Dégache,

Tozeur, Tunisia; 3Plateforme de Biotechnologie, AGRONUTRITION,

Carbonne, France; 4Laboratoire d’Électrophysiologies des Membranes,

Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Université Paris Diderot, Orsay, France



Grapes are one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Most of the grapevine cultivars used for wine production are highly sensitive to pathogen attack and require many fungicidal treatments seasonally (Girault et al., 2008). Currently, grey mould, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea, is controlled by preventive fungicides. The use of these chemicals has its limitations, and this has promoted consideration of the strategies of biological disease control and induction of plant resistance using non-pathogenic plant-associated microorganisms (Van Loon, 1997; Bargabus et al., 2003; Tjamos et al., 2005; Errakhi et al., 2007). In this chapter, we describe a preliminary characterization of two bacterial strains isolated from the south of Tunisia and evaluate induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism of biological control of B. cinerea by these two bacterial strains. Additionally, molecular identification of the two Bacillus strains investigated is demonstrated.

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Medium 9781574414615

Recalcitrant Horses

Ron Tatum University of North Texas Press ePub

Recalcitrant Horses

This is a big part of every horseshoer’s life. A whole book could be written on this subject. When shoers get together, the main topic of conversation, after the usual bragging about their famous horse customers, quickly gets to recalcitrant horses. We talk about our worst cases, about worst cases we’ve heard about, and we listen carefully to each other’s stories because some day we may have to shoe those same horses.

The attitudes of shoers are as diverse as are the stories. Some shoers relish working with these difficult horses, even specializing in them. I’ve never understood this completely. I think it must be an adrenaline addiction. I know it’s a real high to put the last, completed foot on the ground and step back from a crazy horse, but I’m sure as hell not going to seek out that kind of high. I can get my adrenaline highs from driving in freeway traffic or raising kids or suggesting to my wife that she seems to be putting on weight. I don’t need extra adrenaline.

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Medium 9781603447652

Appendix 20.1. Institutional and governance framework for selected coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Ecological Pulsing, the Basis for Sustainable Management

Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia and John W. Day

The Gulf of Mexico is a shared resource among Mexico, Cuba, and the United States and is at severe risk because of the following major problems: (1) freshwater use and shortage, (2) pollution, (3) habitat modifications and wetlands loss, (4) unsustainable development of living resources, (5) global climate change, (6) poor public education, and (7) weak political interest in the environmental quality of the area. Now scientific and technological information is changing the perception of policymakers from the initial focus of integrated coastal management that prevailed during the last 30 years. That focus was on economic development of the coastal zone but with both ecological and social uncertainty. In the 21st century, the main goal is to maintain the coastal zone in healthy, productive, and resilient condition so that it can provide the services to satisfy human needs in a sustainable manner. But, this will be possible only by preserving the functional structure of coastal ecosystems.

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Medium 9780253355089

10. Finite Element Analyses and Virtual Syntheses of Biological Structures and their Application to Sauropod Skulls

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub


In morphology and paleontology, the analysis of bony structures began with the art of drawing and the technique of photography. The first analytical calculations were possible by using simplified models, and quantitative measurements of strains on bone surfaces provided important opportunities for interpreting bony structures in recent animals. The development of finite element structure analysis (FESA) was a decisive step in obtaining spatial information about strain and stress distribution in models of both extinct and extant creatures. However, the inductive approach of FESA does not provide precise explanations for the existence of bone tissue in a specific position of a given finite element model. In contrast to FESA, the deductive technique of finite element structure synthesis (FESS) was developed for deducing a biological structure from a few initial conditions and boundary conditions. This makes FESS ideal for discovering which morphological structures can be explained in terms of mechanics and which cannot. Three examples of the applications of FESS illustrate its power: the virtual synthesis of the skull of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) and of the skulls of the sauropods Diplodocus and Camarasaurus. These studies demonstrate the utility of FESS for the virtual synthesis of bony structures to test assumptions and hypotheses regarding the relationship between function and structure. By obtaining a high degree of conformity between the virtual model and the real object, the method is satisfyingly validated.

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Medium 9781605094649

8 Living off the Grid

Abdul-Matin, Ibrahim Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

I began this section on watts by talking about the blackout of 2003 in the northeastern United States and how it got me thinking about energy. Throughout this section, we have looked at the sources of present and future energy, and also at energy from heaven versus energy from hell. I have also talked about the promise of green jobs and energy efficiency. Now I want to return to the blackout to talk about how we can address the imbalances in the way we deliver energy.

Blackouts are not unusual in the world. Across the globe, people live in places where energy is unreliable and unavailable. The Qur’an says:

But squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. (Qur’an 17:26)

In places where the flow of energy is seldom interrupted, like the Western world, we need to start seeing energy as a blessing. You don’t squander blessings. The blackout made clear something that Muslims know in our path, or Deen: everything is connected (the principle of tawhid), and the actions that we take in one place affect people in another.

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Medium 9781603445887

11. Land-Use Change and Increased Vulnerability

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Samuel David Brody

With over 50 percent of the US population residing in coastal areas, local decision makers are finding it increasingly difficult to protect critical natural resources, and facilitate the development of hazard-resilient communities. Nowhere is this more apparent than on the Texas coast. Rapid urban and suburban development has resulted in loss of critical habitats and key species while at the same time placing human populations in areas vulnerable to natural hazards. These problems are exacerbated within major population centers, particularly the Houston/Galveston area, where population growth, sprawling development patterns, and the alteration of hydrological systems have created some of the most vulnerable communities in the nation.

The following sections trace the causes and consequences of development within coastal watersheds with special emphasis on flooding in Texas. The underlying premise is that human exposure to natural hazards, such as floods and hurricanes, is not solely a technical or engineering problem, but one driven by land-use change and the pattern of development across metropolitan regions. First, the causes of land-use change within coastal landscapes are addressed based on the following four factors: population growth, spread of impervious surfaces, loss of naturally occurring wetlands, and sprawling patterns of development. Next, the adverse consequences of land-use change with respect to flood damage, social vulnerability, and risk exposure to severe storms are addressed. Finally, the policy and planning implications for mitigating the impact of the built environment and more effectively protecting communities from the threat of coastal hazards in the future are discussed.

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Medium 9781780647128

17: Impact of Grapevine Preharvest Treatments with Elicitor on the Occurrence and Toxigenesis of Ochratoxigenic Fungi

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF


Impact of Grapevine Preharvest

Treatments with Elicitor on the

Occurrence and Toxigenesis of Ochratoxigenic Fungi

C. Dachoupakan, C. Strub, V. Martinez,

J.-C. Baccou and S. Schorr-Galindo*

Joint Research Unit on Integrated Approach to Food Quality – Food

Safety Team, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France


Ochratoxin A (OTA), International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name: l-phenylalanine-N-[(5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H-2benzopyran-7-yl) carbonyl]-(R)-isocoumarin (Ringot et al., 2006), is a mycotoxin, a product of the secondary metabolism of moulds, and is one of the most common naturally occurring mycotoxins that contaminates a wide range of different plant products including cereals, coffee beans, cocoa, nuts, spices, dried fruits, beer and wine

(Miraglia et al., 2002). OTA is a compound with recognized nephrotoxic activity, which is possibly involved in Balkans endemic nephropathy (BEN) (Vrabcheva et al.,

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Medium 9780253009555

Quick Key

Jeffrey E. Belth Indiana University Press ePub

…or a Moth?

Quick Key: Butterflies

Quick Key: Skippers

Quick Key: Grass Skippers (wings closed)

Quick Key: Grass Skippers (wings open)

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