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17: Impact of Grapevine Preharvest Treatments with Elicitor on the Occurrence and Toxigenesis of Ochratoxigenic Fungi

Compant, S. CABI PDF

17

Impact of Grapevine Preharvest

Treatments with Elicitor on the

Occurrence and Toxigenesis of Ochratoxigenic Fungi

C. Dachoupakan, C. Strub, V. Martinez,

J.-C. Baccou and S. Schorr-Galindo*

Joint Research Unit on Integrated Approach to Food Quality – Food

Safety Team, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France

Introduction

Ochratoxin A (OTA), International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name: l-phenylalanine-N-[(5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H-2benzopyran-7-yl) carbonyl]-(R)-isocoumarin (Ringot et al., 2006), is a mycotoxin, a product of the secondary metabolism of moulds, and is one of the most common naturally occurring mycotoxins that contaminates a wide range of different plant products including cereals, coffee beans, cocoa, nuts, spices, dried fruits, beer and wine

(Miraglia et al., 2002). OTA is a compound with recognized nephrotoxic activity, which is possibly involved in Balkans endemic nephropathy (BEN) (Vrabcheva et al.,

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Medium 9780253355089

9. Characterization of Sauropod Bone Structure

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub

MAÏTENA DUMONT, ANDRAS BORBÉLY, ALEKSANDER KOSTKA, P. MARTIN SANDER, AND ANKE KAYSSER-PYZALLA

This chapter describes the applications of some well established methods of material science in the examination of sauropod bone microstructure. Fossilized bone is characterized here at different levels of hierarchy, from the macro level (at which bone can be separated into cortical and cancellous bone) to the nano level (at which the bone is composed of an assemblage of collagen and mineral particles), and then compared to bone of extant animals. X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis in combination with electron microscopy permit the quantification of the influence of diagenetic processes on fossilized bone. The chapter emphasizes that there are a multitude of investigative techniques well suited for bone analysis at the different structural levels. For an in-depth understanding of dinosaur bone structure and its global preservation state, however, a combination of the methods is necessary.

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Medium 9781607320470

14 Order Artiodactyla Even-toed Hoofed Mammals

David M. Armstrong University Press of Colorado ePub

The Artiodactyla is one of several orders of hoofed mammals, or ungulates. Ungulates (which, in addition to artiodactyls, include the living horses, tapirs, and rhinos as well as a rich diversity of extinct forms) are mostly adapted to covering large distances quickly, allowing them to exploit the abundant but often diffuse plant resources of open country. Usually the limbs are elongate, toes are reduced in number, and the collarbone (clavicle) is lost, with accompanying reduction in lateral mobility of the limb, a tradeoff for increased efficiency of fore-aft motion. Artiodactyls represent the zenith of these ungulate trends, and the order includes most of the living species of ungulates. In all artiodactyls the first digits (“thumb” in front, “big toe” behind) are missing. The second and fifth digits are reduced in more primitive living artiodactyls or lost completely in more advanced forms. The main weight of the body passes equally between the third and fourth digits in most species. One genus, Tayassu, the peccaries (family Tayassuidae), has 4 front toes per foot and 3 hind toes. In advanced artiodactyls the metacarpal bones of the front limbs and the meta-tarsal bones of the hind limbs are reduced in number and fused to form the cannon bones. The smallest of the artiodactyls is the mouse deer, Tragulus, which weighs about 8 kg, and the largest is Hippopotamus, which weighs up to 4,500 kg. For a technical appreciation of artiodactyls in particular, see Prothero and Foss (2007); Prothero and Schoch (2003) summarized ungulates in general, past and present. Some of the numerous taxonomic challenges within the artiodactyls were reviewed by Marcot (2007), synthesizing traditional “skin and skull” taxonomy with paleontology and molecular systematics.

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Medium 9780253355089

6. Reconstructing Body Volume and Surface Area of Dinosaurs Using Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry

Nicole Klein Indiana University Press ePub

STEFAN STOINSKI, TIM SUTHAU, AND HANNS-CHRISTIAN GUNGA

Crucial baseline data in dinosaur paleobiology and for reconstructing dinosaurs as living animals are accurate measurements of one- to three-dimensional features such as length, surface area, and volume. Dinosaur skeletons mounted and on display in museums offer the opportunity to obtain such data and to create digital models of them. These models, in turn, serve as the basis for estimating physiological and other biological parameters. In this chapter, we provide an overview of data capture using laser scanning and photogrammetrical methods and describe the working steps from the captured point clouds of the skeleton to the final volume model. Because dinosaur skeletons are complex objects with irregular structures, laser scanning proved to be much more accurate for capturing their shape than previously used methods such as photogrammetry. The modeling of the body surface area and body volume with digital techniques is also more accurate than established methods that are based on scale models. Here, nonuniform rational B spline (NURBS) curves and CAD software are used to reconstruct the body surface and for surface area and volume calculations.

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Medium 9780253356024

1. Land Use and Human Impacts on Habitats

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

In 1800, the land we call Indiana was just being settled by immigrants, and many Native Americans still occupied much of the territory. Indiana would become a state a few years later, in 1816. At that time, David Thomas (1819) in Travels through the Western Country in the Summer of 1816 provided an interesting look at the habitat. A dam and mill were being built in 1816 by Major Abraham Markle on Otter Creek, in what is now Vigo County. Thomas stated that everything to the north of the dam was Indian country. The mill burned in the 1930s, but the dam still exists (it has been repaired a few times). The dam is about a half-mile east of North Terre Haute, and is just above a major rock outcrop. It is situated in such a way that the water flowing over the dam provides a deep pool just below the dam and keeps the rock bare, providing bare rock habitat with some stones. Downstream are areas of progressively smaller rock fragments, then gravel, and finally the silt and sand bottom which forms most of Vigo County. The construction of this dam almost 200 years ago created a habitat which continues to have by far the greatest biodiversity of any stream in Vigo County (108 species of fish taken there to date), and one that could be unrivaled in the state. Indiana in 1800 consisted of 3 main habitats: forest (some 20.4 million acres) comprised 90% of the state; prairie (approximately 2 million acres) made up 10% of the state; and approximately 5.6 million acres of wetlands (25% of the state) were embedded within the forest and prairie.

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Medium 9780892727834

Appendix A: Maine Audubon Field Checklist of Maine Birds

Bob Duchesne Down East Books ePub

ALCIDS (ALCIDAE)

Atlantic Puffin
Black Guillemot
Common Murre
Dovekie
Razorbill
Thick-billed Murre

BITTERNS and HERONS
(ARDEIDAE)

American Bittern
Black-crowned Night-Heron
Great Blue Heron
Great Egret
Green Heron
Least Bittern
Little Blue Heron
Snowy Egret
Tricolored Heron
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron

BLACKBIRDS (ICTERIDAE)

Baltimore Oriole
Bobolink
Brown-headed Cowbird
Common Grackle
Eastern Meadowlark
Orchard Oriole
Red-winged Blackbird
Rusty Blackbird

BOOBIES (SULIDAE)

Northern Gannet

CARDINALS and ALLIES
(CARDINALIDAE)

Blue Grosbeak
Dickcissel
Indigo Bunting
Northern Cardinal
Rose-breasted Grosbeak

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Medium 9780874216349

The Transformative Power of Art: An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams Michael Toms, New Dimensions Radio Show, 2000

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

We live in the midst of the sacred and the profane, light and darkness, conscious and unconscious, life and death, visible and invisible worlds sometimes meshing, sometimes colliding, always moving us towards the mystery, ever deeper. And we wonder as we wander. This is our journey on this edition of New Dimensions, as we explore the relevance of a 15th-century artistic masterpiece to the world and time we presently inhabit with our guest, Terry Tempest Williams.

Terry Tempest Williams, former Naturalist-in-Residence of the Utah Museum of Natural History, is the recipient of a Lannan Literary Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship. She’s the author of Refuge, An Unspoken Hunger, Desert Quartet, and Leap. Join us for the next hour as we explore the wilderness world and the wondrous world of Terry Tempest Williams. My name is Michael Toms; I’ll be your host. Welcome to New Dimensions.

_______________

Michael Toms, “The Transformative Power of Art,” New Dimensions radio interview, June 29, 2000, program 2821. Produced by New Dimensions World Broadcasting Network. Used by permission.

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Medium 9780253000958

Under the Influence

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

My father drank. He drank as a gut-punched boxer gasps for breath, as a starving dog gobbles food—compulsively, secretly, in pain and trembling. I use the past tense not because he ever quit drinking but because he quit living. That is how the story ends for my father, age sixty-four, heart bursting, body cooling and forsaken on the linoleum of my brother’s trailer. The story continues for my brother, my sister, my mother, and me, and will continue so long as memory holds.

In the perennial present of memory, I slip into the garage or barn to see my father tipping back the flat green bottles of wine, the brown cylinders of whiskey, the cans of beer disguised in paper bags. His Adam’s apple bobs, the liquid gurgles, he wipes the sandy-haired back of a hand over his lips, and then, his bloodshot gaze bumping into me, he stashes the bottle or can inside his jacket, under the workbench, between two bales of hay, and we both pretend the moment has not occurred.

“What’s up, buddy?” he says, thick-tongued and edgy.

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Medium 9781603447652

4. Ecosystem-Based Management of Mobile Bay, Alabama

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

John F. Valentine, Kenneth L. Heck Jr., Michael R. Dardeau, and Hank Burch

Most marine communities are inextricably linked with other communities by both the passive and active transport of materials and organisms via currents, larval drift, and active migrations. Cross-habitat movement of nutrients, detritus, prey, and consumers (i.e., spatial subsidies) all exert major effects on populations and food webs (for example, Vetter 1994, 1995; Persson et al. 1996; Polis and Hurd 1996, Polis and Strong 1996; Harrold et al. 1998; Rose and Polis 1998; Vetter 1998). The ecological productivity of most estuaries is driven by inputs of energy, in the form of detritus and/or drifting and migrating organisms, and nutrients from upstream watersheds (for example, Day et al. 1989; Deegan et al. 1990; Deegan 1993; Deegan et al. 1995; Rabalais et al. 1996; Deegan and Garritt 1997). Conversely, a number of marine organisms migrate upstream into such watersheds to feed and reproduce. Oddly, despite the well-documented importance of such geographically broad trophic linkages, estuarine environmental management is frequently focused on ecologically irrelevant small-scale, permit-based activities that overlook the cumulative effects of chronic anthropogenic activities within physically dynamic and highly linked watersheds. Such is certainly the case in coastal Alabama where ecosystem-based management is lacking.

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Medium 9780253007896

1889 The United States Coast Guard

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

In 1882, Congress authorized a Life Saving Service unit to be established on the Lake Michigan shore east of Trail Creek. Operations began in 1889. The station crew originally consisted of six civilians, called surfmen, commanded by a military officer called a keeper (better known, at least in Michigan City, as “Captain”). It was the keeper’s job to keep accurate records and to ensure that his men had constant training. He resided on base year-round. The surf-men were only on duty during the active season, from April to December.

By their own accounts, life at the station was rather dull most of the time. Occasionally there would be moments of “high adventure” as a ship, sailors, or passengers needed to be saved during a major storm. The surfmen and their keeper were “first responders” who on occasion performed their duties at great personal risk. In the early days, of course, the rescue boats had no motors and had to be rowed through often high and dangerous lake waves to get to vessels in serious trouble.

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Medium 9781574411751

CHAPTER X Consensus and Compromise

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER X

Consensus and Compromise

D

espite the confusion of plans and motives, and the apparent lack of success by environmentalists or legislators to create a Big Thicket

Park, by 1970 there had been a decision. A portion of the Big Thicket would be preserved. Who would initiate it, when, and in what shape, form, or size had not been established. Over the next few years, a multitude of proposals, numerous compromises, countless hours of public hearings, and an untold quantity of print, film, and conversation finally resolved into the passage of an act of Congress to establish the Big Thicket National

Preserve.

The struggle to pass the bill represented an example of the controversy between preservationists and business interests over the use of the nation’s dwindling natural resources. For in the Big Thicket controversy, as is true with many modern environmental issues, the champions of preservation were the urban groups removed from the wilderness environments.

Furthermore, the Big Thicket issue illustrated the gulf between preservationists and conservationists. Timber interests, depicted as villains by the preservationists in the Big Thicket struggle, were in fact ardent conservationists dedicated to the concept of multiple-use forestry. The preservationists, however, sought to preserve the wilderness not because it was good business, or even exclusively to preserve the natural environment,

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6: Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Especially Grey Mould

Compant, S. CABI PDF

6 

Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by

Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases,

Especially Grey Mould

R. Errakhi,1,2,3* F. Bouteau,3 M. Barakate4 and A. Lebrihi2

Plateforme de Biotechnologie, AGRONUTRITION, Carbonne, France;

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan,

France; 3Laboratoire d’Électrophysiologies des Membranes, Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Université Paris Diderot, Orsay, France;

4

Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech,

Morocco

1

2

Introduction

The biological control of plant pathogens is an integral component in maintaining ecological balance in the world of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants. It also helps to reduce the use of chemical pesticides to the minimum (Nautiyal, 2000;

­Nautiyal et al., 2002). Whipps (2001) has reviewed the use of various biocontrol antagonists, including bacteria, in plant disease control. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how some microorganisms control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens include mycoparasitism and antibiosis (Whipps, 2001). Mycoparasitism involves the production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyse fungal cellwalls, while antibiosis involves the production of secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere. These metabolites inhibit the growth and/or differentiation of fungal pathogens.

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Medium 9780870818820

6 ORDER CHIROPTERA: Bats

David M. Armstrong University Press of Colorado ePub

Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight. “Flying” squirrels and the “flying lemurs” of Southeast Asia are highly efficient gliders, but they cannot actually fly (and furthermore, flying lemurs are not even lemurs!) As fliers, bats are members of an elite group: only four groups of animals have successfully evolved aerial niches. Many kinds of insects can fly, of course, and once there were flying reptiles (including the well-known pterosaurs). Birds evolved flight independently of other flying reptiles. And bats represent the fourth independent line of flying animals, having evolved from shrew-like mammals. Like pterosaurs—and unlike the birds—bats have wings formed by a membrane stretched between greatly elongated finger bones. The principal flight surface of a bird, by contrast, is formed by feathers attached to the arm.

The earliest fossils of bats have been collected from shales of Eocene age (some 50 million years old) in southwestern Wyoming. The earliest known bats were already perfectly good fliers and in many respects resemble groups now living. Intermediate stages between ground-dwelling insectivores and flying bats are unknown. There are about 1,100 living species of bats arrayed in 18 families, making this the second most diverse order of mammals.

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Medium 9781780642109

6: Acidification of Tropical Soils under Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

6 

Acidification of Tropical Soils under

Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Kazumichi Fujii,1,2* Chie Hayakawa,2,3 Shinya Funakawa2 and Takashi Kosaki4

1

Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; 2Graduate

School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 3National Institute for

Agro-Environmental Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Department of Tourism Science,

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan

6.1  Introduction

In the humid tropics, shifting cultivation is an extensive farming system on typically highly weathered and leached soils (Nye and Green­ land, 1960; Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Owing to rapid population growth, traditional shifting cultivation with an adequa­ tely long fallow period has been replaced with more intensive cropping systems with shorter fallow periods or continuous cropping (Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Since restoration of soil fertility is dependent upon a  sufficiently long fallow period, continuous cropping risks widespread soil degradation and reductions in plant productivity in Asian countries.

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Medium 9780870819360

SOUTH DAKOTA COUGAR

Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub

DEANNA DAWN

South Dakota—A scientist, using a vacant summer cabin as a blind, is treated to a rare viewing of a mother cougar and her three cubs.

My interest in wildlife grew out of a childhood passion. I always felt a deep connection to the wild. I knew I would spend my life continually seeking to know more about it. But when I saw a BBC film called Puma: Lion of the Andes, my focus became clear. In the documentary, the brilliant filmmaker Hugh Miles tracks and documents a female puma in the wilds of southern Chile. There are no settlements nearby and, in time, the feline comes to accept his constant presence and his ongoing observations. Eventually, she gives birth to a litter of kittens, and we see the family’s early life play out before our eyes. I was completely mesmerized from beginning to end. At the time, I had no way of knowing just how much this film would impact my life; I just knew I needed to know more about this amazing animal.

A few years ago I was working on a cougar research project in the Black Hills of South Dakota. One afternoon I got a call from the groundskeeper of a remote, vacant summer camp. He informed me that he had discovered a fresh deer carcass, presumably killed by a cougar, in the woods surrounding the camp.

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