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Medium 9781780642109

2: Effects of Land-use Changes on Biochemical and Microbial Parameters in Soils of the Andaman Islands, India

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

2 

Effects of Land-use Changes on Biochemical and Microbial Parameters in Soils of the Andaman Islands, India

Raghavan Dinesh,1* Arkalgud Ganeshamurthy2 and Subrata Ghoshal Chaudhuri3

1

ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala, India; 2ICAR-Indian

Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; 3ICAR-National

Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (Regional Centre), Salt Lake City,

Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

2.1  Introduction

Large areas of forest in the tropics are presently undergoing deforestation due to anthropogenic influences such as forest clearance, human settlement and conversion for agriculture (Gibbs et al., 2010; Villoria et al., 2014). It is well known that forest clearance for agriculture, an increasingly prevalent situation in the tropics, removes natural vegetation, reduces biodiversity, and simplifies the landscape and ecosystem structure

(Li et al., 2005; Rosa et al., 2014). The effects of these changes include reductions in productivity because of increasing losses of nutrients and soil; downstream impacts, such as reductions in water quality through increased sedimentation and changes in water yield; and widespread

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Medium 9781574412826

Indexes

Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781770907041

6 | The Arctic Example

Jesse Vernon Trail ECW Press ePub

When we think of the Arctic, images of a vast, desolate landscape often come to mind. Bitter cold permeates the air throughout much of the year, often accompanied by incessant winds. But with the sunshine and warmth of an Arctic spring and summer, many areas of this stark region become alive with the colorful flowers of plants like moss saxifrage, Arctic poppy and Arctic willow herb. Most of these stalwart flowering plants hug the ground in a loose to dense carpet. Here and there, taller, colorful blooming plants and tough conifers can be found, particularly where they are protected from the winds by, say, a mound of soil or a rock.

There are several different ways to define the Arctic, but for our purposes we will take it to mean the frigid area north of the natural tree line and within the Arctic Circle. The tree line is the farthest north that trees can grow. Beyond this is the tundra, where most of the Arctic lies. Any trees that are able to grow in the tundra are few and far between, and they are increasingly dwarfed and gnarled the further north you go because of nearly constant winds that blow unimpeded across the virtually flat landscape.

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Medium 9781623490386

11. Beaches of Mexico and Cuba

Richard A. Davis Texas A&M University Press ePub

Beaches of Mexico and Cuba

OVERALL, the Gulf Coast of Mexico is relatively unpopulated and therefore rather pristine. Areas around population centers of Veracruz and Tampico are exceptions. This chapter considers some of the major places where people will visit. The discussion of the Mexican coast of the Gulf terminates in the Cancún vicinity.

The Cuban shoreline is not well known and is frequented only by non-US citizens at this time. The northern coast just east of Havana is the most popular place to visit and has excellent beaches. There are two styles to the shoreline zone in Cuba, and each is discussed.

Mexico

The beaches are much the same in northern Mexico as they are in South Texas. The back-barrier lagoon here is also called Laguna Madre. Overall, the beaches of Mexico are fine sand and are terrigenous except for the area of Campeche Bay and the Yucatán Peninsula, where carbonate skeletal debris dominates beach sediment. This material is coarser than that on the terrigenous beaches. In the area between the two distinct sediment types the beaches are dominated by a mixture of quartz and carbonate debris, giving the sediment a bimodal texture.

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Medium 9780253007896

1896 Octave Chanute and His Flying Machines

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Octave Chanute was already well known as a brilliant engineer before he began his experiments in aviation at the Indiana Dunes. The chief engineer for the Erie Railroad, he had designed railroad bridges, flood control dams, and even the Kansas City and Chicago Stockyards. Chanute, Kansas, is named for him.

Chanute’s avocation, however, was flying machines. He gathered stories about others who were making and testing flying machines and published a series of twenty-seven articles about aviation in The Railroad and Engineering Journal. His book Progress in Flying Machines came out in 1894.

Chanute recognized that stability was the primary problem with existing gliders. Being an engineer himself, he decided to design a glider that could be controlled by a pilot with a minimum of effort. He also decided that the soft sands of the Indiana Dunes would be perfect for testing various “machines.”

So it was that on June 22, 1896, sixty-two-year-old Octave Chanute, accompanied by his son, Charles, William Avery, and Augustus Herring, took the train from Chicago to the dunes at Miller. Besides provisions and camping gear, they took along two disassembled gliders and a kite.

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Medium 9781574411546

10 There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

Andrea Dawn Lopez University of North Texas Press PDF

There’s a Snake Asleep in Our Jeep

go to work because there was a snake under the hood of her car, curled up right next to her engine. She had no idea what to do.

We told the woman to put a line of flour or baby powder around her car so that we could keep track of the snake. If he was to leave without anyone seeing, the woman would still think he was in her car. By placing a line of powder around the car, we would be able to tell if the snake had slithered off at any point because he would leave a track.

The next step was to try and get the snake to leave her car. Snakes generally crawl up under the hood of cars because they like the warmth from the engine. Snakes are cold-blooded, meaning their body temperatures are the same as their surroundings. The warmer the environment, the more active they are. Underneath a hood is also a quiet, dark hiding place. Often, the midday sun is too hot for a snake. They like to keep warm, but they don’t like to bake in the sun during the hottest time of the day. Engines can be ideal resting places.

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Medium 9781574410624

12 • Love at First Sight

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

Love at

First Sight

In

1983 WRR received one female kinkajou who had been a

"pet" for thirteen years. Her "owner" had cared for her for all those years and finally reached a point where, because of her typical wild animal behavior, she had to give her up. A special enclosure, twenty feet tall, thirty feet long and twenty-one feet wide, was constructed for her at our Sanctuary. There were oak and cedar trees growing throughout the enclosure, and several sleeping boxes placed near the top gave the kinkajou plenty of climbing space.

Kinkajous are in the same family as raccoons, and consequently our new resident became the official welcoming committee of one for all incoming raccoons. For the next three years the female kinkajou cohabited with hundreds of young raccoons being rehabilitated and readied for release, as well as injured raccoons staying with WRRjust long enough to recuperate from various injuries. Always she was the perfect hostess, sleeping with and often grooming the visiting coons.

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Medium 9780253357014

Part 5: Dinosaur Evolution in the Mesozoic

Art Consultant Edited by M Bob Walters Indiana University Press ePub

Ralph E. Molnar

The past was different; otherwise there could be no history. It has even been said that the past is a different country. But a derivative quotation (Stross 2006) is more to the point: “not only is the past a foreign country, it’s one that doesn’t issue visas.” We don’t take this seriously, but simply imagine that the world of the past was very much like the present. But our imaginations are weak–the past was a foreign world and a trip into the Mesozoic would take us to a place unrecognizable except to specialists in the evolution and history of the earth.

We are raised on the notion that life has evolved, and so we realize that the creatures and plants of the Mesozoic were different from those now alive. But the climate and geography of the earth have also changed. To understand the distribution and ecology of dinosaurs, we need to understand how these aspects of the environment differed from those familiar today and, more important, how we can discern this from the raggle-taggle remains of ancient organisms and the sedimentary detritus deposited when they lived and died.

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Medium 9781623490140

4. Population: The Fundamental Issue

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub

4

Population

The Fundamental Issue

The Earth’s population could double in the next 40 years, creating immense hunger, unemployment, civil unrest and environmental destruction.

—Charlton Heston, actor, spokesman for
the National Rifle Association

Growth for its own sake is the ideology of the cancer cell.

—Edward Abbey, author and environmentalist

A MAN HAD A HOME BY THE RIVER, and one day a flood came. As the water reached his porch, a rescue boat came by. “Get in,” the boatman yelled. “No,” said the homeowner, “I believe that God will protect me.” Hours later, the water was up to the second floor and the boat came back. The homeowner again refused a ride. “I have faith in the Lord,” he said. Finally, standing on his chimney, he faithfully waved off an attempt by a helicopter to save him. Then he drowned. When he came before God in heaven the homeowner asked, “How could this happen? I believed in you and you let me die.” God replied, “I don’t know what you are talking about; I sent out two boats and a helicopter.”

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Medium 9781780642109

6: Acidification of Tropical Soils under Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF

6 

Acidification of Tropical Soils under

Forest and Continuous Cropping in Thailand and Indonesia

Kazumichi Fujii,1,2* Chie Hayakawa,2,3 Shinya Funakawa2 and Takashi Kosaki4

1

Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; 2Graduate

School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 3National Institute for

Agro-Environmental Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Department of Tourism Science,

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan

6.1  Introduction

In the humid tropics, shifting cultivation is an extensive farming system on typically highly weathered and leached soils (Nye and Green­ land, 1960; Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Owing to rapid population growth, traditional shifting cultivation with an adequa­ tely long fallow period has been replaced with more intensive cropping systems with shorter fallow periods or continuous cropping (Kyuma and Pairintra, 1983; Mertz et al., 2009). Since restoration of soil fertility is dependent upon a  sufficiently long fallow period, continuous cropping risks widespread soil degradation and reductions in plant productivity in Asian countries.

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Medium 9781574410624

1 • A Day in the Duck Family's Life

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

A Day in the Duck

Family's Life

Arer more than seventeen years of rescuing wild animals from every imaginable fate, I always have to remember what would have become of them had we not been there for them.

Without a doubt, most of them would have perished. The question is: are we simply tampering with Mother Nature every time we save a life? Considering the alternative these animals face, I believe it is vitally important for us to rescue every wild animal we can. Faced with the continuing onslaught of relentless human encroachment-bulldozers, development, traffic, poisons, traps-wild animals don't have an easy life. In most cases, we're fortunate enough to be able to intervene in time to give the injured or sick animal a second chance at life.

Every so often, though, I find myself in the position of being a silent observer. I feel fortunate to have been given the gift of watching wild animals in their habitat as they prove their unlimited depth of feeling and innate ability to care for one another.

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Medium 9780253356024

14. Vertebrate and Cave Invertebrate Species Described from Indiana

Jr John O Whitaker Indiana University Press ePub

A number of early biologists worked in Indiana and described several species from the state. We will list here the vertebrate and cave invertebrate species that have their type localities in Indiana. An impressive number of fish and cave invertebrate species were described from Indiana—fish because some of America’s earliest and most productive ichthyologists worked here, and cave invertebrates because of their high degree of endemism. The information on plants described from Indiana is not readily available and thus has not been included here.

Fish

Thirty-seven species of fish were described from localities in Indiana, out of the 211 fish historically known from the state (17.5%). This is not surprising, as a number of ichthyologists worked in the state throughout the nineteenth century. Samuel Rafinesque described 24 on his own, from a trip in 1818 down the Ohio River and into the lower Wabash River (Rafinesque 1820). Charles Lesueur, Edward Drinker Cope, David Starr Jordan, Herbert E. Copeland, Charles Gilbert, Barton W. Evermann, and Joseph Swain also described fish species from Indiana prior to the beginning of the twentieth century. The type localities and authors for all the fish species described from Indiana are given in Table F-7. Two of these are the shovelnose sturgeon (Figure 14.1) and the greenside darter (Figure 14.2).

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Medium 9780253000958

Wildness

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Hope caught me by surprise a couple of weeks ago, when the last snow of winter hit town on the first day of spring. It was a heavy, slashing snow, stinging the skin, driven by a north wind. Because the temperature was near freezing, the flakes clung to everything. A white streak balanced on telephone wires, on clotheslines, on every branch and twig and bud. Many buds had already cracked open after a spell of warm days, so we fretted over the reckless early flowers and eager trees. By noon, snow piled a foot deep, and more kept falling. The few drivers who ventured out usually wound up spinning their wheels in drifts. Soon even the four-wheelers gave up and the city trucks quit plowing and the streets were abandoned to the storm.

I made the first blemish on our street by going out at dusk for a walk. The light was the color of peaches, as if the sky were saturated with juice. The clinging snow draped every bush with a lacy cloak. Even fire hydrants and cars looked rakish in their gleaming mantles. I peeled back my parka hood to uncover my ears, and heard only the muffled crunching of my boots. Now and again a siren wailed, a limb creaked, or wind sizzled through the needles of a pine, but otherwise the city was eerily silent, as though following an evacuation. In an hour I met only three other walkers, each one huddled and aloof. The weight of snow snapped branches and toppled trees onto power lines, leaving our neighborhood without electricity. As I shuffled past the dark houses, beneath unlit street lamps, through blocks where nothing moved except the wind, my mood swung from elation toward dismay. The snow began to seem a frozen burden, like a premonition of glaciers, bearing down from the heedless, peach-colored sky. The world had been radiantly simplified, but at the price of smothering our handiwork and maiming trees and driving warm-blooded creatures into hiding.

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Medium 9780253006820

15. The Response of Great Lakes Water Levels and Potential Impacts of Future Climate Scenarios

Sara C Pryor Indiana University Press ePub

J. R. ANGEL

The Great Lakes contain one-fifth of the world’s fresh surface water and 84 percent of the North America surface water supply (U.S. EPA 2011). The Great Lakes basin (Figure 15.1) is home to some 34 million people (Great Lakes Information Network, 2011), with a multi-billion-dollar economy and a rich variety of ecosystems. However, the impacts of future climate change on society and the environment in the region are of great concern. The Great Lakes are currently experiencing (among other things) warmer air and water temperatures, decreases of lake ice, longer onset of lake stratification, and more variable water levels (Hinderer et al. 2010). Accordingly, “stakeholders throughout the Great Lakes are beginning to plan for and implement adaptation measures that will help prepare for and diminish these impacts” (Hinderer et al. 2010).

These impacts are not hypothetical. Drought conditions in the last decade have given some insight into the kinds of issues related to low Great Lakes water levels. The National Drought Mitigation Center’s Drought Impact Report (NDMC 2010) noted 17 incidences of impacts of low water levels since 1999. Many of the reports dealt with impacts on the operation of marinas and small boats. One incident in 2000 noted that the sustained dry weather caused lake levels to drop between 28 and 33 cm, forcing ships to lighten loads in order to avoid running aground. An official with the Lake Carriers’ Association was quoted as saying that this “light loading” costs about $200,000 in cargo per shipment. Another incident in 2000 noted that the wild rice beds dried up in the Kakagon Sloughs, a coastal wetland off of Lake Superior. In a 2007 incident, the report noted that the Edison Sault Electric power plant in Sault Sainte Marie was operating below 50 percent capacity due to low water levels. At the time, Lake Superior was at its lowest point in 81 years.

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Medium 9781780647128

4: Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

4

Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against

Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

A. Aziz,1* B. Verhagen,1 S. Villaume,1 M. Höfte,2

F. Baillieul,1 C. Clément1 and P. Trotel-Aziz1

URVVC EA 4707, SDRP, University of Reims, Reims, France;

Laboratory of Phytopathology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

1

2

Introduction

Plants have evolved the ability to form beneficial relationships with mutualistic microbes that are important for plant growth and health (Mendes et al., 2011; Berendsen et al.,

2012). The colonization of plant roots by mutualistic microbes is associated with an enhanced defensive capacity in the aerial parts of the plant, resulting in induced systemic resistance (ISR) (Pieterse et al., 2012). This resistance may also result from a priming of the tissues to express basal defence mechanisms more rapidly and more strongly after subsequent pathogen challenge (Verhagen et al., 2011; Zamioudis and Pieterse, 2012).

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