1152 Chapters
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Medium 9781786390981

7 Invasive Freshwater Invertebrates and Fishes: Impacts on Human Health

Mazza, G.; Tricarico, E. CABI PDF


Invasive Freshwater Invertebrates and Fishes: Impacts on Human


Catherine Souty-Grosset1*, Pedro Anastácio2,

Julian Reynolds3 and Elena Tricarico4


de Poitiers, France; 2Universidade de Évora, Portugal;

College, University of Dublin, Ireland; and 4Department of

Biology, University of Florence, Italy



Inland waters are subject to more widespread biotic invasions than terrestrial ecosystems.

During the last century, 756 aquatic species were introduced in Europe, frequently carrying new parasites for native fauna and humans. The consequences of such invasions are the loss of the invaders’ original parasites, the introduction of new parasites, or new intermediate hosts or vectors for existing parasites. Many parasites are water-borne and need aquatic species to complete their transmission cycles. The list of 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien

Species (Lowe et  al., 2000) does not take into account human health problems, so a risk assessment of the consequences of invasive freshwater alien species requires more attention. Here we review the direct and indirect impacts of invasive freshwater alien species on human health. Direct impacts include the injuries or allergies and new contaminants (bacteria, toxins), and their role as intermediate hosts to human parasites. Indirect impacts include the effects of the chemicals needed to control these aliens, changes to ecosystem services making the invaded area less suitable for recreational human use and damage to cultivation/ aquaculture affecting human well-being in developing countries. A clear management response is urgently needed to halt their spread and reduce or minimize the risk of human and wildlife disease.

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Medium 9781607320548

PART VII Reaching Sufficiency: Structuring Decision Making

David M. Freeman University Press of Colorado ePub

Seven-eighths of anything cannot be seen.


The problem in general was that environmental impact statement (EIS) and biological opinion (BO) analytical teams had been attempting to formulate publicly defensible documents in the service of a more natural variable flow vision, but the states and water providers had accepted virtually none of their ideas. How could the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) go into the public arena with a draft EIS that examined a program proposal the states would not associate themselves with in major respects? Did the USFWS and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) really want to release descriptions and examinations of a proposed program that would quickly be disavowed by the states and their water providers? Doing so would be disastrous. Such a move would play directly into the hands of those who would welcome the collapse of the entire enterprise—especially those who opposed the intent of the 1973 Endangered Species Act (ESA)—and who would gain the advantage in the ongoing environmental policy debates if handed an important example of failure on the Platte River.

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Medium 9780253007896

2009 BioBlitz

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

A BioBlitz is a well-organized, fast-paced twenty-four-hour event in which students, teachers, and other community members team up with park rangers and volunteer scientists to find and identify as many species of living plants, animals, and other organisms as they can.

The National Geographic Society decided to hold a BioBlitz at a different national park each year from 2007 up until the National Park Service’s centennial in 2016. The 2009 Blitz was at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, where in spite of heavy rains more than 1,200 species were identified.

Superintendent Constantine Dillon welcomed and thanked the volunteers. (facing left) NPS, Lee Traynham

Volunteers, including hundreds of students from area schools, came ready to work. (facing right) NPS, Jeff Manuszak

Volunteers planned the operation on land. (facing below) NPS, James Beversdorf

On May 15 and 16, the park hosted more than two thousand students and thousands of additional volunteers, who spread out in small groups and surveyed the park looking for every available living species they could find. The tally at the end of the search period was 890, but it grew to more than 1,200 after biologists had time to examine some species in their labs, confirm IDs, and compare notes.

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Medium 9780870819629

Part III. Exploring Death Valley National Park by Foot and Bicycle

Betty Tucker-Bryan University Press of Colorado ePub

The tiny tracks in the sand, the belly flowers, the intricate mosaics of the dried mud playas—none of this can be truly seen or understood from a vehicle. Unless you get down on your knees, how can you peer closely into the hollow of a salt pinnacle? Unless you walk, you will miss the Gnomes’ Workshop and the early morning tracks on the sand dunes. Desolation Canyon will remain an unknown, as will the rare and endangered pupfish at Salt Creek. An hour or two spent on a morning or evening walk will reward you with memories and a love for the desert.

Keep in mind that the desert holds beauty, but it also holds danger for those who do not respect it. You may have spent years strolling along beaches or up mountain trails, but you must reorient your thinking before hiking in the desert. Distances are deceiving. A hill that seems close could be more miles away than you want to travel. Keep personal safety in mind. Hiking in the summer is never recommended. Stay out of abandoned mines and open shafts or underground tunnels. There might be poisonous gases in the mines, and weak supports could suddenly cave in. A 100-foot drop into darkness is also a possibility.

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Medium 9781574411751

CHAPTER III The Spanish Assault

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF


The Spanish Assault


he white man’s assault on the Big Thicket region began as a small part of the great struggle between Spain and France for supremacy of the southern regions of what is now the United States. Prior to 1685, the area encompassing the region of present-day Texas was uninhabited by white men. Spain, who claimed Texas, had not attempted to colonize the region. Indeed, only a few Spanish adventurers, such as Cabeza de Vaca and Luis de Moscoso, had traversed even a small portion of the realm.

However, in 1685, an event occurred that would drive the Spanish to establish permanent settlements in East Texas.

In that year, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, established an illfated French colony of 180 settlers in Texas. The settlement was located on the banks of the Garcitas River about five miles inland from Matagorda

Bay. Even the founding of this small colony in the vast unexplored region of Texas was an accident. La Salle had intended to plant this colony at the mouth of the Mississippi River, which he had explored just a few years earlier. Such a colony would have established French supremacy over the fur-rich Mississippi Valley. Unfortunately, a navigation error caused the

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Medium 9781607322702

4 Chasing Nightly Marvels in the Rocky Mountains

Rick A. Adams University Press of Colorado ePub
Medium 9781574412161

Gentle “ Bear”

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

Gentle “Bear”

As we celebrate each anniversary of helping animals, it is natural to look back, to remember animals both human and non-human, to reflect on why some things happened, to mourn, to be thankful, and to plan ahead.

Wildlife Rescue is evolving into the very organization that I had always dreamed it would. I remember well those difficult days in the late 1970s when all WRR could do was manage to exist day to day, but always present was the very real dream of a beautiful 200–acre sanctuary. Now we are literally living and building that dream. But, as with so many things in life, along with dreams and plans there are often aspects of sadness. Growth and change are funny things. We usually look forward to them, fear them, get excited about them, welcome them, and dread them all at the same time. But one thing is certain: with life comes change and with change, if we are wise, comes growth.

The most important component of Wildlife Rescue is that we save the lives of animals who otherwise would most likely perish. Many of the animals we care for are brought to us by people who found them in dire need of help, hit by a car, poisoned, or trapped. Some are found motherless, lying on the ground waiting to die; then there are those who are left at our gate, tied there with a note, hoping that we will help. This was how Macy the Dog came our way.

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Medium 9781623490140

9. The Minnesota Miracles: Real Success through Engagement

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub


The Minnesota Miracles

Real Success through Engagement

Some luck lies in not getting what you thought you wanted but getting what you have, which once you have got it you may be smart enough to see is what you would have wanted had you known.

—Minnesota native Garrison Keillor

A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.

—Aldo Leopold

AN EXTRAORDINARY EXAMPLE of the breakthrough progress that is possible when environmentalists, sportsmen, and rural residents work together comes from my home state of Minnesota. In 2008, after a ten-year grassroots citizen effort to gain the right to vote on it, Minnesotan citizens got a conservation funding measure on the ballot in 2008. They did it above the objections of many of their elected leaders and of most of the state’s editorial media. The initiative called for a 3/8 percent sales tax dedicated to conservation. Once they were able to place the compromise initiative on the ballot, it passed by a margin of 57–39 percent, even though not voting counted against the measure as a “no” vote. It received the most votes of any candidate or issue in Minnesota history. It did so as a taxing and spending initiative during the worse economic recession in seventy-five years.

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Medium 9781780647128

15: A Model for Biological Control Studies of Grapevine Trunk Diseases Under Laboratory Conditions

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF


A Model for Biological Control

Studies of Grapevine Trunk

Diseases Under Laboratory


R.J.G. Pierron, J. Pouzoulet, A. Meziane,

N. Mailhac and A. Jacques*

Equipe Agrophysiologie et Agromolécules, Département des ­

Sciences Agronomiques et Agroalimentaires, Université de Toulouse,

Toulouse, France


The aetiology of grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) is poorly understood (Mugnai et al.,

1999; Surico, 2001; Larignon et al., 2009; Lecomte et al., 2012; Bertsch et al., 2013).

Several fungal species are associated with decay in or discoloration of the wood of grapevine trunks (Mugnai et al., 1999; Lecomte et al., 2012). Nevertheless, esca-associated fungi are also present in healthy wood, independently of the expression of foliar symptoms (Bruez et al., 2014). To date, there is no resistant cultivar, although tolerance has been observed according to the expression of foliar symptoms under field conditions (Grosman and Doublet, 2012). This cultivar tolerance may be related to the dimensions of xylem vessels (Pouzoulet et al., 2014), which seems to condition grapevine–microbe interactions. These interactions are poorly described (Bertsch et al.,

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Medium 9781607320883


Mark Hudson University Press of Colorado ePub

A small bunch of foresters cannot buck the march of economic events . . . We can be a thousand times right but our voice will not prevail . . . I cannot see how we can put over regulation of the lumber industry—the only thing that I am convinced will stop forest devastation.

Raphael Zon, Letter to Maj. George P. Ahern, 1929

To address the unanswered questions posed at the end of Chapter 3 (namely, why was the Forest Service seemingly able to unilaterally and autonomously set fire policy, and why did it massage scientific research to support a policy of full suppression), we need to look at the political-economic context in which the USFS, and forestry1 more generally, was expected to operate in the United States.

This inquiry is connected to yet another unanswered question within the dominant narrative of fire. While there is a great and, given its history of reductionism, fairly reasonable vilification of scientific management as the paradigmatic approach to forests, this begs a question on which most current managerial, journalistic, and scholarly accounts of wildland fire are silent. That is, to what purposes is management put?2 Management and its ends are inextricable, but they are not identical. Conflation of the two obscures, either by accident or intention, the material interests that determine the form and character of human transformations of nature. To shed light on the question of how we ended up with forests in crisis, we need to ask: what were the goals of US forest policy?

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Medium 9781603446938

3. The Secret to Successful Event Fundraising in Good Times and Bad

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

The economy cycles from good to bad and so does fundraising success for organizations that fail to discover the secret to successful event fundraising in good times and bad. One such organization helped pioneer effective auction-event fundraising techniques and, in so doing, built one of the largest nonprofit wildlife habitat conservation organizations in the nation. But when the economy faltered, their fundraising did, too. This organization failed to use more recession-proof techniques in auction-event fundraising discovered by other organizations with similar missions. Top-level staff responsible for event fundraising in this organization aggressively prevented anyone from bringing in ideas from outside their ranks. The only ideas for recovery had to be theirs and theirs alone.

Although their auctions always carried some “recession-proof” items, staff analyzing fundraising success just didn’t seem to understand the difference between fundraising in good times and bad. The organization’s auctions were loaded with items people didn’t really need, and probably didn’t want. These items produced decent revenue during good economic times, and even in the worst of times the items sold. I ascribe that to the dedication of the organization’s supporters and volunteers who, in their desire to shore up the organization, felt they had no option but to bid on items they really didn’t need or want. But there are only so many people willing to do that and for only so long, even in good economic times. So attendance, dollar spent per attendee, and revenue started a long downward slide that accelerated as the economy declined.

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Medium 9780253013958

19 Mindful New Materialisms: Buddhist Roots for Material Ecocriticism’s Flourishing

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Greta Gaard

IT IS SATURDAY-MORNING yoga class at the Minneapolis Midtown YWCA. A diverse group of practitioners assembles, varying in ages, genders, classes, races, sexualities, and nationalities, all gathered to practice an hour of mindful yoga. In Pali (the language of the Buddha), “yoga” means “to join” or “to unite,” and its practice involves joining attention to movements involving the body, the breath, the mind, and the larger interconnectedness of all beings. We begin with sun salutation and end in a position familiar to those who have seen the most common depictions of the Buddha, seated in yogic meditation. Joining body ecology with spirit ecology, we bring our attention to the breath, a flow of matter that is exchanged among our many bodies in this enclosed room, and beyond this room as well. Breath is one of the many “flows” that illustrate our interbeing and invite us to embark on a journey of mindfulness wherein the illusion of a separate self is revealed.

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Medium 9781603447652

22. Toward a Regional Program for ICZM in the Mexican Area of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: An Analysis Revisiting Two Decades of Publications

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

An Analysis Revisiting Two Decades of Publications

David Zárate Lomelí, Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia, John W. Day, Patricia Sánchez-Gil, Hector Alafita Vásquez, and José J. Ramírez Gordillo

Thirty percent of the 11,593 km Mexican littoral zone corresponds to the coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Zárate Lomelí et al. 1999; Caso et al. 2004; Zárate Lomelí et al. 2004). This is a very valuable region for the country in ecological, social, and economic terms because of its:

•  Great diversity of ecosystems and species (Day and Yáñez-Arancibia 1988; Yáñez-Arancibia and Day 1988; Yáñez-Arancibia, Rojas et al. 1993; Yáñez-Arancibia, Lara-Domínguez et al. 2004; Caso et al. 2004),

•  Natural resources and a shared binational vision (Weber et al. 1992; Yáñez-Arancibia and Sánchez-Gil 1992; Kumpf et al. 1999),

•  Habitats and natural protected areas (Caso et al. 2004; Bezaury Creel 2005),

•  Social and urban pressure inducing land value speculation (León and Rodríguez 2004),

•  Development of important economic activities including food, energy (resulting in high economic value), and resulting pollution (resulting in low economic value) (Botello et al. 1996; Adams et al. 2004; Sánchez-Gil et al. 2004; Botello et al. 2005; Yáñez-Arancibia et al. 2009) and,

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Medium 9780253006820

16. Vulnerability of the Energy System to Extreme Wind Speeds and Icing

Sara C Pryor Indiana University Press ePub


The economies and ecosystems of North America tend to be much more sensitive to extremes than to average conditions. However, “incomplete understanding of the relationship between changes in the average climate and extremes . . . limits our ability to connect future conditions with future impacts and the options for adaptation” (Field et al. 2007). Here we examine two climate extreme events that are of particular importance to the energy, infrastructure, transportation, forestry, and insurance industries in the midwestern United States: extreme wind speeds and icing. Below we briefly introduce the metrics used, provide examples of risks posed by these phenomena, and indicate the availability of adaptation strategies to reduce current—and possible future—vulnerability. In the following sections we evaluate the current vulnerability within the Midwest using a range of climate simulations and possible changes in the risk under a range of climate change projections.

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James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

Bibliography to Chapters I–XI

———. Bureau of the Census. The Seventh Census of the United States, 1850,

Embracing a Statistical View of Each of the States and Territories Arranged by

Counties, Towns, Etc. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,


———. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States Taken in

1900. 10 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1901.

U. S. Congress. Congressional Record. 1966–1975.

U.S. Congress. House. Alabama Indians of Texas: Report of William Toker and

Letters to the Indian Department Relative to the Alabama Indians of Texas. H.

Doc. 866. 62nd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1912.

———. Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Hearing on H.R. 12034, Big Thicket National

Park, Texas. 92nd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1972.

———. Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Hearing on H.R. 4270 et al. Proposed Big

Thicket National Reserve, Texas. 93rd Cong., 1st Sess., 1973.

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