787 Chapters
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Medium 9780253019523

1 Some Early History, Travelers, and Myths

Barbara Kreiger Indiana University Press ePub

The drive down to the Dead Sea from Jerusalem is a plunge of more than 4,000 feet in the space of twenty miles, and the sensation it creates is that of landing in an airplane, ears stopped and voices muffled. If one can reach the bottom of the valley before the sun shows itself over the eastern Moab Mountains, one will catch the pink wash that is thrown briefly on the western side. One drives south along the shore, with the lake stretching out on the left and separated from the road by bare, rocky beach, a few scrappy bushes scattered among the stones. Immediately to the right is the line of cliffs whose contours the road will follow most of the length of the sea.

The Moab Mountains, just a few miles across the lake, are veiled by a dusty haze, and the entire southern portion of the sea is barely distinguishable from the sky. The shore is outlined by a line of froth created by little waves stirring the edge of the water. The two-lane asphalt road winds as the coast does, a black ribbon imitating the thread of white foam.

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Medium 9781574410624

17 • The Baby Field Mouse

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

The Baby

Field Mouse

O n e day, Pinhead, one of my many cats, brought me a small and quite terrified baby field mouse. Fortunately, Pinhead hadn't harmed the mouse, she only held him in her mouth for a time. I searched the fields around my house to try to find the baby's nest, but wasn't successful. I decided the best thing to do was to try to raise him until he was old enough to be set free. This wasn't going to be easy. His mouth was so minute I could barely find it, and it would be difficult to feed him enough to keep him alive. I decided this baby needed a momma mouse, so I went to a pet shop and rescued one, along with her family of babies. I took the family home and introduced the field mouse to his new mom and siblings. It was instant acceptance.

The momma mouse began licking and cleaning her new baby, and the other young mice seemed not to mind having a new wild brother. Everything was going well, I thought.

Early the following morning, when I checked on the mouse family, I was shocked to find the momma mouse dead. She

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Medium 9781780642109

3: Evaluating the Impact of Oil Palm Agriculture and Logging on Soil Microbial Communities in South-east Asia

Brearley, F.Q., Editor CAB International PDF


Evaluating the Impact of Oil Palm

Agriculture and Logging on Soil Microbial

Communities in South-east Asia

Heather D’Angelo,1* Krista L. McGuire,1,2 Caitlyn Gillikin,2

Francis Q. Brearley3 and Dina C. Merrer4


Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia

University, New York, USA; 2Department of Biology, Barnard College, Columbia

University, New York, USA; 3School of Science and the Environment, Manchester

Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 4Department of Chemistry,

Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, USA

3.1  Introduction

Since the mid-1900s, South-east Asia’s lowland rain forests have been subjected to intense, largescale deforestation, driven mainly by selective logging and, more recently, agricultural expansion of oil palm plantations (Flint, 1994; Sodhi et al., 2004; Wilcove and Koh, 2010). As a result,

South-east Asia now has the highest rate of tropical deforestation in the world, accounting for nearly half of total global forest cover loss

(Hansen et al., 2013). These human disturbances have created mosaics of old-growth forest, regenerating forest and oil palm monocultures across the terrestrial landscape, which have

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Medium 9780253007896

1822 The Bailly Homestead

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Joseph Bailly was a French Canadian born in Quebec in 1774. His wife, Marie, was of French and Ottawa Indian parentage. In 1822 they and their children moved to Potawatomi country in Duneland. They established their home and trading post on the north bank of the Little Calumet River near where the north branch of the Sauk Trail crossed both the river and the Calumet Beach Trail (now the Dunes Highway). In this strategic location, their home could be reached by canoe and by foot. After the home was badly damaged by floodwaters, they moved to higher ground but remained close to the river.

Bailly had a successful business with the Indians. He received furs from them, which he traded for items from Mackinac and Detroit. Marie, who always dressed in Indian clothing, was as familiar with Indian ways as she was with the French. This undoubtedly helped them in their dealings with the Potawatomi. Within ten years, Bailly had six to eight cabins for his French employees. For those years, the Baillys were the only settlers in the Calumet Area. Their home was the center of culture and civilization in the Calumet Area wilderness. The Baillys welcomed all travelers, missionaries, and Indians.

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Medium 9781603447652

19. Ecosystem-Based Management of Coastal Fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico: Environmental and Anthropogenic Impacts and Essential Habitat Protection

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Environmental and Anthropogenic Impacts and Essential Habitat Protection

Donald M. Baltz and Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia

Fisheries are an excuse for doing the right thing. In the public mind, fishes are good for something and adequate justification for resource management policies and actions that also serve other aspects of the public trust. To quote Aldo Leopold (1949), “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” Thus, identifying fish needs and managing for sustainable fisheries advances many cultural, economic, and environmental matters (Pauly and Christensen 1995a). Long-term stewardship of fisheries is more cost effective than short-term profitability (Seijo and Caddy 2000). With a position near the top of the trophic pyramid, the health of fish populations reflects the health of lower trophic levels and influences the health of higher levels (Pauly et al. 1998; Caddy and Garibaldi 2001). To be healthy, sustainable fishery populations need more than clean water, they need to be parts of productive and healthy ecosystems (Karr 1981; Pauly and Christensen 1995b). Proper management to maintain the health of fish populations also has indirect effects on the resilience of ecosystems upon which they and human populations depend (Adger et al. 2005).

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Medium 9781603447621

14. Lowell Lebermann—In Praise of Friendship

George Lambert Bristol Texas A&M University Press ePub


Lowell Lebermann—In Praise of Friendship

Lowell Lebermann and I should have met in late 1976 or 1977, discussed the fact that both of us were considering running for state treasurer of Texas, then walked away. But there was chemistry between us that immediately transcended our differences. We decided without conversation that we wanted to be friends. Somehow the treasurer’s race would take care of itself.

It was not actually the first time that Lowell and I had met. We had known each other casually at the University of Texas. We had certainly visited during his tenure on the Austin city council and at political events. As Democrats, Lowell and I ran in the same circles. But it was that meeting about the treasurer’s race that sealed the deal. As I remember it, we struck a Faustian bargain. Once we decided who would run, assuming both of us did not decide to run, the other would serve as campaign chair or finance chair, or both.

Shortly after this conversation Lowell called and asked if I would go to Victoria, Texas, with him to see Mr. Tom O’Connor. Lowell had been married to his daughter Louise, but the two had recently divorced. Lowell seemed to think that the O’Connors, who are some of the wealthiest people in Texas, would still be supportive of his politics. So off we flew.

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Medium 9781780647296

12 Heavy-metal Toxicity in Plants

Shabala, S. CABI PDF


Heavy-metal Toxicity in Plants

Philip J. White* and Paula Pongrac

The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, UK


Heavy metals include the transition-metal elements essential to plant nutrition: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese

(Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co) (which is required for nitrogen fixation in legumes); and the non-essential elements chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). All these elements are toxic to crop plants at high tissue concentrations. In agriculture, deficiencies of essential heavy-metal elements are more common than their toxicities. Nevertheless, Mn toxicity can reduce crop yields on acidic soils, and Mn and Fe toxicities occur on waterlogged or flooded soils. Toxicities can also arise in soils enriched in specific heavy metals by the weathering of the underlying rocks or anthropogenic activities. The molecular biology of heavy-metal uptake and transport within plants is well understood, and the regulatory cascades enabling heavy-metal homeostasis in plant cells and tissues are being elucidated. Cellular responses to excess heavy metals are also known. Many of these responses proceed through the generation of reactive oxygen species and involve the synthesis of antioxidant compounds and enzymes. Tolerance of high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment is brought about by restricting the entry of heavy metals to the root and their movement to the xylem, and by chelating heavy metals entering the cytoplasm and sequestering them in non-vital compartments, such as the apoplast and vacuole. The mechanisms by which certain plant species are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals are also providing insight into the ability of plants to exclude and tolerate heavy metals in their tissues.

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Medium 9780253007896

1780 The Battle of the Dunes

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Duneland area was the site of a Revolutionary War skirmish on December 5, 1780. Apparently inspired by George Rogers Clark’s victory over the British at Vincennes, a group of sixteen men from the Cahokia area in Illinois, commanded by Jean Baptiste Hammelin (a French Canadian who fought for the United States), raided the British Fort St. Joseph (at present-day Niles, Michigan). Arriving when the British commander and most of the Potawatomi residents were out on a winter hunt, they loaded their packhorses with furs taken from the fort and began the slow trek back west along the lakeshore. When the British commander arrived back at the fort, he gathered a group of loyal Potawatomi Indians, and they gave pursuit.

They caught up with the American raiders either at Trail Creek or Le Petit Fort1 and ordered them to surrender. When the Americans refused, the skirmish began. In the words of the only written description of the battle, “Without a loss of a man on [the British] side, [they] killed four, wounded two, and took seven Prisoners, the other three escaped in the thick Wood.” The prisoners were treated as thieves, rather than prisoners of war, since none of them were found to have an army commission. Thomas Brady, formerly a superintendent of Indian Affairs, was one of those taken prisoner. It is believed by many that Mt. Tom, the highest dune in the region, is named for him.

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Medium 9781603447652

2. Use of Models in Ecosystem-Based Management of the Southern Everglades and Florida Bay, Florida

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Christopher J. Madden

The trend toward comprehensive ecosystem management of coastal ecosystems throughout the United States is accelerating. In June 2003, the Pew Oceans Commission released the report America’s Living Oceans: Charting a Course for Sea Change, which asserted that on a national scale, comprehensive ecosystem-based management (EBM) strategies must be implemented for management and stewardship of our coastal marine ecosystems: “Ecosystem-based management entails developing a new perspective that acknowledges and understands that there are limits to our knowledge; marine ecosystems are inherently unpredictable; ecosystems have functional, historical, and evolutionary limits that constrain human exploitation. . . . Flexible, adaptive management that incorporates new knowledge and provides some level of insurance for unpredictable and uncontrollable events embodies ecosystem-based management.” (Pew Oceans Commission 2003).

The US Commission on Ocean Policy (2004) stated that an EBM perspective is necessary “to address the pervasive scientific uncertainty inherent in natural systems and the failures of single species management approaches to adequately address that uncertainty. . . . US ocean and coastal resources should be managed to reflect the relationships among all ecosystem components, including human and nonhuman species and the environments in which they live. Applying this principle will require defining relevant geographic management areas based on ecosystem, rather than political, boundaries.” (US Commission on Ocean Policy 2004).

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Medium 9781780643373

14: Gains and Losses in the European Mammal Fauna

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF


Gains and Losses in the European

Mammal Fauna

Robert Hearn*

Laboratorio di Archeologia e Storia Ambientale, Università degli

Studi di Genova, Genoa, Italy

14.1  Introduction

Since 1970, global vertebrate populations have declined by around 30% (McRae et al., 2012), with mammals declining by 25% (Baillie et al.,

2010). In 2013, the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List (http:// www.iucnredlist.org/) categorized 25% of the assessed extant mammal species as threatened. Nevertheless, some species are reclaiming parts of their historic ranges across Europe

(Deinet et al., 2013).

We cannot track the gains and losses of most of the animals found in European woods and forests; for example, what changes in shrew distributions might there have been over the last 10,000 years? However, we have a considerable amount of information about such changes for the larger mammals. These larger mammals are important for the functioning of forests; and apart from the trees themselves, have been the species group most directly influenced by human activities, such as hunting.

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Medium 9781780647296

1 Drought Tolerance in Crops: Physiology to Genomics

Shabala, S. CABI PDF


Drought Tolerance in Crops:

Physiology to Genomics

Lakshmi Praba Manavalan and Henry T. Nguyen*

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA


More frequent and severe drought combined with high temperatures have been recognized as a potential impact of global warming on agriculture. Improving crop yield under water stress is the goal of agricultural researchers worldwide. Direct selection for yield under drought has been the major breeding strategy and was successful in some crops. Drought modifies the structure and function of plants. An understanding of the impact, mechanisms and traits underlying drought tolerance is essential to develop drought-tolerant cultivars. Identification and evaluation of key physiological traits would aid and strengthen molecular breeding and genetic engineering

­programmes in targeting and delivering traits that improve water use and/or drought tolerance of crops. There is an overlap between different osmotic stresses and the selection of appropriate drought evaluation methods. The benefits of genetic engineering have been realized in crop improvement for quality traits, and several promising genes have emerged in the last decade as candidates for drought tolerance. Combining the physiological traits that would sustain yield under drought, and incorporating elite quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes underlying these traits into high-yielding cultivars, would be a successful strategy.

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Medium 9780253009555

Appendix B: Organizations of Interest to Butterfly Watchers

Jeffrey E. Belth Indiana University Press ePub

Illinois Butterfly Monitoring Network

Doug Taron, Director

Illinois Butterfly Monitoring Network

The Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum

2430 North Cannon Drive

Chicago, IL 60614


Indiana Department of Natural Resources

Division of Nature Preserves

402 West Washington Street Room W267

Indianapolis, IN 46204

317 232-8062


Indiana Department of Transportation

Hoosier Roadside Heritage Program

100 North Senate Avenue

Indianapolis, IN 46204

317 232-5533


The Lepidopterists' Society

Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History

900 Exposition Boulevard

Los Angeles, CA 90007


The Society of Kentucky Lepidopterists

Les Ferge, Treasurer

7119 Hubbard Avenue

Middleton, WI 53562


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Medium 9781574412086

4. Pete Gunter, “A Sense of One Place as the Focus of Another: The Making of a Conservationist”

Edited by David Taylor University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter 4

Pete Gunter

A Sense of One Place as the Focus of Another:

The Making of a


Pete A. Y. Gunter is past president of the Big Thicket Association and currently serves as Big Thicket Task Force Chairman of the Texas Committee on

Natural Resources. He grew up in Houston and Gainesville and has divided his time between writing on environmental issues, teaching philosophy, and writing about the relationship between philosophy and environmental ethics.

Among the products of this latter preoccupation are Texas Land Ethics (1997) with Max Oelschlaeger, plus numerous articles and reviews.

I have been haunted, while writing this paper, by Annie Dillard’s remarks concerning human perception in Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. We see the world impressionistically, she admonishes, noting the green fringe of trees, the blue sky, a swatch of grass, a few human figures in the foreground or background. We feel at home in a world which we have constituted for ourselves out of a mixture of impressionistic gloss and sheer familiarity:

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Medium 9781623490140

8. Natural Allies: Environmentalists, Hunters and Anglers, and Rural Residents

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub


Natural Allies

Environmentalists, Hunters and Anglers, and Rural Residents

There are some who can live without wild things, and some who cannot.

—Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac

The best decisions come from a diversity of opinion.

—Benjamin Franklin

SUPPORT FOR CONSERVATION is widespread. For years, public opinion polls have shown that an overwhelming percentage of Americans favor sound conservation of natural resources and the environment. A 2012 national survey of voters conducted by the bipartisan research team of Fairbank, Maslin, Maullin, Metz & Associates (D) and Public Opinion Strategies (R) found overwhelming majorities of Americans of all political persuasions believe that “conserving the country’s natural resources—land, air and water—is patriotic. From Tea Party Republicans to liberal Democrats, four out of five Americans agreed with this statement. They also believe we can protect land and water and have a strong economy at the same time, while only 16 percent believe that those concerns are even “sometimes” in conflict. Other nations have found similar results. This includes strong majorities across all major demographic categories: ethnic, religious, racial, age, gender and political party affiliation.

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More Duneland Destinations

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

In addition to its natural wonders, the Duneland area has plenty of additional places to visit. From its west to its east end, there are places of sculpted and manicured beauty, an English-styled mansion, and futuristic houses as well as llamas, and tigers, and bears.

The Washington Park Zoo entrance plaza.

The grizzly bear exchanges glances with the guests. (top)

A peacock shows off his finery. (middle)

The WPA Rotary Castle, home of the amphibians and reptiles. (bottom)

Director Johnny Martinez in the Australian Aviary.

The Zoo has been a part of Washington Park since 1925—but it has never looked better than it does now. During the Depression, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) built Monkey Island, the Castle, the Observation Tower, and many of the Zoo’s winding walkways and stairways. The zoo kept WPA workers so busy that today it has the largest collection of WPA-built leisure structures in Indiana. In 1994, its old observation tower was found to be unsafe and was closed until it was restored and reopened in 2006. (see page 189)

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