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Medium 9781574411751

CHAPTER IV The Anglo Assault

James J. Cozine Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF


The Anglo Assault


he Big Thicket had survived the assaults of the Indians, French, and

Spanish with relative impunity. However, beginning in the 1820s the Texas wilderness was subjected to the onslaught of a more vigorous civilization. Land-hungry Americans, at the invitation of the Mexican government, swarmed into Texas by the thousands. At first these early

Anglo settlers avoided the heavily wooded Big Thicket in favor of more open land. However, in later years they began nibbling at the Thicket’s flanks. Eventually a few hardy souls entered the region to hunt, trap, or eke out a frugal living from the soil. By the mid-1830s, the Anglos’ assault on the Big Thicket had begun.

The Anglo migration, which doomed the Texas wilderness, was initiated by the fertile imagination and perseverance of one man: Stephen F.

Austin. In 1820, Stephen F. Austin’s father, Moses Austin, a citizen of

Missouri who had suffered a series of financial setbacks in the United States, obtained permission from Spanish officials in Mexico to establish a colony of 300 Anglo-American families in Texas. In return for colonizing the region, Austin was to receive a large grant of land, which he hoped would relieve his personal financial crisis. The colony was to be established on a grant of land mutually agreeable to both parties. Austin’s plan held great appeal because it offered the government an inexpensive method of popu-

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Medium 9781780647128

6: Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases, Especially Grey Mould

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF


Isolation and Characterization of Antibiotics Produced by

Streptomyces J-2 and their Role in Biocontrol of Plant Diseases,

Especially Grey Mould

R. Errakhi,1,2,3* F. Bouteau,3 M. Barakate4 and A. Lebrihi2

Plateforme de Biotechnologie, AGRONUTRITION, Carbonne, France;

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan,

France; 3Laboratoire d’Électrophysiologies des Membranes, Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Université Paris Diderot, Orsay, France;


Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech,





The biological control of plant pathogens is an integral component in maintaining ecological balance in the world of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of plants. It also helps to reduce the use of chemical pesticides to the minimum (Nautiyal, 2000;

­Nautiyal et al., 2002). Whipps (2001) has reviewed the use of various biocontrol antagonists, including bacteria, in plant disease control. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how some microorganisms control plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens include mycoparasitism and antibiosis (Whipps, 2001). Mycoparasitism involves the production of extracellular enzymes that hydrolyse fungal cellwalls, while antibiosis involves the production of secondary metabolites in the rhizosphere. These metabolites inhibit the growth and/or differentiation of fungal pathogens.

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Medium 9780253007896

1941 Good Fellow Youth Camp

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Good Fellow Youth Camp opened on July 20, 1941, as a summer camp for the children of employees of Gary Works of the United States Steel Company.

Good Fellow Lodge with its original log exterior. NPS

For the next thirty-five years, kids aged eight to fifteen would come out to the camp for a week of fun and relaxation. Besides its playground with swings, a slide, and a merry-go-round, the camp had a large stainless steel swimming pool, tennis, handball, basketball, badminton, and shuffleboard courts, an archery range, and a croquet lawn.

The camp was run by the Gary Works Good Fellow Club, a social club open to all employees at the mill, both supervisors and laborers. It was open for eight weeks each summer and hosted sixty to a hundred children at a time. Steel mill officials believed that it was good for kids to get away from the noise and dirty air of the city and spend some time surrounded by field and forest near the shores of Lake Michigan.

The Good Fellow Lodge contained the dining hall and kitchen. When first built, it had a log exterior deliberately made to look rustic like the great lodges of Yellowstone or Glacier National Park. The two-story interior dining/ assembly hall complemented the exterior, with its large stone fireplace and knotty cedar paneling. Here campers gathered before its massive flagstone fireplace for assemblies, sing-alongs, talent shows, and movies. Until 1951, both campers and counselors slept in canvas tents. At that time, they were replaced with cabins.

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Medium 9781574410624

13 • Hope Comes to Syra

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF


Comes to Syra

Many years ago, Wildlife Rescue was asked to rescue a young black bear from a zoo in Syracuse, New York. Syra, as she was called by her caretakers, had been orphaned when her mother was killed. She was also forced to suffer the cruelties of a roadside zoo before finding temporary sanctuary at the Burnet Park Zoo in Syracuse. Because the Syracuse Zoo didn't have room to keep her and because she had been declawed by her previous "owner," she could not be returned to the wild. Syra was one tired, lonely little bear cub when she arrived. She had been accustomed to living in close quarters at the zoo and to receiving a great deal of personal attention.

Here, in her new home, she was a bit overwhelmed by all the wide open space of the bear enclosure, and somewhat disappointed to find she was no longer the center of attention. It was quite clear that we had to find her a friend.

Barely two weeks after she arrived, we received a call from the Parks & Recreation Department of Kingston, New York.

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Medium 9780874216509

Chapter 4. The Bear River and the Threads of Western American History

Craig Denton Utah State University Press ePub

The Stage Coach Inn at Hampton Ford served three different stage companies. Now it serves a variety of new community needs, including receptions.

Many of the great themes of western American history were stitched together on the banks of the Bear River. Native Americans and Anglos antagonized each other, and those abrasions erupted into some of a tense nation’s most horrific, soul-searching moments. European mercantilism and colonialism squared off against an emerging, entrepreneurial spirit some were beginning to call “American.” Financiers salivated over untold natural resources and sought to bring them to burgeoning cities in the East. Developers promoted western expansion and the benefits of land and climate in pamphlets that were sometimes quaint and other times flat-out wrong. Settlers and vagabonds never ceased dreaming of a second chance.

The first inhabitants of the Bear River Basin began appearing 12,000 to 15,000 years ago as the last Ice Age ebbed and the western climate warmed. Those Desert Archaic or Western Archaic cultures, largely nomadic tribes that exploited seasonal environments around Great Salt Lake and the Great Basin, lived in wickiups of interlaced brush and sticks in the summer and larger underground pits with roofs of logs and organic material in winter, often with multiple families. One theory suggests that these groups evolved into the later Fremont culture.

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Medium 9780253007896

1970 The Battle over Bailly I

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Battle over Bailly I is an example of what can happen when dreams conflict. The dream of NIPSCO was to construct a modern nuclear generating station on its property along the Lake Michigan shoreline. Its opponents’ dreams were quite different.

In the late 1960s, when the National Park and port were quite new, the chairman and board of directors of the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) decided to move forward on plans to construct a nuclear-powered generating station, Bailly I, on its property next to its still rather new coal-fired Bailly Generating Station. In 1970, NIPSCO submitted its application to the Licensing Board of the Atomic Energy Commission. It estimated the construction costs at less than $108,000,000.

The concern was location.

Bailly I was to be located south of Lake Michigan, between Bethlehem Steel and the town of Dune Acres. The executives of NIPSCO particularly liked the site because it would have access to Lake Michigan water for cooling and was conveniently close to the company’s biggest customers, the new and not-so-new steel mills along the Lake Michigan Shoreline. Opponents particularly disliked the proposed site because it was right next to both populated areas and Cowles Bog, a fragile ecosystem that was an American Natural Landmark and part of the new National Lakeshore.

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Medium 9780870819360


Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub


Colorado—The power of an animal appearing repeatedly in dreams calls forth deep examination of the lessons we may glean from them,
illuminating the connection humans share with our wild brethren.

Over the years many animals, both wild and domestic, have called and spoken to me in countless dreams as well as in real life. I have been blessed to have lived in the Rocky Mountains where encounters with wildlife are frequent. But it was my dreams of powerful “fierce creatures” of the wild that got my attention and focused it on the transformative significance that animals have had in my life.

Two of the most memorable and meaningful of these dreams occurred when I was on a wilderness retreat in the late 1980s. In order to reconnect with the Earth and my own heart, I did a six-day and six-night solo among the wild cliffs on the west side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains on the northern edge of Crestone, Colorado. I have found that solo time in the wilderness is one of the most effective ways to get out of my head and back into my body so that the wisdom of the unconscious may speak. The vivid animal dreams recounted here convey the power of that experience.

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Medium 9780253353139


Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub
Medium 9780870819360


Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub
Medium 9781623490140

11. Eating Their Own Young: The Nader Nadir

Paul Walden Hansen Texas A&M University Press ePub


Eating Their Own Young

The Nader Nadir

In some ways, it is easier to be a dissident, for then one is without responsibility.

—Nelson Mandela

Strong and bitter words indicate a weak cause.

—Steve’s fortune cookie

REGARDLESS OF HOW YOU VIEW THE MOTIVATION, in outcome most radical environmentalism is effectively anti-environmental. It drives people away from an issue that is inherently in their best interests and that they are predisposed to support. People are yearning for a way to get their heads around conservation and ecology but don’t want to dress up in fish suits, wear funny hats, or be associated with people who come across as strident or unkind. Self-righteousness is not an attractive trait, no matter how vital the cause. Nothing dissuades engagement and support like righteousness, and some of the radical environmental community is full of it. Strategically, when the perfect becomes the enemy of the good, progress becomes impossible. This is an old problem. Infighting has hampered conservation groups for decades, as Aldo Leopold noted in A Sand County Almanac when he wrote, “Conservationists are notorious for their dissensions.” Today, the animosity and invective that is poisoning US politics has also infected some of the environmental movement.

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Medium 9781603442015

Falling in Love With Bottomlands Waters and Forests of East Texas

Ken W Kramer Texas A&M University Press ePub

Janice Bezanson

I FELL in love with East Texas bottomland forests while trying to protect them. for most people it’s the other way around: they love them first, so they want to keep them from being cut down, paved over, turned into pasture, or flooded by reservoirs. But I got involved in conservation issues as an activist first. The late Ned fritz, legendary for recruiting people to do things they didn’t know they wanted to do, coaxed my husband and me into representing Texas Conservation Alliance, then called the Texas Committee on Natural Resources, in permit hearings against a proposed reservoir on Little Cypress Creek in the Cypress Creek Basin in northeast Texas. This boondoggle project wasn’t needed for water supply and would have flooded 14,000 acres of wonderful forest wildlife habitat.

A glance at history suggests that I’m not the only one who loves bottomlands. People have always lived close to rivers, seeking the basics of life—water, food, transportation, and shelter—from the river and the fertile land it nurtures. Rivers are the essence of the southeastern United States—land formed by the ebb and flow of ancient beaches and shaped by abundant rainfall, rivers, and the passage of time. Small ephemeral streams bubbling up from drift sands become creeks that converge and gather in ever-increasing volume. They become winding rivers that spill across wide floodplains and spawn diverse bottomland forests. These rivers and their “bottoms” capture the imagination of poets and musicians and the hearts of settlers who revel in their beauty and mystery and abundant life.

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Medium 9780874216349

An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams: David Kupfer, The Progressive, 2005

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

The sun was setting on a late October afternoon when I met with author Terry Tempest Williams in a hotel conference room built over a saltwater marsh near San Pablo Bay in San Rafael, California. She was in my hometown that day to deliver a Sunday morning keynote lecture about her latest book, The Open Space of Democracy, to 4,000 people attending the 15th annual Bioneers Conference. Following her morning plenary lecture, she hosted a press conference with several dozen journalists, spoke as part a workshop on her book, and signed copies for a long line of fans.

Despite her rather intense schedule that day, she was bright, evocative, introspective, and quite poignant. Like Edward Abbey, she is very much aware of her place in the world and her community in the American West. A fifth-generation Mormon and native of Utah, she takes inspiration from her church and from nature.

Among her books are Desert Quartet, Leap, Unspoken Hunger, and Red: Passion and Patience in the Desert. Her sixth, Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place, tells the story of how the Great Salt Lake once rose to historic levels and flooded the wetlands that serve the migratory birds in northern Utah. She also weaves in her own family’s struggle with cancer as a result of living downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Test Site near Las Vegas. A recipient of both a Guggenheim and a Lannan literary fellowship, Williams lives with her husband, Brooke, far from the concrete jungle in Castle Valley, Utah. She has been passionately active in social and environmental issues for decades. She is currently the Annie Clark Tanner fellow at the Environmental Humanities Program at the University of Utah.

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Medium 9780253356758

6 From Fins to Feet: Transformation and Transition

Jennifer A. Clack Indiana University Press ePub

6.1. Illustrated cladogram with Eusthenopteron, Panderichthys, Tiktaalik, Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, and Dendrerpeton.

Reading the Evidence: Eusthenopteron—Panderichthys—Tiktaalik—Ventastega—Acanthostega

Chapter 2 looked at opposite ends of a spectrum. At one end was the structure of a fish such as Eusthenopteron, and at the other end was that of a tetrapod such as Dendrerpeton, an early tetrapod belonging to the group known as temnospondyls (see Chapters 8 and 9). The problem embodied in the phrase “the fish–tetrapod transition” is how evolution proceeded from one to the other. One of the ways to study this is to look at intermediate forms, but what makes a suitable intermediate form? In the past, a temnospondyl such as Eryops would have been featured in the role of primitive tetrapod, and Ichthyostega would have been seen as an intermediate between Eusthenopteron and Eryops. Recent analyses, however, have suggested that Ichthyostega has some highly specialized features that may make it unsuitable as a representative Devonian tetrapod; it is now also clear that Eryops is a highly specialized and unrepresentative temnospondyl. Although Eusthenopteron is not as close a relative of tetrapods as used to be considered, it still provides good information about basal tetrapodomorph structure.

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Medium 9781574412826


Ricardo Rozzi and collaborators University of North Texas Press PDF
Medium 9781780646947

10: Summer Semi-deciduous Species of the Mediterranean Landscape: A Winning Strategy of Cistus Species to Face the Predicted Changes of the Mediterranean Climate

Ansari, A.; Gill, S.S.; Abbas, Z.K. CABI PDF


Summer Semi-deciduous Species of the Mediterranean Landscape:

A Winning Strategy of Cistus Species to Face the Predicted Changes of the

Mediterranean Climate

Otília Correia1 and Lia Ascensão2*


cE3c – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Faculdade de Ciências, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2CESAM – Centre for

­Environmental and Marine Studies, Faculdade de Ciências, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal


Plants dominating the later stages of succession in Mediterranean shrublands, well adapted to summer drought, are frequently sclerophyllous and regenerate after disturbance through sprouting (obligate resprouters). In contrast, summer semi-deciduous species such as Cistaceae and Lamiaceae are obligate seeders, do not sprout, and fire stimulates the germination of their seeds. It is thought that these species evolved during the Pleistocene, when the Mediterranean climate was formed. This review focuses on four Cistus species: C. albidus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis and C. salviifolius, which are frequent in the Mediterranean basin. The morpho-functional and physiological traits implicated in the adaptive strategies to face the predicted changes of the Mediterranean climate are analysed. Briefly, these species have similar morpho-functional traits, possibly indicative of the low soil fertility which is usually linked to early successional stages and xeric conditions. All the leaf traits seem to indicate that the summer semi-deciduous species are adapted to face the predicted changes of the Mediterranean climate, in the sense of increasing temperature and unpredictability of rain distribution. In fact, these species, with high autecological plasticity, seem to exhibit an opportunistic behaviour that allows them to respond to climate unpredictability, with photosynthetic organs ready to work whenever the climatic conditions become favourable.

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