787 Chapters
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Medium 9780253000804

4: Peregrines, Permafrost, and Bone Beds: Digging Dinosaurs on the Colville River

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

Digging Dinosaurs on the Colville River

The call of endless frantic days
Replaces the deep cold with
Permeating solar warmth
Life teems and searches all about
Springs forth to cache summer’s riches
All of life caught up in frantic pace

The Challenges of Fieldwork in Arctic Alaska

One can make a case that field research anywhere presents unique challenges. However, having done geologic fieldwork in environments as diverse as the rainforests of southern Mexico and the deserts of California and Nevada, I can say that I find the Arctic of Alaska to be the most challenging of all. Perhaps it is the condensed time frame of the northern summer that results in the terribly frenetic schedule that all living creatures must follow or the weather that can change dramatically within a few hours from oppressive heat to wet cold or freezing. Perhaps it is the logistic demands of traveling over vast distances and covering terrain that offers few safe open spaces for fixed-wing landings and few navigable rivers. The rivers and large streams are particularly challenging because of the vagaries of summer storms that are spawned by the Arctic Ocean. The few large rivers are subject to dramatic, short-term changes in water levels along their courses. Water levels often change overnight, leaving boats high and dry, or worse, floating away downstream in lazy circles because they were not anchored securely. Beyond these physical challenges, I quickly learned about another environmental reality that could greatly affect access to localities and the timing of fieldwork along the Colville River: peregrine falcons.

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Medium 9781603446938

Part 2 Creating the Perfect Setting

Rudolph A. Rosen Texas A&M University Press ePub

Here I was, head of an organization poised to raise well over $500,000 from the people filling the auditorium, yet I had only a conceptual image of what was to happen next. No one had ever seen it. There was no way to have seen it, because there was only one opportunity to do it, and now it was time. The president of the organization didn’t have a clue what was going to happen, and he was starting to fidget. He would soon become upset. The invited guests were enjoying themselves—so far. Waitstaff were serving drinks, which was expected, of course.

I could hear the small talk starting. People were beginning to wonder what was going on. This event could be an absolute smash hit—at least in theory. We were assembled in an auditorium. Nothing was onstage. The nothingness was purposefully obvious. Looking onto the stage was like looking into a massive black hole. Nothing was in the seating area. Nothing was in the aisles. Nothing was anywhere and everywhere. A few people sat in the auditorium’s seats, but mostly they stood in small groups in aisles and just waited in the emptiness.

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Medium 9781780647128

7: Use of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 to Control Botrytis cinerea?

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

7

Use of Saccharothrix algeriensis

NRRL B-24137 to Control

Botrytis cinerea?

S. Muzammil,1* R. Saria,1* Z. Yu,1* C. Graillon,1*

F. Mathieu,1 A. Lebrihi1 and S. Compant1,2†

LGC UMR 5503 (CNRS/INPT/UPS), Département Bioprocédés et

Systèmes Microbiens, Université de Toulouse, Castanet-Tolosan France;

2

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment

Department, Bioresources Unit, Tulln an der Donau, Austria

1

Introduction

Beneficial bacteria are known to help their hosts by increasing plant growth and/or protecting them from several pathogenic diseases (Bakker et al., 2007; Lugtenberg and

Kamilova, 2009; Zamioudis and Pieterse, 2011). Some of these bacteria can be isolated from the phyllosphere. Others can be isolated from the anthosphere and the carposphere, as well as from the caulosphere. The majority of these bacterial microsymbionts are however known to colonize the rhizosphere, which is a rich zone of microbial interactions with their hosts (Lugtenberg and Kamilova, 2009). Some of the rhizosphere microflora can also enter into plants and establish subpopulations in various plant parts (Rosenblueth and Martínez-Romero, 2006; Hallmann and Berg,

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Medium 9781574416077

Chapter 5: Gar Rodeo in the Cajun Swamp

Mark Spitzer University of North Texas Press ePub

Judge Not, Lest Y’all Be Judged Yourself!

“You ain't a activist, are ya?” the manager asked me on the phone. “Because we don't need no PETA getting all up in our grille.”

“No, no, no,” I replied. “I'm just a gar-writer trying to learn as much as I can. I want to come down and check out your gar-fest, meet the people, see the fish.”

He was worried that I might judge their event harshly and get the animal rights folks all up in a lather. For the twenty-sixth year in a row, the Blind River Bar was holding its annual “gar rodeo,” a jugfishing tournament in which self-professed coon-asses from all corners of the Cajun swamp converge on the Diversion Canal of Lake Maurepas, Louisiana, for a weekend of good old fashioned redneck revelry and gar-fishing action. Last year, sixty-five boats entered the competition, they brought in thousands of pounds of alligator gar, then had a major gar-feast.

When I was researching gar rodeos (which is what gar-fishing contests are usually called), the Blind River Bar's website stuck out from the rest. They were definitely the most popular one going on in the Deep South or anywhere, and the fact that the bar was only accessible by boat made the prospect even more intriguing. Their gallery of photos featuring buxom barmaids based on the Hooters prototype and their Coyote-Ugly-spring-break atmosphere designed for hot young binge-drinkers provided for the promise of a colorful adventure. Since gator gar were at the center of the festivities, I knew I had to investigate.

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Medium 9780253000958

The Force of Spirit

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

My wife’s father is dying, and I can think of little else, because I love him and I love my wife. Once or twice a week, Ruth and I drive the forty miles of winding roads to visit him in the nursing home. Along the way we pass fields bursting with new corn, stands of trees heavy with fresh leaves, pastures deep in grass. In that long grass the lambs and calves and colts hunt for tender shoots to nibble and for the wet nipples of their mothers to suck. The meadows are thick with flowers, and butterflies waft over the blossoms like petals torn loose by wind. The spring this year was lavish, free of late frosts, well soaked with rain, and now in early June the Indiana countryside is all juiced up.

On our trip to the nursing home this morning, I drive while Ruth sits beside me knitting. Strand by strand, a sweater grows under her hands. We don’t talk much, because she must keep count of her stitches. To shape the silence, we play a tape of Mozart’s Requiem from a recent concert in which Ruth sang, and I try to detect her clear soprano in the weave of voices. The car fills with the music of sorrow. The sound rouses aches in me from earlier losses, the way cold rouses pain from old bone breaks.

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Medium 9781603447652

3. Ecosystem-Based Management of the Apalachicola River–Apalachicola Bay System, Florida

John W Day Texas A&M University Press ePub

Robert J. Livingston

Temperate, river-dominated estuaries are among the most productive and economically valuable aquatic resources in the world. However, alluvial systems have been seriously damaged by various human activities. Estuarine primary production, based on loading of nutrients and organic compounds from associated rivers, is one of the most important processes in river-dominated estuaries (Howarth 1988; Baird and Ulanowicz 1989; Livingston et al. 2000). Nutrient input from river sources has been closely associated with autochthonous phytoplankton production. River-driven allochthonous particulate organic matter maintains detritivorous food webs in estuaries (Livingston 1983, 1984, 1985a). However, the relative importance of various sources of both inorganic nutrients and organic carbon (dissolved and particulate) can vary from estuary to estuary (Peterson and Howarth 1987). These differences can be related to the specific tidal and hydrological attributes of a given system (Odum et al. 1979). Human sources of such compounds often have the exact opposite effect leading to hypereutrophication, plankton blooms, deterioration of the estuarine food webs, and loss of secondary production (Livingston 2000, 2002, 2005).

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Medium 9781780647296

1 Drought Tolerance in Crops: Physiology to Genomics

Shabala, S. CABI PDF

1 

Drought Tolerance in Crops:

Physiology to Genomics

Lakshmi Praba Manavalan and Henry T. Nguyen*

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA

Abstract

More frequent and severe drought combined with high temperatures have been recognized as a potential impact of global warming on agriculture. Improving crop yield under water stress is the goal of agricultural researchers worldwide. Direct selection for yield under drought has been the major breeding strategy and was successful in some crops. Drought modifies the structure and function of plants. An understanding of the impact, mechanisms and traits underlying drought tolerance is essential to develop drought-tolerant cultivars. Identification and evaluation of key physiological traits would aid and strengthen molecular breeding and genetic engineering

­programmes in targeting and delivering traits that improve water use and/or drought tolerance of crops. There is an overlap between different osmotic stresses and the selection of appropriate drought evaluation methods. The benefits of genetic engineering have been realized in crop improvement for quality traits, and several promising genes have emerged in the last decade as candidates for drought tolerance. Combining the physiological traits that would sustain yield under drought, and incorporating elite quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes underlying these traits into high-yielding cultivars, would be a successful strategy.

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Medium 9781605094649

2 The Environmental Movement as a Response to Overconsumption

Abdul-Matin, Ibrahim Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

What we think of as the environmental movement today has in reality been a longer process existing in three main phases. The first phase dealt primarily with the regulation of toxic substances that are a by-product of overconsumption. The second dealt with organizing people to respond to the negative effects of pollution in marginalized communities. The third phase, where we are now, consists of transforming our lifestyles, seizing opportunities for innovation, and involving people in the movement who have never been involved before. There was also an important precursor to these three phases—the transformation of the management of resources after the worldwide colonial era.

Throughout each stage, Islam and the environmental movement have had much in common. Each phase contains elements that reflect the six principles of a Green Deen: understanding the Oneness of God and his creation (tawhid); seeing signs of God everywhere (ayat); being a steward of the Earth (khalifah); honoring the trust we have with God (amana) to be protectors of the planet; moving toward justice (adl); and living in balance with nature (mizan). From the perspective of these principles, the environmental movement can be seen as an attempt to restore balance and justice to the Earth after the environmental destruction caused by overconsumption.

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Medium 9781603444750

2. General Ecology

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 2.1. Ecological regions of Texas. (Cartography by Eric J. Redeker; Data Source: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department)

IMAGINE THAT YOU ARE 6 inches tall, weigh 6 ounces, and would rather walk than fly. Your view of the world would change. A knee-high shrub would become a small tree, a dense stand of bluestem would become an impassable jungle, and a 1-mile jog would telescope into a half marathon.

You are beginning to see the world through the eyes of a bobwhite. These are delicate, typically sedentary birds that require a variety of habitats. They are largely concerned with living space from ground level to a height of about 3 feet on areas usually no larger than 20–30 acres. Managers, therefore, must create crazy-quilt patterns of cover on small areas. “Patches” in the quilt must fulfill all the needs of bobwhites. These include whistling posts, nesting cover, brood cover, feeding cover, resting coverts, and roosting cover. In this chapter we discuss the food, water, and cover needs of bobwhites on a seasonal and annual basis.

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Medium 9780253019523

3 Along the Briny Strand

Barbara Kreiger Indiana University Press ePub

In 1800, when exploration of the Dead Sea was in its tentative early stage, there was no central source of information to which a potential traveler could refer in preparing for his trip. Hardly anything had been written about the region, and much of what had been written was so distorted by individual and religious bias that it was of little use to serious explorers. But by the middle of the century, things were considerably different, and by the third quarter, it has been noted, several thousand books and articles had been published about Palestine in general, many of them containing at least some reference to the Dead Sea or its environs.

Explorers of the second half of the nineteenth century inherited from those of the first half a dogged enthusiasm and a wealth of information about this previously little known, much misunderstood lake, and a good part of their time was devoted to sifting through the material, distilling questions and looking for leads. Given the remoteness of the Dead Sea valley and the diversity of the travelers, the constant exchange of information throughout those decades was remarkable. Some reports were admired, some criticized, and some even mocked. But if one thing can be said, it is that there was an eager audience, both lay and professional, for all that was written, and no explorer set out ignorant of the findings and opinions of those who had preceded him.

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Medium 9780253013958

10 Pro/Polis: Three Forays into the Political Lives of Bees

Serenella Iovino Indiana University Press ePub

Catriona Sandilands

If there is someone you do not wish to recognize as a political being, you begin by not seeing him as the bearer of signs of politicity, by not understanding what he says.

—Jacques Rancière, “Ten Theses on Politics”

Grip on and buzz;

emanation in the mad still air.

I am caused quietly

to hear.

—Sean Borodale, Bee Journal

Material ecocriticism demands careful attention to the ways in which the more-than-human world writes itself into literature. In so doing, it is a politically generative practice, meaning that it opens literary texts to new possibilities for understanding the politicity of multiple agents, in this case bees. The material, literary, and political histories of bee-human relations are densely intertwined; in this complex unfolding, material ecocriticism, rather than reading bees as mostly metaphors for human politics, insists that literary experiences are crucial points from which multispecies bee-human politics might emerge. Poetry, for example, may create an aesthetic space in which bees not only enter human biopolitics (they are already there), and not only have political lives of their own (they already do), but also pierce the anthropocentric experience of human political subjectivity itself. Inspired by the poems that animate its final section, this chapter is a speculation about the multispecies possibilities of bee-human political life.

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Medium 9781603445887

4. Flood Prediction and Flood Warning Systems

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Jeffrey Lindner, Dave C. Schwertz, Philip B. Bedient, and Nick Fang

Floods and flash floods are among the leading causes of weather related deaths in the United States, resulting in 136 deaths per year and over $4.0 billion in property damage. With heavy rains and the continual threat of severe storms, the Gulf Coast region is particularly susceptible to flooding. Far from a declining hazard, population growth has caused expansion of residential and commercial areas deep within floodplains yielding ever greater property loss and more frequent damages (fig. 4.1). Urbanization alters the hydrological setting of watersheds resulting in faster watershed response times and higher peak flows.

Flood and flash flood forecasting skills have seen much less improvement when compared to tornado or hurricane forecasting. However, significant efforts were made to improve forecasting skills after the devastating flooding following Hurricane Floyd (1999) and the recent onslaught of inland flood damage from tropical cyclones making landfall on the Gulf Coast. Urban flash flood forecasting is the most difficult of all flood forecasting efforts due to the rapid response of urban watersheds and limited computer modeling ability, leading to untimely data when compared to flood forecasting for major river systems. Customized flood alert systems using radar, however, have seen some advance in Texas (Bedient et al. 2008).

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Medium 9780253007896

1956 The Enchanted Forest

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

Going to the Enchanted Forest was once the dream of thousands of Duneland children. The Enchanted Forest was a thirty-three-acre amusement park located on US 20 near Indiana 49. It opened in 1956 and had rides and attractions including a carousel, the Mad Mouse roller coaster, “Dodgem” (bumper cars), the Scrambler, the Twister, the Helicopter, an aerial tram ride, and what was said to be the tallest Ferris wheel in Indiana. There were also trampo-lines, a fun house, a Go-Kart racetrack, a petting zoo, and dozens of other attractions. A miniature train with a track that went all around the wooded park took visitors on leisurely rides. New attractions were added from time to time, always highlighted by local advertising. When visitors got hungry, they could go to one of three restaurants.

View from the Ferris wheel showing the Twister and the petting zoo (upper left). Calumet Regional Archives

The miniature railroad at the Enchanted Forest—a great ride for little kids. Calumet Regional Archives

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Medium 9781780643373

1: Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Kirby, K.J.; Watkins, C. CABI PDF

1 

Overview of Europe’s Woods and Forests

Keith J. Kirby1* and Charles Watkins2

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;

2

School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

1

1.1  Introduction

Europe’s trees and woods range from Mediterranean olive groves to extensive forests of pine and spruce in Scandinavia, from tall lime trees in the forests of Poland to scrubby oaks barely overtopping the heather on Atlantic cliffs. Some contain beautiful orchids, strange beetles or wild wolves. These patterns reflect variations in past and present climates and soil conditions; the natural environment sets limits on what can live where. However, people have also been living in Europe for thousands of years. Since the last Ice Age, our ancestors have shaped the distribution, composition and structure of woods and forests

(Williams, 2006). There is less forest now and it is more fragmented than in the distant past; in many countries the proportion of conifers to broadleaves has increased; some animals are now extinct, such as the wild ox, while others, such as the grey squirrel, have been introduced and become pests.

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1780 The Battle of the Dunes

Kenneth J. Schoon Quarry Books ePub

The Duneland area was the site of a Revolutionary War skirmish on December 5, 1780. Apparently inspired by George Rogers Clark’s victory over the British at Vincennes, a group of sixteen men from the Cahokia area in Illinois, commanded by Jean Baptiste Hammelin (a French Canadian who fought for the United States), raided the British Fort St. Joseph (at present-day Niles, Michigan). Arriving when the British commander and most of the Potawatomi residents were out on a winter hunt, they loaded their packhorses with furs taken from the fort and began the slow trek back west along the lakeshore. When the British commander arrived back at the fort, he gathered a group of loyal Potawatomi Indians, and they gave pursuit.

They caught up with the American raiders either at Trail Creek or Le Petit Fort1 and ordered them to surrender. When the Americans refused, the skirmish began. In the words of the only written description of the battle, “Without a loss of a man on [the British] side, [they] killed four, wounded two, and took seven Prisoners, the other three escaped in the thick Wood.” The prisoners were treated as thieves, rather than prisoners of war, since none of them were found to have an army commission. Thomas Brady, formerly a superintendent of Indian Affairs, was one of those taken prisoner. It is believed by many that Mt. Tom, the highest dune in the region, is named for him.

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