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The Grand Old Girls

Lynn Marie Cuny University of North Texas Press PDF

The Grand Old Girls

How many times in our lives are we faced with the opportunity, or perhaps a better word is challenge, of making what is decidedly a difficult decision? In the world of not-for-profit animal protection, these decisions usually consist of issues that deal with such things as: Which medication is the best for a particular illness? When is an animal ready to be set free? and Who will be able to adapt to a life in captivity? Then there are those decisions that make us step back and ask the question that goes to the heart of why we are here.

WRR learned from Craig Brestrup, Director of The Association of Sanctuaries, that there were twenty-three rhesus macaque monkeys in a lab in Michigan who were either going to be retired to a sanctuary or put to death. The day we received the call we were told that the monkeys had only two weeks to live and that we had to make our decision now. The image of twenty-three mostly elderly, female primates who had lived out their days isolated in small lab cages enduring heaven-knows-what and now facing imminent death was not an easy one to shut out. I knew we had nowhere to put them; I knew we were in the middle of organizing two major fund-raising events; and

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Medium 9780874216509

Chapter 8. A Stark Future for the Bear River — and Us

Craig Denton Utah State University Press ePub

The Bear River Development Act requires that, at some time, northern Utah must receive 120,000 acre-feet of water from the river. The most politically and environmentally feasible dam site for that water is Washakie, just west of Portage, Utah. The reservoir would fill the shallow depression on the horizon by pumping and lifting the Bear River to transfer it off-site, and out of its course.

The facts are stark, and the disconnect is obvious. Utah is the second-driest state in the nation, yet it is also the second highest in per-capita water use. That profligate use of water in a desert environment is stultifying. The message it sends is foreboding.

According to a March 2005 study by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research at the University of Utah, residents of Salt Lake County consume 288 gallons of water a day, 18 percent more than the average 243 gallons in the Intermountain West. Logan consumes a whopping 370 gallons per person. Citizens of Idaho and Wyoming, which have more water available, actually consume less. But no state in the Intermountain West has an unlimited supply of water, and few consume it wisely.

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Medium 9781603442015

Texas Water Politics Forty Years of Going with the Flow

Ken W Kramer Texas A&M University Press ePub

Ken Kramer

EVEN after forty years I can still visualize it. The “it” is the cover of the first issue of the biweekly Texas Observer I had ever seen. The year was 1969, and I had just embarked on my first graduate school experience—starting work on a master’s degree in political science at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches in East Texas. The professor in one of my classes had offered his students the opportunity to participate in a class subscription to the Observer, a liberal journal of opinion that provided exceptional coverage of Texas politics and government (and still does). Although I was a Republican at the time, I was extremely interested in politics, and, political philosophy aside, the Observer was touted as a good source of information about the state’s political comings and goings; so I signed up to receive one of the copies twice a month.

As it turns out, that was a momentous decision in my life—although not perhaps recognizable as such at the time. The first issue of the Observer I saw was devoted in its entirety to something called the “Texas Water Plan”—about which I knew nothing although I was already interested in environmental issues. The cover, which struck me so profoundly, showed a cartoon of several leading state officials, including then former governor John Connally and then governor Preston Smith, waterskiing or otherwise frolicking in or around some body of water. These folks were promoting this thing called the Texas Water Plan.

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Medium 9781603448147

7. September—Pacific Salmon of the Olympics

Gary W. Vequist Texas A&M University Press ePub

7. September

Pacific Salmon of the Olympics

An adage attributed to Chief Seattle goes, “all things are connected, this we know.” Perhaps no animal epitomizes this connectivity more than the five species of salmon. They start their life as small fry far inland in tiny freshwater streams. At this stage of their life much of the food they feed on comes, either directly or indirectly, from the surrounding uplands. After a year or so they migrate downstream to the vast ocean where they wander far and wide. Eventually, they return inland to the same streams where they were born to deposit their eggs, continuing the cycle of life. That is where they die, their bodies often being consumed by bears, eagles, and other terrestrial animals. At places like Olympic National Park in Washington the wildlife observer can see not only the salmon but also many of the other species that depend on the salmon’s cycle of life.

Salmon pair on a redd, a term for the gravel bed where the eggs are deposited. (Photo by Jon Preston)

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Medium 9780253000804

3: A Black Gold Rush Sets the Stage for Discovery in Alaska

Roland A. Gangloff Indiana University Press ePub

If you have seen the icon for the Sinclair Oil Company, a silhouette of a four-legged long-neck dinosaur, then you may have concluded that petroleum and dinosaurs go hand in hand. The misconception that petroleum is derived from dinosaurs is still quite prevalent even among those who are not familiar with the Sinclair symbol. Physicists and chemists in the 1800s considered petroleum to be nonbiogenic and concluded that petroleum was a residue of the formation of the Earth. This hypothesis was discarded by the 1950s and replaced with a theory that petroleum had a biogenic origin, but there was no consensus on the specific types of organisms that were transformed into oil. Geochemical research over the last three decades has focused on plankton and microorganisms as the biomass that combines with rock-forming processes to end up as the flame on your stove or the gas in your tank. It is now clear that most petroleum is derived from ancient planktonic microorganisms rather than dinosaurs and their vertebrate kin.1 Still, interestingly, there is an important and valid connection between the discovery of oil and dinosaurs—especially in Alaska.

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Medium 9781780647128

4: Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

Compant, S.; Mathieu, F. CABI PDF

4

Beneficial Bacteria Prime Local and Systemic Immunity against

Botrytis cinerea in Grapevine

A. Aziz,1* B. Verhagen,1 S. Villaume,1 M. Höfte,2

F. Baillieul,1 C. Clément1 and P. Trotel-Aziz1

URVVC EA 4707, SDRP, University of Reims, Reims, France;

Laboratory of Phytopathology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

1

2

Introduction

Plants have evolved the ability to form beneficial relationships with mutualistic microbes that are important for plant growth and health (Mendes et al., 2011; Berendsen et al.,

2012). The colonization of plant roots by mutualistic microbes is associated with an enhanced defensive capacity in the aerial parts of the plant, resulting in induced systemic resistance (ISR) (Pieterse et al., 2012). This resistance may also result from a priming of the tissues to express basal defence mechanisms more rapidly and more strongly after subsequent pathogen challenge (Verhagen et al., 2011; Zamioudis and Pieterse, 2012).

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Medium 9780253008190

7. Paradise Lost

Donald R. Prothero Indiana University Press ePub

Fifty-five million years ago (the earliest Eocene Epoch), the planet was in its warmest phase since the “greenhouse of the dinosaurs” during the latter part of the Mesozoic (Prothero, 2009). There were crocodiles in the polar regions, along with a wide variety of mammals (including the earliest rhinocerotoid Hyrachyus). The fossil plants found above the Arctic and Antarctic Circles look nothing like the Arctic tundra or Antarctic ice caps that are found there today, even though they must have experienced six months of darkness. Instead, during the Eocene Epoch there were broad-leaved evergreens, including palm trees and cycads, above 61° north latitude in Alaska, indicating average temperatures around 18°C (65°F). There were broad-leaved deciduous forests and even rich coal beds, indicating dense forest vegetation. Spitzbergen produced a flora that could not have tolerated freezing. Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, which today lies at 78° north latitude and was not far from that latitude in the early Eocene, produced similar fossil plants. It also yields fossil alligators, pond turtles, land tortoises, and monitor lizards, as well as garfish and bowfin fish. Most of these animals are typical of subtropical climates today, and none can tolerate freezing for long. Alligators are limited by a mean coldest month temperature of 10°C. There is also a surprisingly diverse fauna of mammals typical of the late early Eocene in North America, including tapirs, horses, brontotheres, primates, rodents, colugos, and rhinos.

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Medium 9781607320548

PART III Initiating Negotiations

David M. Freeman University Press of Colorado ePub

If every speaker who has talked in the last twenty years or so about federal-state relationships in water law was to be laid end to end, it would be a good and merciful thing.

—CHARLES E. CORKER, 1972 (quoted in Pisani 1989: 282)

The drafting of the U.S. Constitution was an occasion for struggling with the vexing question of how to balance power between states and the federal government. Federalism as a system of dual sovereignty was cobbled together on a fundamental principle: “The powers delegated by the proposed constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the state governments are numerous and indefinite” (U.S. Constitution, Amendment 10). Federal environmental legislation, particularly the Endangered Species Act (ESA), needed to be implemented within the locus of state water administration. Therein lay a problem.

Aridity in the West meant the federal government, which had paid little attention to the importance of water and systems of its appropriation in the late nineteenth century, would be paying detailed attention in the late twentieth century. Furthermore, federal policy has not been coherent. It has been developed in an ad hoc manner, with no agency of the executive branch and no congressional committee maintaining a unifying vision. The discourses have been unhinged from any defensible guiding principles. Federal water policy has been characterized by competing agendas, agency turf battles, protracted disputes, and an inability to provide policy views in any predictable manner (Rogers 1996). The fact that federal water policies had been a muddle for decades prompted Congress to pass the Western Water Policy Review Act (P.L. 102-575) in 1992. This legislation directed the president to undertake a comprehensive review of federal activities in nineteen western states that affected the allocation and use of water resources, both surface and subsurface. To that end, the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission was launched. The commission found fifteen federal bureaus and agencies with water-related programs in seventeen western states (of the lower forty-eight); they were responsible to six cabinet departments, thirteen congressional committees, and twenty-three subcommittees and were funded by five different appropriations committees (Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission 1997).

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Medium 9780870819360

MY BUSH SOUL, THE MOUNTAIN LION

Cara Blessley Lowe University Press of Colorado ePub

SUZANNE DUARTE

Colorado—The power of an animal appearing repeatedly in dreams calls forth deep examination of the lessons we may glean from them,
illuminating the connection humans share with our wild brethren.

Over the years many animals, both wild and domestic, have called and spoken to me in countless dreams as well as in real life. I have been blessed to have lived in the Rocky Mountains where encounters with wildlife are frequent. But it was my dreams of powerful “fierce creatures” of the wild that got my attention and focused it on the transformative significance that animals have had in my life.

Two of the most memorable and meaningful of these dreams occurred when I was on a wilderness retreat in the late 1980s. In order to reconnect with the Earth and my own heart, I did a six-day and six-night solo among the wild cliffs on the west side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains on the northern edge of Crestone, Colorado. I have found that solo time in the wilderness is one of the most effective ways to get out of my head and back into my body so that the wisdom of the unconscious may speak. The vivid animal dreams recounted here convey the power of that experience.

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Medium 9781603447621

13. Lloyd Bentsen

George Lambert Bristol Texas A&M University Press ePub

CHAPTER 13

Lloyd Bentsen

The insightful letter reproduced above was written in 1944 by a young US Army Air Corps officer and pilot, Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. Writing about a bombing run over the Mediterranean, he mentions the things most important to him, then and throughout his life: God, family, country, and duty, and he does so with clarity and simplicity that is almost poetic. Later in life, during his years as a congressman, business leader, US senator, and secretary of the treasury, many would sometimes miss this side of Bentsen. What they saw was a public figure of great depth, exceptional ability, and courage, but one who could be guarded, reserved, and patrician.

Lloyd Bentsen was all that and more. He was among the most qualified and gifted public servants and he should have been president of the United States. It was not to be, due to the times, his moderate political philosophy, and his state of origin, Texas. Coming to the Senate and national prominence in 1970, so soon after Lyndon Johnson’s tumultuous reign, punctuated by the Vietnam War and shortly before John Connally’s switch to the Republican Party in 1972, being a Texan carried too much baggage. That was particularly true for a party that was anti-Nixon, left of center, and antiwar. Furthermore, he’d not been in the Senate long enough to develop a national following or to allow his gifts of leadership to become more apparent.

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Medium 9780892727834

MAINE LAKES AND MOUNTAINS

Duchesne, Bob Down East Books ePub

From civilized Sebago Lake in the south to wild Richardson Lake in the north, the cry of the loon is taken for granted. Between these two lakes lie several mountain ranges, exceptional state parks, and 47,000 acres of the White Mountain National Forest. The Androscoggin and Saco Rivers drain the heavy snows of the White Mountains through this region, gathering the flow of their tributaries along the way.

In Androscoggin County, the twin cities of Lewiston and Auburn make up Maine

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Medium 9780874214031

4 LIVESTOCK: Cows, Feed, and Floods

James M. Aton Utah State University Press ePub

As the San Juan River has coursed through the Four Corners area, it has both encouraged and denied economic opportunities to Native American and Anglo-American entrepreneurs alike. Its system of canyons and floodplains offers forage for livestock, channels movement, suggests strategic locations for trade, and provides possibilities for agriculture. On the other hand, the river can swell uncontrollably to flood stage, ripping out everything in its path; it has served as a clearly defined legal boundary, restricting access to resources by people on both banks; and, due to the mere presence of its water in a desert environment, has created countless disputes over who should use it.

This chapter and the next focus on the role the river has played in two acts of the human drama staged across its narrow belt of riparian wealth. This chapter discusses the evolution of both the Navajo and Anglo livestock industry, the growth of trading posts that encouraged large herds to depend on the river’s resources, and the subsequent development of a road system to move ranching products to market. It is a multifaceted history that extends far beyond the San Juan and throughout the Four Corners region.

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Medium 9781623490386

3. Beach Materials, Structures, and Sources

Richard A. Davis Texas A&M University Press ePub

Beach Materials, Structures, and Sources

THE most common term associated with the beach is sand. True, most beaches are predominantly sand, but there are many other kinds of materials that can also be present in large amounts at some locations. In fact, the term sand denotes only grain size; it tells us nothing about the composition of the particles. Sand can be composed of a wide range of minerals. This chapter discusses the range of materials that constitute beaches: their textures, composition, and origins. This information will give us a much more comprehensive appreciation of the beach environment.

Beach Textures

Sand is a particle that is between 0.0625 mm and 2.00 mm, or about 1/16 inch. This range of particle size is part of a comprehensive size classification called the Wentworth Grain Size Scale (table 3.1). Some of the terms for grain-size categories in this classification are quite recognizable, but they also have specific quantitative definitions. For example, the term boulder has a specific definition: any particle between 256 mm and 1048 mm or about 10 inches and larger. The terms cobble, pebble, silt, clay, and mud also have specific quantitative size ranges. Beaches can be composed of boulders, cobbles, or sand (figure 3.1).

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Medium 9781603445887

6. Using Social Vulnerability Mapping to Enhance Coastal Community Resiliency in Texas

Philip B. Bedient Texas A&M University Press ePub

Walter Gillis Peacock, Shannon Van Zandt, Dustin Henry, Himanshu Grover, and Wesley Highfield

Disasters like Hurricane Ike, as well as severe storms such as Allison, Katrina, and Rita are often referred to as “natural” disasters. Rather than being wholly “natural,” however, these disasters result from the interaction among biophysical systems, human systems, and their built environment. Indeed, the emerging scientific consensus states that the damage incurred, in both human and financial terms, is largely due to human action or, more often, inaction (Mileti 1999). Communities in the United States and much of the world continue to develop and expand into high hazard areas. This contributes to increased hazard exposure and often results in the destruction of environmental resources such as wetlands, often increasing losses. In other words, many of the communities in our nation are becoming ever more vulnerable to “natural” hazards while simultaneously becoming less disaster resilient.

When disaster strikes, its impact is not just a function of its magnitude and where it strikes. Galveston, like most communities, is not homogeneous, but rather contains areas characterized by wealth, leisure, and privilege, as well as neighborhoods plagued by poverty, crime, and unemployment. Development patterns typified by sprawl, concentrated poverty and segregation shape urban environments in ways that isolate vulnerable populations. Severe storms like Ike are not “equal opportunity” events. These events affect different groups in different ways. Very often, the social geography interacts with the physical geography to expose vulnerable populations to greater risk.

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Medium 9781603444750

12. Management Examples

Hernández, Fidel Texas A&M University Press ePub

Figure 12.1. (a) Brush strips 15 feet wide have been cleared throughout the Vivoritas Ranch. (b) These senderos are established in a crisscross pattern that creates a checkerboard of habitat patches that lend themselves to habitat management. (Photographs by Fidel Hernández)

SO FAR, ALL WE have done regarding bobwhite management is talk the talk. We have discussed how to manage brush and grazing, how to correct habitat deficiencies, and how to manage harvest. Now it is time to walk the walk.

In this chapter we highlight 4 Texas landowners who have used the practices and principles described earlier to create usable space for bobwhites and increase bobwhite populations. Texas is a big state, varied in weather, soils, and management challenges. These managers have adapted practices and techniques in creative and unique ways to reflect their particular circumstances and personality. We have included management examples from the Rio Grande and Rolling Plains to capture the diversity in management approaches that lead to strong bobwhite populations.

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