1012 Chapters
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3 1906–1909: Music School

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE Russian Music Society (RMO), music schools opened throughout major cities in Russia during the second half of the nineteenth century, providing the primary source of professional musical training. The RMO was founded in 1859 following the efforts of the pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein; patronage from the Tsar’s family in 1869 led to its elevation as the Imperial Russian Music Society (IRMO). Both St. Petersburg and Moscow IRMO schools quickly gained conservatory status and became the chief centers of higher musical education. By the start of the twentieth century, music classes and schools under the IRMO across Russia had advanced significantly, and they became the main suppliers of teaching staff for the conservatories in larger cities and in the provinces.

The Vilnius division of the society opened in December 1873, but closed just a few years later. It reopened in 1898, albeit on a small scale, and by the 1906–1907 season it counted only four actual members.1 Short resources placed concerts and educational work on hold until the 1906 arrival of two respected women—Baroness Alisa von Wolf, the wife of the trustee of the Scholarly Circle of Vilnius, and Lyudmila Lyubimova, the wife of the governor of Vilnius and a trustee of orphanages. Following the efforts of these two women, the number of society members grew initially to thirty-six, then to 130 by the next season, enabling the Vilnius division to stage an entire series of public concerts.

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5 21st Century Bebop

Monika Herzig Indiana University Press ePub

5   21st Century Bebop

As Nathan Davis discussed in chapter 3, the most effective jazz educators are also practitioners with vast experience in the field. Historically, music education methods incorporate modeling as an effective teaching strategy. Some examples are the methods of Shin’ichi Suzuki and Edwin Gordon.1 In teaching the language of jazz and its improvisatory basis and expressive use of the instrument, modeling has traditionally been a strong element exercised through mentorship and during jam sessions.2 Baker was well aware of the need to be an active performer and a model for his students when he took the job at Indiana University. Pat Harbison, who had the privilege of being a member of Baker’s small groups during his student years, points out, “One demonstration and having to go out and doing it together is worth a thousand hours of rehearsal and someone describing the music and talking about it.”3

In addition, Baker needed an outlet for his own music. Consequently, he kept his Indianapolis working group that included Mingo Jones, Earl Van Riper, Sheryl Shay, Chuck Carter, Al Reeve, Willis Kirk, and others.4 But gradually, Baker gathered a group of students at Indiana University to rehearse his music. By the mid-1970s, he had developed the concept of the 21st Century Bebop Band, a performance group that recorded several albums as well as performed on a regular basis for about twenty years.

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3. The Modern Baroque Trumpet with Vent Holes

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

3  The Modern Baroque Trumpet with Vent Holes

Around 1960 Otto Steinkopf devised a system of three vent holes for a natural trumpet built by the German maker Helmut Finke that rendered the fickle eleventh and thirteenth partials in tune by the standards of equal temperament. The Steinkopf-Finke trumpet was a coiled trumpet patterned after the Jägertrompete held by Bach’s trumpeter, Gottfried Reiche, in the famous portrait painted by Elias Gottlob Haussmann. It was not the first trumpet to employ vent holes, however. As mentioned previously, the earliest known trumpet with vent holes was made by the British craftsman William Shaw in 1787.1

Later, the British trumpeter Michael Laird devised a four-hole system that increased the stability of many pitches and offered additional solutions to intonation problems. Although vent holes made the natural trumpet safer to play, they altered the sound slightly. The resulting compromise instruments would certainly not have been used by trumpeters four hundred years ago and could hardly be called “natural.” In an attempt to clarify terms for these instruments, I refer to trumpets without holes as genuine natural trumpets, and vented instruments are called Baroque trumpets.

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5 Pauline Oliveros

Denise Von Glahn Indiana University Press ePub



For me Deep Listening is a lifetime practice.
The more I listen the more I learn to listen.
Deep Listening involves going below the surface of what is heard
and also expanding to the whole field of sound whatever one’s usual focus
    might be.
This is the way to connect with the acoustic environment
and all that inhabits it.


In a career spanning nearly sixty years, Pauline Oliveros (b. 1932) has been at the forefront of multiple twentieth-and now twenty-first-century musical movements. Starting in the late 1950s, she was among the vanguard of American composers exploring analog electronic technology and the promises it held for musical composition; as a woman working in that field she was a rare presence and force. In the 1960s, Oliveros expanded her composerly reach with movement and theater pieces, collaborating with dancer/choreographers Elizabeth Harris, Anna Halprin, and Merce Cunningham, among others, and creating works that reached across artistic disciplines.2 Like John Cage, a friend and fellow explorer of new meanings of “music,” “composer,” and “silence,” attention to the total environment became as important to Oliveros as attention to the sonic environment alone. At the end of the 1960s, Pauline Oliveros began her move toward a type of sound-meditation practice that has since become synonymous with her name.

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Appendix C. Texts of Arias Analyzed in Chapters 10–12

LAWRENCE BENNETT Indiana University Press ePub

Antonio Bononcini

Cantata 98/II

Al tuo bel volto amante


morrà fido e costante


il povero mio cor;


l’andrà dicendo poi


che sol per gl’occhi tuoi


fu martire d’amor.

Cantata 8/I

Amore ingannatore,


più non ti credo, no.


I lacci tuoi già frango


e libero rimango


da chi m’incatenò.

Cantata 91/II

Benché m’abbia la cruda saetta


di Cupido quest’alma ferita,


su quel campo la tenera erbetta


col suo verde a sperare m’invita.

Cantata 56/I

Men crudele e men severo


fate voi che più non tanto


mi tormenti il mio dolor.


0 pietoso il nume arciero


per virtù del vostro pianto


dia la pace a questo cor.

Cantata 56/II

Per non arder più d’amor


dimmi, o dimmi o cor,


che far dovrò?


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