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Intonation

Essays by John James Haynie, Compiled and Edited by Anne Hardin University of North Texas Press PDF

TUNE AS YOU PLAY

The Tune As You Play mechanism was invented by Mark

Hindsley at the University of Illinois. It was a trigger device attached to the tuning slide rather than the first valve slide. A double action spring on each side of a fulcrum allowed the player to move the tuning slide either way to raise or lower the pitch of any note. Mr. Hindsley and an engineer designed and installed the mechanisms on the university-owned set of Bach cornets and trumpets in 1951 or thereabout. He had no commercial interest in the mechanism, but he applied for and got a patent for the device. In 1951 or 1952, he showed me the Bach instruments that were equipped with the TAYP trigger, and I was fascinated with how easy it was to tune any note either up or down. Actually, it was easier to tune notes up rather than down, at least on the trumpet, since you had to squeeze with the left thumb to go up and pull back to lower the pitch. I was just getting started using Reynolds instruments, and the company agreed to equip my horns with the device, provided I could borrow a cornet and trumpet from the University of Illinois Bands so the designers could copy and improve upon the Hindsley model. This was all done rather quickly, and I had to learn how to use this trigger device. I spent a lot of time with a StroboConn™ and it was remarkable how easy it was to tune those bad notes that heretofore just had to be lipped.

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4 Village on Stage

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

Some words are invested with particular power. “Village” is one such word. On the one hand, a village is conceived of as a major accomplishment of civilization. One might reasonably expect to find all that is necessary for human life and socialization within a village. The words “country,” “hills,” “outback,” and “mountains” evoke isolation and removal, but “village” suggests commerce, the exchange of ideas, a place to seek a mate, and perhaps even a place to experience good music. All but the most determined recluse will venture to the village on occasion to fulfill social and material needs. On the other hand, a village does not offer the amenities of a town, has none of the urban intensity of a city, and is hardly evocative of sophistication or cosmopolitanism. We prefer the village doctor for some ailments, but we rush to the big city hospital for others. Stepping over the village drunk, switching to the other side of the street to avoid the village idiot, and averting one’s gaze from the beckoning of the village harlot, we note that the village is pure, good, an extension of all the fine things we hope for in family life. As Hillary Clinton (1996) famously declared, “It takes a village” (to raise a child . . . to heal a society).

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18 - Thad Leaves for Denmark

Chris Smith, John Mosca and John Riley University of North Texas Press ePub

In the fall of 1978, only weeks after their bus tour of the United States, the Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Orchestra set out on a three-month tour of Europe. The tour and the weeks that followed were a defining moment in Mel's career. As previously stated, there had been many personnel changes in the band following their spring tour across the United States. Many of the changes had taken place in the saxophone section. Bob Rockwell joined Rich Perry on tenor saxophone, Steve Coleman had recently moved to New York City and joined on second alto, while Charles Davis took over baritone saxophone duties. The most important change in the saxophone section was Dick Oatts taking over Jerry Dodgion's vacated lead alto chair. Oatts recalled his hesitation to become the lead alto player:

Thad asked me to play lead, and I told him I didn't really want to. He then proceeded to tell me that I didn't have any choice. It was kind of a drag for me because I really enjoyed playing second alto under Dodgion. In a way, I was also trying to focus more on the jazz end of things and didn't want the responsibility of playing the lead part.1

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5 Global Village

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

In 1992 a cassette recording called Twinkle Inna Polish Stylee: Higher Heights was released, first in England and Western Europe and then in Poland (fig. 5.1). The cassette contained the musical results of a fusion between a Rastafarian reggae band based in London and a family band of Górale musicians from the Tatra village of Biały Dunajec. The recording extends the international quality of the festivals considered in the previous chapter and exemplifies what can happen when musicians go beyond observing a very different music from a very different place and try to blend that music with their own. The recording is also a tangible representation of the workings of globalization. The first part of this chapter traces the process of globalization by presenting a history of interaction between the Rasta reggae band and the Górale band, interaction both ideological and musical. The second part of the chapter focuses on the Górale musicians involved in this fusion project, and their innovative responses to the experience. I conclude by theorizing what I will call “globalism,” a deliberate thought process behind the material workings of globalization, in an effort to understand the local meanings of globalization. In other words, I consider some of the ways that the Górale musicians who took part in this fusion experiment are taking those experiences and reinterpreting them to create new expressions of Góraleness locally and globally.

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17 - Income Strategies of a Jelimuso in Mali and France

Edited by Thomas A Hale and Aissata G Indiana University Press ePub

Nienke Muurling

Remittances are a major source of income in Mali. It is estimated that the yearly amount of money sent by Malian emigrants exceeds 100 million euros, of which at least 50 million euros are sent by Malians who reside in France.1 One indicator of the importance of these France-Mali remittances is the fact that France provides approximately 60 million euros a year in aid to Mali (Gubert 2003). The “French money” sent by relatives is used for the purchase agricultural equipment. The funds are also invested in social relationships. Although these transfers of funds may appear at first to operate outside the framework of traditional customs because they are initiated in France rather than in Mali, other participants, in particular professional female singers known as jelimusow,2 also participate. The question is how these women, involved locally in activities that involve money (rewards for performances and other services), participate in the larger financial network linking France and Mali.

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14. Classical Repertoire

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

14  Classical Repertoire

Despite the novelty of Anton Weidinger and his keyed trumpet, the trumpet was not viewed as a solo instrument during the Classical era. Aside from the last gasps of clarino playing that flourished in imperial Vienna in the 1760s and later experiments with hand-stopping and key mechanisms, trumpet playing in the late eighteenth century was restricted to the second octave of the overtone series and the subordinate role of emphasizing simple tonic and dominant key centers in orchestral compositions. Societal changes also had an impact on the role of the trumpet in civic ceremonies. As monarchies and empires were replaced by democratic governments and political revolutionaries, the status of the formerly royal instrument was subsequently demoted.

As shown in earlier chapters, experiments with early keyed brasses and valve mechanisms were slow to be accepted into the mainstream for cultural as well as social reasons. Imperfections in intonation and inconsistences in tone quality were other factors. Although the nineteenth century would later be considered “the brass century” thanks to the popularity of the cornet and other valved brasses, the Age of Enlightenment was ironically the lowest point in the trumpet’s history from an artistic standpoint. This chapter explores the few highlights of the era, including orchestral writing, the concerti of Haydn and Hummel, and the changes in music education that were to bear fruit in the Romantic era.

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Habits

Essays by John James Haynie, Compiled and Edited by Anne Hardin University of North Texas Press PDF

WARMING UP AND DOWN

When was the last time you dropped in on a band, orchestra, or stage band rehearsal? I feel sure the players know better, but what is usually heard is sheer bedlam. From screaming trumpets to The Downfall of Paris by the entire percussion section, it is not pretty.

I know of one band where the exact opposite was the case—Robert Maddox’s band. He instructed his players to enter the rehearsal room quietly, take their horns from the cases, and assume a relaxed position not too unlike the army’s “parade rest.” Oil the valves, moisten a reed, number the measures in pencil of any new music in the folder, finger the difficult passages without playing, put the music in rehearsal order as observed on the bulletin board, percussion to locate all the proper equipment for the day’s music, and in general “warm up” the mind, body, and attitude for the job at hand. Meanwhile, he might be returning a parent’s call, preparing himself for the rehearsal, or just watching us from his office. Then, when he stood on his podium, it was he who directed the warm-up procedures.

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1 Todd’s Tune

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

I just wanted to present the best
music that we could with the
warmest feeling that we could.

Todd Barkan

Todd Barkan

Keystone Korner was, as much as anything else, the only real psychedelic jazz club that lasted. There were a couple of little experiments in that area, and isolated experiments in the United States, but Keystone was a bona fide psychedelic jazz club that emerged out of the post-psychedelic era in San Francisco – right out of flower children and Haight-Ashbury.

I was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1946 and was deeply immersed in jazz from my earliest remembered times. My family moved to Columbus, Ohio, where my grandparents were, and we had lots of jazz records in the house. I listened to jazz and became a jazz fanatic by the time I was eight or nine years old. I had literally thousands of records by the time I was in college. I used to work as a construction worker and would take every penny I had and buy jazz records. And I used to hear as much jazz as I could. I first started playing the piano when I was six years old. And it was in Columbus that I met Rahsaan Roland Kirk, who became a mentor to me later on.

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2. On Singing and the Vocal Ensemble I

Edited by Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub

ALEXANDER BLACHLY

Because instrumental music constitutes only a small fraction of the Renaissance repertory, an ensemble (such as an early music ensemble) truly interested in exploring Renaissance music must allocate a considerable portion of its energies to vocal works, whether solo (accompanied or unaccompanied), oneon-a-part (polyphonic chansons and madrigals), or choral (most Mass and motet music of the middle and high Renaissance). Vocal music in this period was often more or less synonymous with “advanced,” “challenging,” and “serious” composition—thus a repertory for professionals. One might think it appropriate, therefore, for professional singers today to tackle it; but by and large this is not what happens. Professional singers in the Renaissance sang quite differently from modern professional singers; or, to put it the other way around, standard vocal training today often leaves the aspiring professional singer unsuited for Renaissance music. Many voice teachers still tend to encourage modern operatic technique as a universal goal for all their students, and the high-pressure, high-vibrato style such students use is antithetical to the delineation of counterpoint, to accurate ensemble singing, and to precise tuning independent of instruments. Thus, the “better-trained” singers in a university setting tend to do one of three things: (1) avoid the early music ensemble altogether; (2) create an ineradicable blemish in its sound; or (3) find themselves rejected by the director. As a result, an early music ensemble today typically begins with an ensemble of vocally inexperienced—albeit frequently talented and enthusiastic—amateurs.

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29. Renaissance Theory

Edited by Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub

SARAH MEAD

Despite the common division between the academic and applied aspects of music, most teachers of performance also find themselves teaching the structure and historical context of the music.1 Whereas someone coaching a Haydn string quartet can rely on the students having a basic understanding of the language of tonal music, those who teach the music of other cultures or periods need to give their students more detailed guidance in understanding the music in its own context. Thus, the director of an early music ensemble is called upon not only to have a familiarity with several families of instruments, vocal production, repertory, and performance practice, but with the theory of the music as well, and effective and concise ways to teach its applications in a nonlecture setting.

Although there has been a growing interest in atonal music in the last several decades, the people of Western cultures are most commonly exposed to tonal sounds in the media, and most would have no problem recognizing a tonal cadence. This inherent bias can make it difficult for us to hear pretonal music except in tonal terms. Yet, although we recognize the music of the European Renaissance as an ancestor of our modern tonality, those who lived in sixteenth-century Europe might have difficulty recognizing its distant progeny today. We can better understand Beethoven when we have studied Mozart, and Wagner when we have studied Beethoven, but if we tried to reverse this and understand Mozart in terms of late-nineteenth-century thinking, we would be missing much of the point. For the same reason, today’s students of early music need some way to approach the music of the Renaissance from its own perspective and not through hindsight.

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2 - Mel Meets New York City

Chris Smith, John Mosca and John Riley University of North Texas Press ePub

In January of 1948, after years of talking about relocating, Lenny Lewis finally moved his band and young drummer to New York City. When the Lewis Band arrived, the height of the big band era had passed and even after successful engagements at the Savoy Ballroom and Apollo Theater, Lewis found it much more difficult to find gigs than he had expected.1 He broke up the band after only several months in the city. During a 1957 DownBeat interview, Mel reflected:

If Lenny's band had stayed together, it would have been one of the greatest swing bands. We had guys like Al Killian, Harold (Shorty) Baker, and Fats Ford on trumpet; and Frankie Socolow, Eddie Bert, Sonny Russo, and Al Cohn. Basie loved that band. He still remembers it, too.2

Saxophonist Gene Cipriano had recently joined the Lewis Band and recalled the music and personnel of the band, saying, “That Lenny Lewis band was a true bebop big band and was stocked with great musicians. Unfortunately it was a really bad time for big bands, but for me it was great because I got to meet and play with Al Cohn and Mel.”3 Even though the Lewis Band did not last long in New York City, Mel had enough time in the city to meet several musicians who changed the course of his career.

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Medium 9781574412840

30. Accident! (1977)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF

30.

Accident!

(1977)

When the band reconvened in January 1977, Terry Layne was gone, his place taken by Michael Bard, a fluent soloist and an excellent lead who transformed the sax section and somehow lifted the morale of the whole orchestra, so that John Worster was able to report, “You won’t believe how much better this band is than last year’s. So much more life, more musical, and all the new guys are very fine players. A

MUCH BETTER BAND!”1 Dick Shearer agreed the orchestra had taken on a new spirit, and fresh charts were coming in from Alan Yankee,

Dave Barduhn, and Ken Hanna for a new ballad album scheduled for spring recording.

The best example of the band’s resurgence is Tantara’s Artistry in Symphonic Jazz, a slightly pretentious title perhaps, but descriptive of the music, and a CD in every respect the equal of any official album of the period. The repertoire covers all eras, from a spirited reading by the revitalized saxophones of “Opus in Pastels,” through a solo-driven “Intermission Riff” and a beautiful Michael Bard solo on Niehaus’ “But Beautiful,” to newer charts like John Harner’s “Satin Doll” and Hanna’s “This Is All I

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Mental Discipline

Essays by John James Haynie, Compiled and Edited by Anne Hardin University of North Texas Press PDF

JOHN DEWEY’S SPIRIT OF CHANGE

AND OTHER GUIDING PRINCIPLES

When I was a student at the University of Illinois, I took an education class that focused on the philosophies of John Dewey.

Only one of his sayings stayed with me over the years, and it is this: “Without change there is no learning.” There was little, if any, explanation in the classroom of this powerful and positive statement. It haunted me. Therefore, I took the following steps in trying to understand the full impact of that simple directive.

To apply this quotation to various situations, let us make a checklist and find the meaning of the two key words, “change” and “learning.”

Change:

To make different in some particular way

To transform

To give a different position, course, or direction

To reverse

To replace with another

To make a shift from one to another

To become different

To transfer

To alter

To substitute

Learning:

To gain knowledge or understanding of or skill in by study, instruction, or experience

To come to be able

To come to realize

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6. The Quest for Chromaticism: Hand-Stopping, Keys, and Valves

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

6  The Quest for Chromaticism: Hand-Stopping, Keys, and Valves

Attempts to expand the chromatic capabilities of the natural trumpet began with various slide mechanisms as early as the fifteenth century. As shown in chapter 5, slide trumpets allowed the instrument to retain its characteristic noble sound in related keys but did not enable virtuosic figuration or chromatic agility at fast tempi. Numerous technological experiments in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries strove to accomplish just that.

Two methods dominated this quest for facile chromaticism: cutting holes in tubing regulated by keys to enable nodal venting (similar to the modern Baroque trumpet with vent holes described in chapter 3) and adding tubing to the length of the instrument through appended smaller slides (like crooks) accessed by various valve mechanisms. Both methods functioned by accessing notes outside the harmonic series of a single length of tubing (like the natural trumpet or bugle) by tapping overtones produced by either shortening the main tubing (by holes regulated by keys, like in the woodwinds) or by lengthening it through appended tubing rather than a slide mechanism. The primary challenges for both systems involved tone quality, intonation, and fingering.

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Medium 9781574413076

Chapter 2 The RAF Years (1939–1946)

Stephen Gamble and William Lynch University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER

2

The RAF Years

(1939–1946)

Brain was in the Royal Air Force (RAF) during World War II and a year afterwards. He continued studies at the Royal Academy of Music during the war and augmented playing in the RAF Symphony Orchestra with musical engagements in London and the provinces.

RAF duties took Brain to RAF bases at home and abroad and to some extent restricted outside engagements. Sometimes he had to turn down offers of work owing to schedule conflicts and to his increasing demand as a soloist. His concerts as well as broadcasts in solo repertoire increased from 1941 onwards on home and overseas transmissions. This was in addition to many chamber music recitals and broadcasts with strings and other combinations.

He was not restricted to classical music but ventured into the sphere of dance bands, light music, and music for the film industry. With so many musicians away in the services abroad, he was much in demand for film soundtracks as well as in the many ensembles and orchestras being established in and around

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