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Appendix B. Catalogue Raisonné of Viennese Cantata Sources

LAWRENCE BENNETT Indiana University Press ePub

A total of 39 sources containing 162 Italian cantatas by composers employed by the Habsburgs during the period 1658–1712 have been identified. Fourteen of these sources are manuscripts dating from the years 1658–1700. (For a description of the manuscript that contains two cantatas by Johann Caspar Kerll [A-GÖ, Musikarchiv, Ms. 4089], see Friedrich Wilhelm Riedel and Leonhard Riedel, “Zum Repertoire der italienischen Kantatenkomposition,” 331.) Eighteen manuscripts and seven copies of a single printed collection, Badia’s Tributi armonici, comprise the sources for cantatas dating from the years 1700–1712; these sources include a few works by Badia that date from the final years of the seventeenth century, but they belong historically and stylistically with the younger generation.

The source descriptions given below for thirteen manuscripts from 1658 to 1700 have been subdivided into dated archival copies, undated archival copies, and three manuscripts in S-Uu. No extant holographs from this period are known to me. The descriptions for the chamber cantatas from 1700 to 1712 are subdivided into five categories: two holographs, the printed collection, six dated archival copies, nine undated archival copies, and the single manuscript in D-Dl. The descriptions for the manuscripts with four grand cantatas, all preserved in archival copies, appear at the end of this appendix.

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18. Keyboard Instruments

Edited by Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub

JACK ASHWORTH

Explanations of pitch reference, tuning, the short octave, and split keys are appropriate for all Renaissance keyboard instruments. These items are grouped together here, with an introduction to the topic of early fingerings and a list of general sources of keyboard music.

On the organ an open flue pipe sounding c′, or “middle c,” is roughly two feet long. The pipe for the note one octave below it, c, is twice as long (four feet), and the pipe one octave further down, C, is twice as long again (eight feet). This eight-foot length has been used as a pitch reference standard since the Middle Ages. Eight-foot pitch means unison pitch: the pitch of middle c played on an eight-foot organ rank or harpsichord register is the same as that of the same key on a piano; c′ in a four-foot rank will sound one octave higher; the same key in a sixteen-foot rank will sound one octave lower, and so on. This nomenclature is standard, even though pitches are sometimes produced by strings or pipes shorter than expected. Thus, the lowest pipe in an eight-foot stopped diapason is only four feet long; organ reeds of the regal family have very short resonators, or sometimes no resonators at all; and harpsichords and clavichords are scaled in such a way that their strings are not necessarily as long as the pitch would ordinarily seem to require (i.e., the string for c is not necessarily twice as long as that for c′).

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Appendixes

Monika Herzig Indiana University Press ePub

APPENDIX A

List of Compositions

Although David Baker has written hundreds of arrangements on the compositions of other composers, this list covers only his own compositions.

The designation “jazz ensemble” is used for compositions that are strictly jazz compositions. David Baker wrote nearly all of the compositions with this designation for big band and also arranged many of them for a variety of smaller jazz ensembles.

Narrator and chamber ensemble (trumpet, alto saxophone/clarinet, tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, trombone, piano, bass, and drums).

Narrator’s script written by David Baker. Nine movements: I. When Indiana Was the Frontier; II. Clearing Fields and Splitting Rails; III. On the Death of Loved Ones; IV. Boys at Play; V. And He Read Himself to Sleep; VI. Sunday Go to Meetin’; VII. Becoming His Own Man; VIII. A Country Boy; IX. Of Times Gone By. Commissioned by the Indiana Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission.

Song cycle for soprano and piano. Text by Carole Wright. Four movements:

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1. Tone Production

Stanley Ritchie Indiana University Press ePub

Two words that should never, in my opinion, be used to refer to the contact between hand and bow are “hold” and “grip,” as both suggest some kind of effort. Ideally, in my view, one should balance the bow in the hand as lightly as possible, exerting no physical effort. The following are exercises I prescribe to convey this concept:

Preliminary exercise: Play a down-bow on the G or D string, and lift the fingers one by one from the stick (4–3–2–1) until only the thumb remains in contact with the bow. It is essential to keep the bow moving in this exercise, which is designed to demonstrate that tone can be produced with only the weight of the bow and the motion of the hair. [Hint: Allow the hair to rest against the outside of the thumb.] Then, touching the bow as lightly as possible, pull and push the bow, gently raising and lowering the fingers as though they were playing notes on the stick. In this way one can experience effortless tone production, the weight of the bow producing a surprising level of sound, the hand relaxed and ready to impart the subtle nuances required in Baroque violin playing. From there I proceed with the following tone production exercises:

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1 Ottoman Empire, 1890–1915

Sylvia Angelique Alajaji Indiana University Press ePub

On April 24, 1915, over two hundred leading Armenian figures living in the Ottoman Empire were arrested without warning on orders from the Interior Ministry. The empire was in crisis. In November 1914, the Ottomans had officially entered World War I as allies of the Central Powers, thus ending their pledge of neutrality. As tensions with England and France played out in Ottoman territories throughout the Middle East, escalating conflicts with Russia resulted in bitter and devastating setbacks for the already thinly spread Ottoman army. Meanwhile, within its own crumbling borders, the so-called Sick Man of Europe continued to contend with the revolts and uprisings being staged by ethnic minorities demanding independence. For the Young Turk triumvirate in power, these uprisings and outside threats provided added fuel to their pan-Turkic conception of the empire—a self-conception in which there was no room for an increasingly belligerent Christian minority with nationalist aspirations of its own. The arrests on April 24 served as an ominous prelude to the unprecedented massacres and deportations that were to follow in the coming months. All told, approximately one million Armenians would perish. With the trauma forever etched into their cultural memories, the survivors formed a widespread diaspora whose identities rested on the sense of Self initially forged in those chaotic years leading to 1915.

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Medium 9780253318220

V The Role of Silence

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

Speech after long silence; it is right.

WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS

Whether a jazz band playing sempre fortissimo, or electronic nothings piped into our ear when phoning or swathing our consciousness when shopping or dining, we become accustomed to decibels and white noise and become uneasy when we have to listen to silence. Silence is the sound of aloneness, when we become conscious of unhappiness or boredom. For the musician, silence is the sound of the inner self, the sound of concentration. As shown by the following table, Beethoven frequently notated an extended silence at the conclusion of a movement, creating a frame for the listening experience. The sonatas listed are those in which one or more movements end with a fermata over a final rest (marked *) or with a fermata over a complete measure of rest (marked **).

 

Tempo

Meter

Dynamic Level

Op. 2/1

*Allegro

ff

 

*Adagio

3/4

pp

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XVI. If It Was Time for the Musicians to Call,It Was Time to Go Home and Fix It

Vince Bell University of North Texas Press PDF

  XVI 

If It Was Time for the

Musicians to Call, It Was

Time to Go Home and Fix It

T

he fellow who ran into me with a Ford

LTD was fined $600 for ending my life. In one split second he threw my chosen career to the dogs. He put me into an uncertain loop of treatment after treatment for many years to come.

“A day or two after the accident I had gone to the police station to talk to an investigator about the kid who had been driving the car,”

Shary remembers. “I asked what they were going to do to this dude— what kind of charges were they going to file? What was going to happen to this guy who’s screwed my brother up so badly? The investigator said, ‘Well, we can’t charge him with anything now.’ I just about came unglued.

“They were still waiting to see if Vince lived or died. If they filed a lesser charge immediately and then Vince died, they wouldn’t be able to re-file new charges. There was also a lot of confusion about exactly what had happened. The car was registered to someone who hadn’t been in the car. The driver was the owner’s nephew or son.

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Sanitarium Blues

Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press PDF

5

Sanitarium Blues

TMB-GALVESTON WAS IN THE 1960S and still is one of the best medical and psychiatric facilities in the country.

In 1964, the physical plant at UTMB was a collection of

Victorian brick buildings mixed with some drab additions from the 1930s and the early 1950s, nestled into a palm-shaded campus in the northeast corner of the city. The old main building, a monumental redbrick known as Old Red, was built in 1891 and survived the Galveston Storm of 1900. Just west of Old Red was the Galveston State Psychopathic Hospital (later renamed the

Marvin Graves Building), the first building in Galveston built to house psychiatric patients. Dr. Titus Harris was the first Director of Psychiatry there, and his colleague Dr. Abe Hauser was the Assistant Director. Together, they had established the Titus Harris

Clinic for psychiatric inpatients in 1929.1

Grace Jameson is a psychiatrist who has been on staff at the

Titus Harris Clinic since the early 1950s. According to Dr. Jameson, “By the early 1940s, people all over Texas knew about Dr.

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Chapter 9. Cold, Cold Heart: May 1980-November 1983

Ron Forbes-Roberts University of North Texas Press PDF

228

One Long Tune: The Life and Music of Lenny Breau

“Tal immediately suggested Lenny and I said, ‘Yeah, Lenny Breau,’”

DeStefano says. “So we went after him and after a little back and forth Lenny was booked to do it. He and his wife flew down from

Maine to New York and we had them driven up to Sea Bright.” The couple arrived on May 21 for their two-day, de facto honeymoon for which Lenny was pleased to receive $400 and a few nights at the local Sandy Hook Motel.

The actual meeting between Farlow and Lenny is not shown in the documentary because DeStefano did not want to intrude on the moment, but he says that the men greeted each other genially and with obvious mutual respect. “They got on great right away,” says

DeStefano. “Tal had heard him a lot so it wasn’t like Lenny was just another adoring student. Tal knew Lenny was special. Lenny understood the tradition Tal was part of—52nd Street, BeBop, Bird—and you could see in Lenny’s eyes when he looked at Tal that he saw all that. Lenny knew that tradition. He hadn’t been part of it, but he knew this guy in this room was there.”

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Medium 9780253339362

Chapter 10. The Gigue

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

A dizzying variety of styles, metric structures, textures, types of upbeat, affects, and time signatures confronts the one who would understand Bach’s gigues. Forty-two dances have survived, under titles as diverse as “gigue,” “giga,” “jig,” “jigg,” and “gique,” and in time signatures such as C, and . What do these pieces have in common beyond the fact that they bring to a close a suite of dances?

We divide Bach’s gigues into three types—the French gigue, giga I, and giga II—based on an analysis of metric structure. Ex. X-1 shows the beginnings of three gigues from Bach’s French Suites, each illustrating one of these three types. Giga I (11–2–3) is different from the other types in that its tripleness is on the tap, or lowest, rhythmic level. It also has the slowest harmonic rhythm, giving it an illusion of great speed and a very fast tempo. The French gigue (1–3–2) and giga II (II-3–2) share a similar metric structure but are different because the French gigue has numerous dotted rhythms (as opposed to the predominantly even eighth notes in giga II), a simpler texture, and slightly faster tempo (as opposed to the more-complex textures and slightly slower tempo in giga II).

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8. Expression

Stanley Ritchie Indiana University Press ePub

If there is one clue that should help us understand the rarity of dynamics and other indications of expression in much of the music composed before the end of the eighteenth century or the beginning of the nineteenth, it is that musicians of the period were provided with a set of basic rules of interpretation that simplified their professional life. Francesco Geminiani’s treatise lays out many of these, as do those of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Leopold Mozart, and Daniel Gottlob Türk. Indeed, even the terms crescendo and decrescendo or diminuendo are rare until well into the nineteenth century, other than where it would not be normal to use them. One may find the word crescendo on groups of slurred notes, which, according to Leopold Mozart, should normally fall away dynamically, but decrescendo hardly ever. For example, in the entire orchestral score of Beethoven’s first piano concerto only one decrescendo is indicated, and that occurs in the twelve measures of string accompaniment leading to the coda of the finale, which start pianissimo and get progressively softer!

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8. DON’T YOU TAKE IT TOO BAD

Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press ePub

8

Don’t You Take
It Too Bad

TOWARD THE END OF THE year, during a trip to Oklahoma City to play some coffee-house gigs with Guy Clark, Townes and Guy met a woman who was to become a major part of both of their lives.

“Townes claims that he was the one that introduced me and Guy,” Susanna Clark recalls, “but I think Townes met my sister first somehow. I met Guy and Townes both exactly at the same time…. I was living with my sister. And apparently they had become friends with my sister…. I walked in and they were both sitting on the couch. And boy, did they look bedraggled. I introduced myself, and the first thing I did was offer Guy a vitamin pill. They both had hair down past their shoulders, and skinny as rails, both of them. My easel was set up in the living room, where they were sitting, and I was painting a painting. Townes was just still very, very quiet. And I was painting away and trying to kind of chat with them, and I said, ‘I just don’t know what to do with this foreground. I just don’t know how to bring it forward. I just don’t know what to do.’ And Guy said, ‘You know what to do.’ And I thought to myself, ‘Well, I can’t drop my artistic hanky in front of him, because he ain’t going for it.’ And he got up and started showing me these things to do. So I really liked Guy because he knew about painting.1

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9 Bobby and Bags

Kathy Sloane Indiana University Press ePub

He just hits one note. He
crushed me with one note.

Eddie Marshall quoting Bobby
Hutcherson on Milt Jackson

Stuart Kremsky

The thing about Keystone, and what I think Todd’s greatest skill was, was putting together interesting combinations of musicians. Nobody else would put Max Roach and Art Blakey on the same bill, but Todd did that.

Todd Barkan

I put lots and lots of bands together. I mean, that’s part of what I do and what I’ve done for the last thirty years. I do it here [in New York] at Dizzy’s. And I did it there in the ’70s – put bands together. I’m the one that put George Cables with Charles McPherson.

Putting Bobby Hutcherson and Milt Jackson together was something that I just wanted to do for many years. I knew [from] Bobby that Milt was his hero, number one, and I knew that Milt was often very resistant about the idea of playing with another vibes player. That took quite a long time to happen. Milt Jackson had to approve it because Milt was the boss. Bobby was only one of his children. One of his progeny. Now, Bobby is the boss and Stefon Harris and Joe Locke are his children. Generations. I suggested that [they perform together] three or four times before it happened. And even the week that it happened, it wasn’t supposed to happen. Milt said, “No.” Then, finally, in the middle of the week, he said, “Man, have Bobby come in.” And, of course, I didn’t have to bend Bobby’s arm; Bobby wanted to do it from the very beginning. So Bobby came, and it was a great thing.

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Appendix C. Tributes to Pressler

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

Colleagues, friends, students, and audiences find Menahem Pressler to be such a remarkable human being and such a strong force in music that the natural response is to express their appreciation to him and attempt to put into words the significant impact he has had on their lives. But as his daughter, Edna, notes, “He doesn’t want to take time for tributes. He values getting right to the instruction.” Nevertheless, it seems appropriate to include here some of the many laudatory comments received from the numerous people whose lives Pressler has touched over the course of his unparalleled career.

Pressler’s joyful smile, sparkling eyes, and eager encouragement when I got it right were contagious and danced their way through my week between lessons. From him I learned about imagination and creativity that were almost childlike in approach, full of joy, poignancy, and even spirituality. He was spontaneous and effervescent. His detailed attention and enchantment with color, touch, visual imagery, and emotion opened a new world to me. In studying the Schumann Papillons, I remember the intensity of Pressler’s search for meaning and [the] individual character of each of those delightful pieces and their individual sections. His amazing sense of timing, balance, contrast, and color in the Chopin Andante Spianato and Grand Polonaise invited a rainbow of emotions and technical tools to be explored and transferred in future repertoire.

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1. Music in the Vococentric Cinema

David P. Neumeyer Indiana University Press ePub

A simple, typical example of sound practice in the Hollywood studio era (roughly 1930–60) may be found in a few moments from The Dark Corner (1946), an A-level film noir obviously meant as a stand-alone sequel to Laura (1944). An evening party at the lavish home of Hardy Cathcart (Clifton Webb) includes a dance sequence that begins with a straight-on view of members of Eddie Heywood’s band (figure 1.1a), followed by a pan across the dancing couples to Cathcart and his wife, Mari (Cathy Downs, figure 1.1b). The sound level of the band is maintained during the pan but drops a little as Webb’s voice enters at the original, higher sound level; the band is now offscreen and in the sonic background. The couple, in medium shot, are seen at a very modest angle (to emphasize the dance), but on the reverse to Mari (figure 1.1c), a standard shot / reverse shot with an eyeline match is used, confirming the priority (and, with the tighter framing, also the privacy) of their conversation.1 The backgrounding of the music serves narrative clarity and happens in collusion with the camera: the pan charts distance covered, but no attention is paid to a drop in volume for the physical circumstances of the room (in other words, the band actually should be louder as Cathcart and Mari talk). Music begins as performance, but it leads before long to the voice.2

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