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Fifteen: Confusions and Conclusions

Matthew Krystal University Press of Colorado ePub

Confusions and Conclusions

Representational dance, as secular ritual, is a conceptual means to address conflicted topics. Drawing on Shay (2006), I have examined how people of differing societies express ethnicity and often attempt to control images of identity through representational dance. Additionally, representations in dance reflect social inequality. These two issues, ethnicity and inequality, are salient in the global era. We encounter Others of greater diversity more often. In the process great social and economic inequality is more directly revealed. Not surprisingly, such expression and contestation of ethnicity are occasionally subject to controversy. Three basic confusions frame the conflict over Other-representation and the controversy of insistent expression of unique identity: (1) the confusion of personal and stable for authentic, (2) the confusion of de jure and theoretical equality with real and pervasive inequality, and (3) the facile equivalence of one’s ideas of identity with those of ethnic Others.

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Medium 9780253318220

XV The Cosmopolitan Impostor: Op. 2 No. 3, Op. 14 No. 1

Kenneth O. Drake Indiana University Press ePub

Throughout its existence, the keyboard has been the central meeting place for every genre of composition. It is the instrument of accompaniment, a chamber music partner, a concerto soloist, and the instrument for orchestral reductions. In a letter to Breitkopf & Härtel, dated July 13, 1802, Beethoven referred to the popularity of transcriptions as an “unnatural mania,” saying that the piano and string instruments were so different from one another that the practice should be checked.1 One wonders what he might have said about Liszt’s transcriptions of his symphonies, in which form the piano became a cultural missionary, making the music accessible in places where there were no orchestras.

Thinking in choirs of instrumental sound and independent voice parts is central to Beethoven’s keyboard style, just as an operatic vocal style emerges from the Mozart sonatas and the Chopin concertos. Op. 2 No. 3 has been chosen to group with Op. 14 No. 1, the only sonata Beethoven transcribed for strings, because its orchestral manner—in addition to a concerto-like cadenza in the first movement—is its most prominent characteristic.

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Medium 9780253356260

6 Vocalizzi, Solfeggi, and Real (or Ideal) Composition

Nicholas Baragwanath Indiana University Press ePub

Before the demise of the great tradition, the practice of counterpoint (and, less often, harmony) was commonly taught in Italy by masters of singing. The disciplines were not regarded as separate, as they are today. On the contrary, a glance at the faculty lists of the conservatories shows that expertise in vocal training appears to have been considered a prerequisite for the teaching of counterpoint, just as proficiency at the keyboard was an essential foundation for the teaching of harmony or accompaniment. The founding faculty of 1838 at the Istituto musicale in Lucca included, for instance, Eugenio Galli as professor of “solfeggio and counterpoint” and Massimiliano Quilici as professor of “bel canto and accompaniment.” At the Conservatorio di Santa Maria della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples, the teaching of counterpoint by the primo maestro di canto was enshrined in the “Rules and Statutes” of 17461 and reaffirmed in Perrino’s reformist open letter of 1814.2 At the Milan Conservatory Nicola Vaccai, having made his name as a singing teacher, composer, and author of a popular method for training the voice (1832), went on to teach courses in harmony and counterpoint from 1835 to 1837 before serving as director and professor of composition until 1844. His colleague Pietro Ray, a student of Sala, delivered lessons in singing for thirty years (1808–38) before taking over the counterpoint class (1837–50). He published courses of instruction in both disciplines, including a progressive series of solfeggi for sopranos (1832) and a practical-theoretical treatise on counterpoint (1846). Alberto Mazzucato succeeded Ray as professor of singing from 1839 to 1851 and, like him, went on to teach counterpoint and composition, until his appointment as director of the Conservatory in 1872. Lauro Rossi, his predecessor as director, contributed not only a detailed course book for lessons in harmony (1858) but also vocal exercises for sopranos (1864, 1866).3 At the time of Puccini’s studies in Milan, Alberto Giovannini, who was primarily responsible for lessons in singing from 1877 to 1903, also taught classes in “theory and solfeggio” from 1881 to 1886. Similarly, at the Liceo musicale in Bologna, Alessandro Busi delivered the main class in “Counterpoint (composition)” from 1871–95 as well as taking up the position of professore di canto in 1884.

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Medium 9780253344892

5 Global Village

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

In 1992 a cassette recording called Twinkle Inna Polish Stylee: Higher Heights was released, first in England and Western Europe and then in Poland (fig. 5.1). The cassette contained the musical results of a fusion between a Rastafarian reggae band based in London and a family band of Górale musicians from the Tatra village of Biały Dunajec. The recording extends the international quality of the festivals considered in the previous chapter and exemplifies what can happen when musicians go beyond observing a very different music from a very different place and try to blend that music with their own. The recording is also a tangible representation of the workings of globalization. The first part of this chapter traces the process of globalization by presenting a history of interaction between the Rasta reggae band and the Górale band, interaction both ideological and musical. The second part of the chapter focuses on the Górale musicians involved in this fusion project, and their innovative responses to the experience. I conclude by theorizing what I will call “globalism,” a deliberate thought process behind the material workings of globalization, in an effort to understand the local meanings of globalization. In other words, I consider some of the ways that the Górale musicians who took part in this fusion experiment are taking those experiences and reinterpreting them to create new expressions of Góraleness locally and globally.

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Medium 9780253352415

Twenty-Seven: Robert Schumann

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

I think Schumann speaks to me very specially, and so I listen to him very specially. And he means something very special. What is it? It is young and truly romantic, but romantic in a way that is always fresh, that cannot be warmed over. You start playing him, and the romantic feelings are the ones that you had at 18. No matter if you are 80, you feel 18 when you play his music. It is so direct and so personal when you play Schumann. That’s why there are very few Schumann players today.

There used to be great Schumann players and even today you do have a Radu Lupu who plays beautiful Schumann or Perahia who plays beautiful Schumann, but very few play really beautiful Schumann. The ideas just tumble out with Schumann. His texture changes and his whimsical approach, I would say his lack of mastery. He was not a Brahms or a Beethoven, but when he speaks to you, you know that you have to respond. He addresses you personally, and he addresses your feelings. And when you play him, you build a technique to meet his needs, how the fingers quickly enter the keyboard and exit, like little “lightnings.”

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Appendix E Extended Bibliography

Stephen Gamble and William Lynch University of North Texas Press PDF



Extended Bibliography

1. Concert Programs and Souvenir Booklets

Unless otherwise stated, these concert programs are in Stephen Gamble’s collection. This is not a complete list of Dennis Brain’s concerts. Not all have been referred to in this book but are included for the reader’s interest to give a more complete picture of Brain’s busy concert schedule.

Souvenir Booklet of the Thirteenth Bristol Music Festival

Colston Hall

October 23–26 1912

Photograph of Marion Beeley and a short article about her career on page 15.

This copy once belonged to Ernest Hall, principal trumpet in the BBC Symphony

Orchestra and is inscribed in ink in the front: “Ernest Hall Bristol Festival October 23rd to

26th 1912.”

St. Paul’s School, London

Musical Society

Thursday, December 19 1935 at Eight p.m.

The program included:

Pianoforte solo: Sonata in G—Beethoven (First Movement) D. Brain

Musical Society

Tuesday, December 21 1937 at Eight p.m.

The program included:

Trio for Oboe, Horn and Pianoforte—Paul Rogers, Leonard Brain, Dennis Brain, and

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Medium 9781574413298


Robert Earl Hardy University of North Texas Press ePub


White Freightliner

TOWNES’ FRIEND CHITO RECALLS FIRST meeting Townes in Colorado in the early seventies:

We’re sitting in this bar in downtown Aspen, and I’m drunker than shit, and Bob brings over this guy. And this guy has big old patches of hair missing out of his head, because he’d gotten a haircut from a bunch of cowboys. And they used sheep shears. I mean, if he was a real cowboy, that would have never happened. So Bob says, “Hey, Chito, this is Townes Van Zandt.” I was totally not impressed. But that’s how I met Townes.

Townes wanted to be a cowboy in Montana and sing his songs around the campfire…. But he never was a cowboy, he didn’t know shit about horses, and he never fuckin’ went up more than a week into the mountains, ever, if that. Jesus Christ, do they have a liquor store up there? The only way I would go up in the mountains with him would be that we had enough goddamn booze, and how long would that last? Think about it.1

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Four: The Dance of the Conquest and Contested National Identity

Matthew Krystal University Press of Colorado ePub

The Dance of the Conquest and Contested National Identity

After scaling the stairs of a pyramid temple, the famed warrior Tekun Umam kneels before the K’iche’ king. Not long ago news reached K’uumarkaaj, the K’iche’ capital, that the great Aztec empire had fallen to the Spanish. Deeply troubled by this turn of events, the K’iche’ king has ordered the meeting to delegate military command to Tekun Umam. Able fellow warrior and second-in-command Witzitzil Tzunun is beside Tekun Umam when he receives the symbol of his command, a staff carrying the cerulean and white flag of the contemporary state of Guatemala. It is a critical moment both in the life of Tekun Umam and in this version of the most salient Guatemalan national origin story.

After bidding appropriately respectful farewell to their political leader, the K’iche’ warriors descend the stairs of the temple, leave K’uumarkaaj, and set about preparing for battle. They assemble an army and consult Ajitz, the Maya priest-warrior-scout. Meanwhile, Pedro de Alvarado and his army are on the march, intending to conquer and convert the K’iche’. In a few hours the Maya and Spanish will meet in battle, their respective leaders confronting one another in a struggle to the death. Tekun Umam will fight valiantly but will be defeated and killed by Alvarado. Witzitzil Tzunun, recognizing the significance of the loss of Tekun Umam and a good many other Maya soldiers, will call for the cessation of battle. The K’iche’ king,1 resigned to his fate since he learned of the fall of Tenochtitlán at the beginning of the play, now accepts conversion on behalf of his people at its end.

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Stephen Gamble and William Lynch University of North Texas Press PDF


William Lynch and I (Stephen Gamble) had both been researching Dennis

Brain independently for many years when we first came in contact in July

2001 because of an advertisement I had placed in The Horn Magazine offering some of my collection of Brain recordings for sale. We first discussed co-authoring a biography in November of the same year and started work the following year, shortly before the Royal Academy of Music in London celebrated the eightieth year since Brain’s birth with a performance on

November 15, 2002 (more than a year after the actual anniversary). This was also the first occasion at which his B-flat Alexander was to be played in public since August 31, 1957.

When we began our collaboration, it soon became apparent what a wealth of new material was available, untapped and waiting to be gathered.

At the end of this project, much material about Brain’s career still waits to be explored. We do not know the full extent to which private enthusiasts recorded his performances off-the-air from broadcasts. We have not been able to search many music archives around the world, in part due to limited accessibility, and in part due to lack of institutional funding to catalog archive inventories. We hope that subsequent editions of this book will add to the list of known recordings.

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Medium 9780253009098

1 Beginnings: 1921–1938

Billy Taylor Indiana University Press ePub

The seductive power of jazz resides in its distinctive sway, its particular saunter, its gait, its swing. The genealogy of that swing begins in West Africa, where a primal pulse spawned the ritual drumming, call-and-response singing, and orisha-possessed dancing that were the musical and spiritual life’s blood of its people. Like an endless vine with roots planted firmly in the soil of its African origin, that dynamic Mother Pulse stretched the length of the Atlantic Ocean and was carried as precious cargo in the musical memories and bodies of the enslaved and scattered people who became the Diaspora. Wherever these enslaved people landed, their African heartbeat, their fertile musical Mother Pulse, generated seedlings, new musical forms specific to their new environments but still identifiably African. In the Caribbean, these seedlings matured in forms like junkanoo, mambo, mento, and reggae. In the United States, the transplanted Africans injected the creative pulse of their homeland into their field hollers, work songs, spirituals, blues, and jazz. When the slave law silenced their drumming, the Mother Pulse persisted nonetheless, emerging as the body rhythms of the ring shout and the juba-pattin’ on the plantations, the handclaps of the black church, the vocal percussion of the quartet, the syncopation of ragtime, jazz, the backbeat of R & B, and the beat-boxing of the South Bronx. Songs from their African homeland emerged in new African American melodies that essentially use the five notes of the pentatonic scale; the hollers, guttural tones, and bent notes of the blues and black gospel; the flatted thirds and sevenths of jazz.

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Medium 9780253003072

11. Popular Music and Young Male Audiences in Contemporary Malawi

ERIC CHARRY Indiana University Press ePub


In this chapter I examine the contemporary and neo-traditional music traditions in Malawi that came into vogue shortly after the rule of long-term president H. K. Banda (1964–1994), with special emphasis on their themes as expressed in the lyrics.1 I begin by discussing recent developments in the dissemination of music via the Malawian mass media, and then look at the work of several of Malawi’s major artists in the genres of electric guitar band music, gospel, reggae, and rap. Saleta Phiri, who continued a guitar-based tradition similar to that of Zimbabwe, sings about a broad variety of contemporary topics, including love, intergenerational conflicts, and awareness of HIV/AIDS.2 Reggae artist Lucius Banda, who sings of hope and resistance for the poor and downtrodden, rapper Pop Dogg, who, from the diaspora wholly appropriates unadulterated American gansta rap, and gospel hip hop group Masavage could hardly present more of a contrast with each other, and I compare some of their attitudes and stances. I conclude with two examples to show how critical potential, as expressed in the music of many reggae musicians, can be transformed into concrete social and political action by the artists themselves or by parts of the audience.

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Medium 9780253014481

6. Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 2: Musicians, Instruments, and Repertories

Allen Scott Indiana University Press ePub


Area Bibliographies, Indexes, Catalogs, and Guides 2: Musicians, Instruments, and Repertories

This chapter includes lists of basic sources for biographies of musicians, musical instruments and their repertories, and musical genres and forms.


The first section lists sources of biographies, primarily bibliographies and indexes of biographies, organized primarily by type of musician (composer, conductor, performer, etc.). Many are annotated—some lightly and others extensively. They are useful particularly for locating titles published prior to the beginning coverage year of online databases. The following section contains a selected list of biographies of Western European art music composers in English. The last section begins with the two primary series of composer biographies and research materials, the Bio-Bibliographies in Music and the Routledge Music Bibliographies, and concludes with other series of composer biographies of various types.

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Medium 9780253010124

9. Soul

S. Kay Hoke INshort ePub


Since the end of World War I the history of popular music in America has been one of interplay between musical styles and technological advances in sound reproduction. Of the many influences affecting the popular music scene, two are especially noteworthy: the introduction of microphones and amplifiers, allowing performers to project their sound without mastering the same techniques used by performers of art music; and the movement of mainstream popular music from a European-inspired written tradition to a vernacular style derived from oral tradition.

Until the 1920s the primary consumers of popular music were the literate middle and working classes, who had both the ability to read music and the means to buy a piano on which to reproduce it in the home. The emergence of affordable electronic sound reproduction made popular music accessible to a broad audience unconstrained by geography or the necessity for formal musical training. By 1925, control of the popular music industry had begun to shift from publishing houses to radio stations, record companies, and manufacturers of sound reproduction equipment. Popular music in the United States has always been dominated by styles directed toward and listened to by the so-called mainstream audience: urban, middle-class whites. In the first half of the century that music was the product of Tin Pan Alley; in the second half it has been rock. But styles particular to other groups in the population have sometimes attracted broad-based audiences as well—for example, the music of rural whites, first known as hillbilly and later as country, and the music of African Americans, which includes blues, jazz, and gospel.

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Medium 9781770906730


Neil Peart ECW Press ePub


MAY 2013

This story was written during our Clockwork Angels European tour in May 2013, for a British motorcycling weekly. They asked for about 700 words and a photo or two, and I gave them 1,700 words and eight photos. They said they would run it like that, but took a few liberties—not so much with the text, but perhaps because the story was part of an “adventure touring” issue, they replaced Brutus’s and my iconic U.K. photos with more exotic images from a previous tour in South America.

That’s fine, for their purposes, but not for mine—trying to share an experience as deeply as I can. So I decided to present it here in its original form, which would also fill a gap in the tour’s documentation.

I will retract the British spellings, for consistency (and personal taste), but keep the “cultural references,” for fun.

SINCE 1996, I have been traveling on Rush tours by motorcycle, riding to virtually every concert in the United States, Canada, South America, and Europe. Hundreds of shows, tens of thousands of miles, and a million memories—almost all good, and many spectacular, like the American West, the Brazilian rainforest, the Stelvio Pass, and the Yorkshire Dales.

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Medium 9781574412840

1. Balboa Bandwagon (1941)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


Balboa Bandwagon


Human nature being the way it is, it’s unlikely music was uppermost on the minds of most youngsters crowding the Californian beach-side resort of Balboa, some 30 miles south of Los Angeles. But for many, music came a close second to socializing, and word that summer of 1941 was that the band playing the Rendezvous Ballroom was HOT.

It was also completely unknown. Whoever had heard of Stanley Kenton and his Orchestra?

Big names in the nation’s dance-halls were the likes of Glenn Miller,

Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey. They might play the Rendezvous for the odd one-nighter, but only the swankiest hotels, or the most prestigious theatres, could afford to book these bands on extended engagements. A struggling “territory” band would accept the lowest union scale the management could get away with paying.

Widely recognized as the premier dance spot of the locality, the

Rendezvous had been totally rebuilt after a fire in 1935. Clinton Roemer (Kenton’s chief copyist after the war) worked at the Rendezvous, and casts a fascinating insight into the mores of the period: “Of the many ballrooms along the coast, the Rendezvous without a doubt was the most popular as well as the most famous. The management was strict at enforcing the rules. Women could not wear slacks, and men were required to wear long-sleeved sweaters or jackets over their shirts.

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