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4 The Notation, Its Perception, and Rendering

Barthold Kuijken Indiana University Press ePub

In sections 1–13 the most important notation parameters of Early Music will be treated separately. Short texts in italics will point to the frequent overlapping and continual cross-influence between them or will lead from one section to the next in an attempt to see all these parameters not as isolated elements, but rather as interwoven parts of one integral artistic product. In sections 14–18 some aspects will be treated that have a profound impact on the way the notation is read, received, and rendered to the audience.

Tuning and temperament have an immediate impact on the listener’s ears. Research has shown that traditions and standards—and thus also their appreciation—have changed very much over the years. They kept changing until today, though through the introduction of electronic tuning devices, uniformity and repeatability are favored. I am not sure that this must be considered a gain.

(All Hz figures should be understood as “ca.”; especially for the organ, the influence of the church temperature should not be neglected.) Much of the factual information upon which this section is based can be found in Bruce Haynes, A History of Performing Pitch (2002), to which I contributed many pitch data of historical flutes and recorders. Haynes’s conclusions coincide with my own research and experience.

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Medium 9780253348661

5. Recorder

Edited by Jeffery KitePowell Indiana University Press ePub


Of all the early winds the recorder is surely the most familiar. In fact, for many it stands as a symbol for the whole of early music, for until not so long ago it seemed that the recorder movement and the early music movement were almost synonymous. Fortunately for both, that day is now past. In many an early music ensemble, however, the recorder ensemble still provides the main (if not the only) opportunity for students to become acquainted with an early wind. This modern emphasis on the recorder is not without some historical justification, particularly for Renaissance music, as it is evident from the sixteenth-century treatises of Virdung, Agricola, Ganassi, and Jambe de Fer (whose principal readership was undoubtedly the literate bourgeois citizen) that the recorder was often the primary woodwind of the musically cultivated amateur. Then (as now) its value as a pedagogical tool was recognized; Virdung specifically mentions that what is learned through the recorder can be applied to learning the other woodwinds, and the same thought appears to underlie the method books of Agricola. The recorder was also one of the instruments upon which the professional wind player was expected to double; some, such as Ganassi himself, may have specialized on it, and his own method attests to the high level of performance attained by some players. However, it is worth remembering that the ultimate achievement of the professional musician of the Renaissance was not playing any one instrument but several, and that those woodwinds that commanded the most respect were not the recorder but the shawm (in the fifteenth century) and the cornett (in the sixteenth). Thus, a student with the interest and aptitude should be encouraged to look beyond the limitations imposed by the recorder and to explore other avenues of Renaissance performance as well.

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Medium 9781770906730


Neil Peart ECW Press ePub


CAN’T YOU JUST PICTURE the ’60s sitcom, or wacky road movie, that would follow that title? Why, I can hear the theme music. The story would hinge on the classic “odd couple” setup, where a methodical, high-minded would-be aesthete and intellectual is handcuffed to an easygoing Neanderthal everythingaholic drummer.

Or a Nabokovian, Jekyll-Hyde twist, where the two polar sides of one character are tricked into sharing a long, difficult journey?

Oh wait—that’s my life.

What tales our nicknames can tell. The two in this title have been conferred upon one individual—your reporter—at different times in his life. You may imagine they come with a story or two.

I often think back to a “road lesson” involving one of my oldest friends, Jimmy Johnson. He and I met around 1968, when J.J. joined my second band, the Majority (ha—our booking agency’s genius slogan was “Join the Majority!”), as a “roadie.” A few tumultuous years later (for both of us), when I joined Rush, J.J. became Alex’s guitar tech for many years—many hilarious years. The two of them were a fine comedy duo.

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Medium 9781574411515

5 “I’m going back to work for the “I’m going back to work for the Doughboys”

John Mark Dempsey University of North Texas Press PDF






moted the return of the Light Crust Doughboys.

The influx of people from the countryside influenced the programming on Dallas-area radio stations, and also paved the way for the return of the Doughboys. The Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area became a country music hotbed. WFAA and KRLD radio carried live country music programs that featured local, regional, and national performers. The Big D Jamboree, held in a large barn of a building called the Sportatorium on the edge of downtown Dallas, attracted some of the best-known names in country music and drew crowds of

4,000 people each Saturday night (Govenar and Brakefield, 161).

The war had brought a temporary end to the Light Crust

Doughboys, but some members of the group continued to play together. Announcer Parker Willson got a job with the Duncan Coffee

Company and hired several members of the Doughboys to play on a radio program as the “Coffee Grinders” from September 1942 to

April 1946. Kenneth Pitts, Zeke Campbell, Cecil Brower, and J.B.

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Medium 9781574412840

9. Progressive Jazz (1947)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


Progressive Jazz


Several leading members of the Artistry band failed to respond to Stan’s open invitation to rejoin. Christy was very uncertain, but was persuaded by Carlos Gastel she needed more band experience in order to succeed as a single. Vido Musso’s rejection was initially seen as a blow, but soon came to be recognized as a blessing. Woody Herman’s new Herd was opening frontiers with the Four Brothers saxophone sound led by Stan Getz, and the Musso/Mussulli duo would have seemed decidedly old-fashioned by comparison. Instead, the partnership of Bob Cooper and Art Pepper heralded the modernity of West

Coast cool, while the piercing tone of George Weidler’s lead alto more than compensated for any loss of volume.

As Pete Rugolo told it, “Vido was more or less the old school, Coleman Hawkins, that type of thing. When Coop took over the solos, he was just the opposite, he was from the Stan Getz school, and that’s what those guys liked. Previously it had been pretty much the older school of playing, trumpets from the Roy Eldridge school and people like that, but after Gillespie came in all the guys started trying to play like Dizzy. But we always had high trumpet players; they could all play up to high Fs and Gs, that’s why I was able to write everybody screaming with unisons up there. I was very lucky that the guys were so good!”1

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Medium 9780253357069

14. Keyboard Instruments

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


Keyboard Instruments


Solo keyboard music first became an independent and important genre during the seventeenth century. Keyboard instruments were used prior to 1600, of course, but the emphasis on vocal genres during the medieval and Renaissance eras, as well as the limited capabilities of the instruments themselves, consigned the keyboard to a secondary role in the musical activities of church and court. During the seventeenth century, however, a number of factors led to the creation of a large and significant body of solo works for organ, harpsichord, clavichord, and other less well-known keyboard instruments. Among these factors were the increasing emphasis on solo virtuosity and individual modes of expression, technological advances in instrument building, and various political, social, and economic changes and developments. New styles, genres, and forms appeared, and keyboard techniques were introduced that would serve as the models for succeeding generations of performers and composers. This chapter offers an introduction to this rich repertory for pianists and other keyboard players who are unfamiliar with the music and instruments of the seventeenth century, and for non-keyboard players interested in exploring the literature and performance practices of the era.

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Appendix D: New York Philharmonic U.S. Premières, 1935–1973

Brian A. Shook University of North Texas Press PDF

Appendix D

New York Philharmonic U.S. Premières, 1935–1973

* Symphony Society of New York

** Stadium Concert

+ NYP Commission




Delius, Frederick

Delius, Frederick

Verdi, Giuseppe

Bax, Sir Arnold


Vaughan Williams, Ralph

“Koanga,” Dance

“Koanga,” Finale

String Quartet in E Minor

The Tale the PineTrees Knew

Suite for Strings

“Job,” A Masque for Dancing







Barbirolli, John

Jora, Mihail

Otesco, Nonna

Bartok, Béla

Oboe Concerto on Themes of Pergolesi

Marche Juive

“De La Matei Citire,” Prelude to Act II

Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta





Rossellini, Renzo**

Canto di Palude




Rossellini, Renzo**

Gomez, Carlos**

Aguirre, Julián **

Overture to “The Merchant of Venice”

6/18 /1939

Prelude to “Aminta”

Suite Andaluza

“Huella y Gato” from Two Argentine Dances




Johnson, Horace**

Zemlinsky, Alexander

The Streets of Florence

Sinfonietta for Orchestra, op. 23

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Medium 9780253010223


Maurice Hinson Indiana University Press ePub

Chinese Contemporary Piano Pieces (Karlsen Publishers, Hong Kong 1979). Vol.I, 88pp. Ah Ping: The Moon Mirrored in the Pool. Wang Chien Chung: Plum Blossom Melody; Sakura. Yip Wai Hong: Memories of Childhood (6 miniatures). Kwo Chi Hung: 2 Yi Li Folk Songs. Chu Wang Hua: Sinkiang Capriccio. Lui Shi Kuen and Kuo Chi Hung: Battling the Typhoon. Post-Romantic pianistic figurations, much pentatonic usage, some charming and interesting moments. This collection is a good example of the type of piano writing going on in this area of the world today. Int. to M-D.

Chinese Piano Music for Children (N. Liao—Schott 7652 1990) 55pp. Written between 1973 and 1986 when Chinese music “increasingly absorbed the influences and ideas current in the new music of the West, without sacrificing its own tradition and national style” (from the score). Luting He (1903–1999): The Young Shepherd with his little Flute 1934; tender, artistic simplicity, national style. Shande Ding (1911–1995): Suite for Children (five pieces) 1953: folk-like but no folk songs are quoted. Tong Shang (1923– ): Seven Little Pieces after Folk Songs from Inner Mongolia 1953: a charming suite of folk song arrangements. Lisan Wang (1953– ): Sonatine 1957: three titled movements, cheerful, displays spirited humor. Int. to M-D.

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Medium 9781574412260


Essays by John James Haynie, Compiled and Edited by Anne Hardin University of North Texas Press PDF


The Tune As You Play mechanism was invented by Mark

Hindsley at the University of Illinois. It was a trigger device attached to the tuning slide rather than the first valve slide. A double action spring on each side of a fulcrum allowed the player to move the tuning slide either way to raise or lower the pitch of any note. Mr. Hindsley and an engineer designed and installed the mechanisms on the university-owned set of Bach cornets and trumpets in 1951 or thereabout. He had no commercial interest in the mechanism, but he applied for and got a patent for the device. In 1951 or 1952, he showed me the Bach instruments that were equipped with the TAYP trigger, and I was fascinated with how easy it was to tune any note either up or down. Actually, it was easier to tune notes up rather than down, at least on the trumpet, since you had to squeeze with the left thumb to go up and pull back to lower the pitch. I was just getting started using Reynolds instruments, and the company agreed to equip my horns with the device, provided I could borrow a cornet and trumpet from the University of Illinois Bands so the designers could copy and improve upon the Hindsley model. This was all done rather quickly, and I had to learn how to use this trigger device. I spent a lot of time with a StroboConn™ and it was remarkable how easy it was to tune those bad notes that heretofore just had to be lipped.

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Medium 9780253223180

15. Exercises Starting on G

Stanley Ritchie Indiana University Press ePub


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor

Three Different Fingerings


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor


Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor



Diminished seventh (flats)

Diminished seventh (flats and sharps)

Dominant seventh

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Medium 9780253011794

Appendix D: Selected Recordings: An Annotated List

Elisa Koehler Indiana University Press ePub

Appendix D: Selected Recordings: An Annotated List

Listening to good recordings is an essential component of learning about period instruments and musical artistry in general. It is also a valuable way to survey the evolution of trumpet solo technique and repertoire beginning in the twentieth century. The thirty recordings listed here represent a sampling of the instruments of the trumpet family and the wide variety of music they perform. Both audio and video recordings are included to provide the widest possible context. These recordings have been selected to stimulate wider listening and to expand historical awareness; a banquet of artistry awaits the curious audiophile.

Formatting a discography presents several challenges because of the wide variety of content and presentation among recordings. For example, should the performer be listed first or the composer? What about collections with multiple soloists? The recordings here are listed in alphabetical order by their primary identifier: main performer, composer, or title (for a collection or film).

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Medium 9780253007476

6 Yet the Music Lives On

Rick Kennedy Indiana University Press ePub


The Great Depression clobbered the record manufacturers, forcing company closings and a rapid restructuring of the survivors. The consolidation within the industry had already begun in the late 1920s, when Columbia Records purchased the OKeh label and Radio Corporation of America (RCA) acquired historic Victor Records. However, the early 1930s brought economic catastrophe, as annual sales of records dropped from 104 million in 1927 to just six million copies in 1932.

The industry ran for cover. Weeks after the stock market crash, an aging Thomas Edison announced that his company would halt the production of Edison phonographs and records in order to give full attention to radios and dictating machines. In 1931, Consolidated Film Industries purchased and streamlined the embattled Brunswick, Vocalion, and Melotone labels. A year later, Wisconsin Chair Company discontinued its Paramount Records subsidiary, the leading race label. During part of the 1930s, Columbia-owned OKeh, once a leading jazz label, was out of circulation. Several obscure discount labels, such as Herwin, simply dropped out of sight.

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Medium 9781574412734

Appendix II • When Sam Met Scotty

Helene LaFaro-Fernandez University of North Texas Press PDF


Appendix II  •

When Sam Met Scotty

A Remembrance of Scott LaFaro by Barrie Kolstein

Scott LaFaro came into the Kolstein “shop family” in the early years of my life. I was about nine years of age when the wonderful George Duvivier brought Scotty to my father’s house/ shop in Merrick, New York. George had been involved in a project with Scott connected to Gunther Schuller. Scott had acquired his small Prescott bass through the efforts of his close friend and great bassist, Red Mitchell. Red had found both his Lowendahl bass, with the famous cutaway in the shoulder, and the ¾-sized

Prescott while in California. Red felt the Lowendahl was perfect for his own needs and the Prescott was ideal for what Scotty was looking for. He immediately contacted Scotty about the smaller

Prescott. Scotty consequently purchased the Prescott, bringing it back to New York.

Scott became aware that the problem with the Prescott was

that dimensionally the bass was ideal, but tonally it was not.While in collaboration with George Duvivier, this problem surfaced.

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Medium 9780253357069

Appendix C. A Performer's Guide to Renaissance Music: Contents

Jeffery Kite-Powell Indiana University Press ePub


A Performer's Guide to Renaissance Music

Jeffery Kite-Powell, editor




1. The Solo Voice in the Renaissance ELLEN HARGIS

2. On Singing and the Vocal Ensemble I ALEXANDER BLACHLY

3. On Singing and the Vocal Ensemble II ALEJANDRO PLANCHART

4. Practical Matters of Vocal Performance ANTHONY ROOLEY



6. Renaissance Flute HERBERT MYERS

7. Capped Double Reeds: Crumhorn-Kortholt-Schreierpfeif JEFFERY KITE-POWELL

8. Shawm and Curtal ROSS DUFFIN

9. Racket: Rackett, Rankett (Ger.), Cervelas (Fr.), Cervello (It.) JEFFERY KITE-POWELL

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Medium 9780253010261

6 The Château d’Isaster Tapes and the Album Cover and Lyrics of a Passion Play

Tim Smolko Indiana University Press ePub

During a break in the tour for thick as a brick in the summer of 1972, Jethro Tull began work on the music that would later become A Passion Play. From the start, the band intended on writing another concept album. Anderson comments: “[Thick as a Brick] was a very successful album, and when it came to the next album I guess we all collectively fell into a trap of thinking, ‘Oh shit, maybe we should do this kind of thing again and instead of being silly about it, maybe we should take it seriously.’”1 Anderson worked on the new music in Montreux, Switzerland, and then moved with the band to the Château d’Hérouville, a castle-turned-recording-studio in the Oise valley northwest of Paris. Although Elton John loved the studio and named his 1972 album Honky Château after it, Anderson and the band detested it, referring to it as the “Château d’Isaster.” In contrast to the recording of Thick as a Brick, which was carried out quickly and without interruption, the new album was plagued with technical difficulties. Bad food and homesickness for England made things even worse for the band. As Anderson says of the Château d’Hérouville: “The equipment was extremely dodgy, everything was going wrong technically every day, and we were really struggling to make this album. We did eventually get three sides of a double album recorded with great difficulty, but then we finally became so disenchanted with it we just jumped on a plane and went back to England. We scrapped the whole thing and started again.”2 Before considering the album cover, lyrics, and music of A Passion Play, the lyrics and music from the period at the Château d’Hérouville must be explored. Not only do these recordings contain the origin of some of the ideas on A Passion Play, but they are also captivating in and of themselves.

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