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2 Making History

Timothy J. Cooley Indiana University Press ePub

Ja myślę, że dla nas generalnie, muzycznie bliżsi są Słowacy. Słowacy są bardziej bliżsi niż polskie regiony leżące na północ od Podhala. No na przykład z Liptowem, zaraz po drugiej stronie Tatr mamy przynajmniej piętnaście wspólnych melodii. Ja jestem, moje serce jest . . . , generalnie mnie zawsze ciągnęło na południe, na tamtą stronę, zawsze to robiło na mnie wrażenie, czy jak słuchałem rumuńskiej muzyki, czy mołdawskiej, czy ukraińskiej czy huculskiej, czy Słowaków słuchałem czy Węgrów—to zawsze mnie ciągnęło w tamtą stronę. Nie wiem dlaczego.

I think that for us generally the Slovaks are musically the closest. Slovaks are much closer than are the Polish regions lying on the northern side of Podhale. Well, for example, with Liptów, immediately on the other side of the Tatras we have at least fifteen common melodies. I am, my heart is . . . , generally always pulled to the south. On that side, it always impressed me, or when I heard Romanian music, or Moldavian, or Ukrainian or Hucuł,1 or listened to Slovaks or Hungarians—that always pulled me to that side. I don’t know why.

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Medium 9780253010261

6 The Château d’Isaster Tapes and the Album Cover and Lyrics of a Passion Play

Tim Smolko Indiana University Press ePub

During a break in the tour for thick as a brick in the summer of 1972, Jethro Tull began work on the music that would later become A Passion Play. From the start, the band intended on writing another concept album. Anderson comments: “[Thick as a Brick] was a very successful album, and when it came to the next album I guess we all collectively fell into a trap of thinking, ‘Oh shit, maybe we should do this kind of thing again and instead of being silly about it, maybe we should take it seriously.’”1 Anderson worked on the new music in Montreux, Switzerland, and then moved with the band to the Château d’Hérouville, a castle-turned-recording-studio in the Oise valley northwest of Paris. Although Elton John loved the studio and named his 1972 album Honky Château after it, Anderson and the band detested it, referring to it as the “Château d’Isaster.” In contrast to the recording of Thick as a Brick, which was carried out quickly and without interruption, the new album was plagued with technical difficulties. Bad food and homesickness for England made things even worse for the band. As Anderson says of the Château d’Hérouville: “The equipment was extremely dodgy, everything was going wrong technically every day, and we were really struggling to make this album. We did eventually get three sides of a double album recorded with great difficulty, but then we finally became so disenchanted with it we just jumped on a plane and went back to England. We scrapped the whole thing and started again.”2 Before considering the album cover, lyrics, and music of A Passion Play, the lyrics and music from the period at the Château d’Hérouville must be explored. Not only do these recordings contain the origin of some of the ideas on A Passion Play, but they are also captivating in and of themselves.

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Medium 9781574412840

7. The Artistry Orchestra (1946)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


The Artistry Orchestra


Whoever initiated the name “Progressive Jazz”— and evidence points to Rugolo—the term did not come into immediate widespread usage. The 1946 band was referred to by the more established title “Artistry in Rhythm,” and remains perhaps the most popular of all the Kenton orchestras. That was certainly the view of Bill Russo: “I was infatuated with the Artistry orchestra, I was thunderstruck and amazed by that band. In some ways I think it was the greatest of all the Kenton bands, which is not received opinion at this moment.”

The fine-tuning of the Kenton Style and Sound was completed in 1946.

“We were trying to standardize a manner of playing—a conception of how the music should be played,” Stan explained. “The arrangers would write a piece of music, then we’d stand up in front of the band and ‘sing’ it, until the guys would catch on as to how we wanted it played. I felt we should standardize it, so that when the band had a piece of music in front of them, they’d pretty well know how they were going to treat and interpret it. Wetzel was a big help, and we found that if Ray couldn’t sing it, it couldn’t be played. I’d ask Ray to sing the intro of an arrangement, and

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Medium 9781574412734

Chapter 8 • Kenton, Goodman, and Monk 1959

Helene LaFaro-Fernandez University of North Texas Press PDF


Chapter 8  •

Kenton, Goodman, and Monk


Scotty was readying to leave for the East Coast in the fall of 1958. Maggie had recently taken a job at 20th Century Fox as secretary to the associate producer of the TV show Dobie Gillis.

Scotty asked Maggie to consider coming along with him. When she questioned if there was ever going to be anything more for her than being the girlfriend of a jazz musician, he said that he felt he “wasn’t going to be around that long.” She said she decided she wanted to get away from the jazz scene and modeling, and thought this straight job would be a good way to change her life.

This separation actually ended their relationship. Early in 1959,

Scotty called from New York and asked her once again to come to New York, telling her it would probably be hard financially, but that he loved her and wanted them to be together. She told him she was looking for a different life, and soon thereafter married

Bob Denver. Later Maggie said it was very, very painful for her when in 1961 her friend Miki Shapiro, one of the owners of the

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Medium 9780253010988

2. A Musical Catastrophe: The Direct Impact of the Nakba on Palestinian Musicians and Musical Life

MOSLIH KANAANEH Indiana University Press ePub

Along with having worked at the Palestinian Ministry of Culture and more recently founding and running Nawa, the Palestinian Association for Cultural Development, Nader Jalal has spent most of his adult life interviewing and collecting stories from Palestinian musicians and their families and colleagues, amassing an enormous archive of previously unrecorded information about musicians who were active before and after the Nakba (catastrophe) of 1948. Issa Boulos is a Palestinian musician, composer, and scholar from Ramallah, now head of the Arab Music department at the Qatar Music Academy. Nader Jalal and Issa Boulos were interviewed in April 2012.

The discussion centers on the music scene in Palestine before the Nakba and focuses to some extent on two major British-owned radio stations: Idhā at al-Quds (Jerusalem Radio) and Idhā at al-Sharq al-Adná (Near East Radio). The Nakba, and its catastrophic effect on the radio stations, musical life in Palestine, and the musicians who created it, is then described.

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Medium 9780253339362

Chapter 9. The Corrente

Meredith Little Indiana University Press ePub

BWV 816

The early eighteenth-century Italian corrente is a virtuoso piece for violin or keyboard soloist. It usually consists of a continuous elaboration in eighth or sixteenth notes over a bass line in fast triple meter, with simple texture, slow harmonic rhythm, and phrases of varying lengths. Metrically speaking, most correntes have one beat to the measure and are in a 1–3–2 metric structure (Fig. IX-1), though some very ornate ones with continual sixteenth notes actually move with three beats to the measure in a III—2—2 structure (Fig, IX-2). Normally, the time signature is and there is an upbeat. The tempo is moderate to fast, depending on the level of the beat and the amount of rhythmic interest at the tap level.

Techniques of elaboration include arpeggiation, sequential repetition, two melodic parts combined into a single line, figures resembling an Alberti bass, and passage-work covering several octaves. Most performance techniques derive from Italian string practices, which often grouped many more than two or three notes in a facile, fluid manner of execution. Harmonic change, which is usually on the first and third beats of a measure in III–2–2 metric structure, or the first and third pulses in 1–3–2, offers the performer the most reliable guide to articulation. Ornamentation is sparse, and French notes inégales are outside the style.

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Medium 9780253352415

Thirteen: Pressler at the Met: Beethoven’s Sonata Op. 110

William Brown Indiana University Press ePub

A Lecture Recital Presented at the
Grace Rainey Rogers Auditorium
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York City, New York

On one specific occasion at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Pressler, ever the teacher, offered a lecture recital to the public, a setting in which he provided his audience with background about the piece he was to perform and the composer who wrote it. Then he worked through the piece, emphasizing areas that he especially wanted his audience to grasp. Pressler noted specific places that were of special significance and demonstrated how particular measures were to sound, explaining why they should be played and heard a certain way. In working through the piece, Pressler told the story behind or within the work, noted the mood(s) the composer was trying to convey, and then provided a brief analysis of the various musical, technical, practical, emotional, and often literary elements that worked organically to create the beauty and wonder of the music.

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Medium 9780253016423

2. Tools for Analysis and Interpretation

David P. Neumeyer Indiana University Press ePub

“In actual movies, for real spectators, there are not all the sounds including the human voice. There are voices, and then everything else. In other words, in every audio mix, the presence of a human voice instantly sets up a hierarchy of perception” (Chion 1999, 5; emphasis in original). The reader may well still wonder whether my insistence on vococentrism in the sound film is not overly reductive, whether the sound track hierarchy—Chion’s “hierarchy of perception”—constrains and so threatens to impoverish interpretation. Early in chapter 1, I responded to this concern by noting the richness of the sound track’s internal dialectic, which was certainly on display in the three scenes from To Have and Have Not that were discussed at the end of that chapter. Here, I will add two additional points.

First, as the words “real spectators,” “instantly,” and “perception” in the quote above suggest, the sound track hierarchy is grounded in human cognition.1 As Chion notes later on (1999, 81), even in recent decades industry professionals continue to resist directors’ creative attempts to underplay or mix down dialogue. Such misgivings surely are as much a result of culture as they are of cognition, but whatever an optimal balance between the two might be, it is clear that the vococentric cinema not only was a model for the studio era but also serves as such for the present and recent past. James Lastra reminds us that “as filmmakers gradually solved their conflicts and agreed upon a new and flexible set of formal strategies, they established the basic norms of sound and image that persist in large part today, shaping our own technologically mediated experience of the world” (2000, 10).

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Medium 9780253010162

Part IV. Analytical Phrasing and Bowing for Solo Works

Murray Grodner Indiana University Press ePub


Analytical Phrasing and Bowing for Solo Works

Legato Phrasing: The Age of Portamento vs. the Slur

When portamento is used sparingly, it often adds interest and beauty to a musical phrase.

When most of the slurred/legato phrases are dominated by a constant use of portamento, then the simple beauty of flowing legato is gone. The phrase often suffers from a lack of continuity when overrun by the excessive use of portamento. I have unfortunately heard too many performances in recent years that suffer at the hands of the constant practice of the portamento and the absence of the beautiful uninterrupted flow of the legato indicated by the composer.

The portamento is too often being used as a gushing of musical expressiveness, but often ends up in a distortion and division of the composer’s intent for a flowing phrase. We would not read every written line of poetry or prose, expressing each word this individually, so as to lose the overall message or thought the writer intended to express. Music is no different. It is sad when phrasing or consciousness of a phrase is intellectually not recognized, but it is also disturbing when a phrase becomes mangled by the exaggerated use of the portamento. As already mentioned, used sparingly and in good taste, portamento can be a welcome enhancement in phrasing, but using it as a constant interruption to the legato motion of a phrase is distortion. You only have to listen to the wonderful phrasing achieved by performers like Stern, Rostropovich, and Oistrakh to note that we have currently lost much of the beauty of legato phrasing to distortion through the overuse of the portamento.

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Medium 9780253356543

3. The Laws Couldn’t Keep Tambú Away.

de Jong, Nanette Indiana University Press ePub


Art should be recognized as a major and integral part of the transaction that engenders political behavior. —MURRAY EDELMAN

As already stated, during the early slavery years Tambú was allowed to evolve without much interference. Early Dutch interests were focused almost entirely on trade and profits, and the personal lives of manquerons were at first of little interest to the slaveholders. As the Jamaican governor of 1694 aptly observed in describing the Hollanders on Curaçao: “Jesus Christ is good, but trade is better” (Hamelberg 1694: 107). This helps to explain how Tambú managed to catch on quickly and spread rapidly among the manqueron community.

Among Tambú’s main purposes during slavery was its role as accompaniment to Montamentu, its rhythms and dances performed as vehicles for conjuring the arrival of ancestors and deities, many of whom found duplication (and triplication) on Curaçao. Montamentu’s propensity for duplicated gods stemmed in part from the religion’s unusual rules of possession. Unlike most other Afro-syncretized Caribbean rituals, Montamentu’s invocation of specific gods and spirits was not limited to performing the specific musical rhythms and dances unique to the individual entity. In Tambú, for example, while events could be performed in honor of a particular deity, “all deities [were] welcome.” According to one respected Tambú leader, “It is the spirit world that makes the decision [regarding] which deities will arrive. [The spirit world] is best qualified to make that decision” (Yuchi, personal communication, November 3, 1995). Which gods arrive, how many gods attend, how long the gods will stay —these are all decisions made at the discretion of the gods themselves.

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Medium 9780253010179

6 - Saharan Music: About a Feminine Modernity

Edited by Thomas A Hale and Aissata G Indiana University Press ePub


Aline Tauzin

One of the major issues in gender relations in the Arab world today is the status of women. In Mauritania, a society governed by traditions that go back many centuries, women today are reversing some longstanding ways, especially in the areas of poetry and music. The purpose of this chapter is to document the nature and extent of those changes. Before turning to the specifics of these changes, it is essential to provide some background on a society that is not well known outside of Africa.

Mauritania is composed of two different populations: the light-skinned Moors and the dark-skinned Africans, whose roots are largely sub-Saharan. The Moors are the dominant population in Mauritania and can be defined very briefly as a nomadic group, at least until recently, living in the western part of the Sahara. They speak an Arabic dialect called Hassâniyya. They are Muslims and played an important role in the Islamization of West Africa.

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Medium 9780253014436

8. Suoni Nuovi, Suoni Antichi: The Soundscapes of Barabbas

Stephen C. Meyer Indiana University Press ePub

The popularity of the biblical epic, as I have already noted, was closely associated with the “fourth great awakening” that filled the pews of churches during the postwar period. The crest of this religious wave is of course impossible to mark with specificity, but we might use church attendance as a rough measure of the centrality of Christianity in American life during this period. Self-reported church attendance reached its all-time high in the United States in 1955 and 1958: years which correspond almost exactly to the release dates of the two films that probably mark the high water point of the genre (The Ten Commandments and Ben-Hur, respectively). The association between the postwar biblical epic and the postwar Christian church, moreover, was not merely a matter of statistics. Cinematic representations of biblical narratives found their way into the fabric of American religious life, not least through musical adaptions. Selections from Miklós Rózsa’s scores for King of Kings and for Ben-Hur were arranged for church choir, while The Ten Commandments—especially after it began to appear on television in 1973—attained a special, quasi-sacramental position as a special Easter program. The monumental scale of these films, their centrist theological stance and optimistic messages, position them as cinematic analogues of the expansionist, self-confident mainline Christianity of the 1950s. The postwar biblical epics, in other words, were both participants in and expressions of the “fourth great awakening” of American religious life.

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Medium 9781574412840

2. Hollywood Highs and Big Apple Blues (1941-1942)

Michael Sparke University of North Texas Press PDF


Hollywood Highs and Big Apple Blues


Popular music, then as now, was part of show business, with the emphasis on business. To those running the jungle, musical creativity was only as commendable as the money it generated. These hardheaded business men would see Stan primarily in terms of dollar signs, as “Kenton” became a brand name to be marketed before the public like any other commodity in its particular field. Essential to every professional leader was a personal manager to watch over his interests. In

1941, Carlos Gastel was just starting his managerial career, and eager to sign new artists to join his principal client Sonny Dunham, whose band never made the big-time.

Gastel was not called the Happy Honduran without good reason.

A man of gargantuan appetites, both for gourmet foods and life in general, Carlos lived in the fast lane, and was keen to have Kenton on his roster. Audree Kenton described Gastel as “One of the most colorful figures in show business—big, handsome, persuasive and flamboyant.

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Medium 9781574412499

Sample Analyses: Griboyedov and Shakespeare

Edward D. Latham University of North Texas Press PDF

Dramatic Closure

The hierarchical system of objectives, with its additions by various

Stanislavskians, may be summarized, from the top down, as follows: 1) the super-superobjective (SSO); 2) the superobjective (SO); 3) the interrupted objective (IO); 4) the main objective (MO); 3) the beat objective (BO); and 4) the line objective (LO). Other types of objectives that may be included at each level are the hidden objective (HO) and the subconscious objective (SbO).

Sample Analyses: Griboyedov and Shakespeare

In order to clarify further how one actually goes about scoring a role, I will now provide two examples drawn from Stanislavsky’s own scores, the first from his analysis of Griboyedov’s comic masterpiece, Woe from Wit, and the second from his analysis of Othello. Because he planned to use it as a pedagogical tool in his book Creating a Role, Stanislavsky went through several additional analytical stages before arriving at the actual score for the role of Chatski in Woe from Wit. One of these preliminary stages is represented by the list of “external circumstances,” the “facts” of the play, created by Stanislavsky for the first act (see Figure 4).55 The list resembles a traditional plot summary, and it is indicative of the degree to which

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Medium 9780253010766

15 Summer-Fall 1914: War

Galina Kopytova Indiana University Press ePub

AUER’S SUMMER TEACHING SEASON in Loschwitz began early that year and students flocked there from all over Russia. The Heifetzes arrived in May and sent a postcard to Kiselgof. On Sunday, June 1 (NS June 14) he answered them from St. Petersburg:

I received your letter and was very, very glad. But I’m still in stuffy and dusty Piter and I’m not getting out of here until Wednesday. How horrible! But I’m glad for you, my friends, that you are already there, in a cultured, clean country, and are enjoying the beautiful nature and pleasant surroundings. I was in Pavlovsk again, but did not ride my bike—I was too lazy. I saw Achronchik [Isidor Achron] and passed along your greetings. He very much regrets that he did not see you at the station. Now I will wait from Vitebsk for your letter (Generalnaya, d. 3). From there I will write in more detail. Let me know your permanent address.1

Kiselgof sent the postcard to the home of Dorothea Grosse in Dresden since she knew how to contact the Heifetzes that summer. Conveniently, Jascha and his family stayed at the same residence as the previous year: Kurhaus “Neue Rochwitz,” 8 Hauptstrasse, Bergschlösschen. Having already spent a summer in Loschwitz, the Heifetzes quickly settled into the routine of lessons, forest walks, tennis matches, and trips to the Russian library in Dresden. Meanwhile, Jascha was never separated from his beloved Leica camera.

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