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16: Capturing Trapped Birds

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF


Capturing Trapped Birds

Learning Objectives

action, allow some time (up to 24 h, if possible) for the bird to free itself. Some helpful tips include:

1. Problems to expect after birds have been trapped in a chimney.

2. Tricks to capture warehouse birds.

• Opening all doors/windows and turning out lights.

• Turning off any ceiling fans.

• Trying to create an environment that is quiet and free of activity for at least a few hours.

Birds trapped in chimneys

Owls may be trapped in chimneys during the nesting season when they are looking for a cavity to nest in. A bird may fall into the actual fireplace but it is more common for it to be trapped above the flue. If the bird is located above the flue, the flue door may have to be removed in order to extract the bird. Wear goggles to protect your eyes from falling soot and debris. Use of a long flexible pole with a loop on the end can assist in snagging the bird and gently pulling it down.

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14: Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Mycobacterial Infections in Elephants

Susan K. Mikota,1* Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2

Linda Lowenstine,3 Dalen Agnew4 and Joel N. Maslow5


Elephant Care International, Howenwald, USA; 2Chembio Diagnostics, Inc.,

Medford, USA; 3University of California, Davis, USA; 4Michigan State University,

East Lansing, USA; 5Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, USA

A Brief History of TB in Elephants

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease of man and animals, including elephants. TB has also been postulated to have been a factor in the extinction of the mastodon (Mammut americanum) during the late Pleistocene (Rothschild and Laub, 2006), as foot lesions identical to those documented in bison and considered as pathognomonic for TB were found in 59 of 113 (52%) mastodon skeletons examined

(Rothschild and Laub, 2006). A disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) resembling TB was described over 2000 years ago in the ancient

Sanskrit text ‘Hasthyayurveda’ (Iyer, 1937).

Case reports in the 19th century include that of an 18-year-old Asian bull that died of TB at Jardin des Plantes in Paris, recorded in the

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3: Risk Assessment

Wapling, A. CABI PDF


Risk Assessment

J. Bush

Corporate Risk Manager, Waitemata District Health Board, New Zealand

Key Questions 

What is a risk?

How are risks assessed and quantified in relation to emergency preparedness?

What decisions are available once the risk has been quantified?

How does risk information influence the emergency preparedness work plan?

3.1  What is Risk and Risk Management?

There are many variations of the definition of risk; however, they all have a common theme to them, which is that risk is measured in terms of consequence (impact) and likelihood (chance/probability) of an event occurring.

Risk can be described as the uncertainty of outcome, be it positive (an opportunity) or negative (a threat), if an event occurs.

Once there is an understanding of what risk is, there is a need to understand what risk management is and why it should be done. Risk management is not a dark art; it is something everyone does in both work and personal lives, often without realizing it (e.g. the continual risk-based decision making that takes place when travelling to work). Individuals make judgements about risks, actions and safety, and decide on the level of risk they (or the organization) is willing to accept for a perceived gain. Risk management is the process that enables an organization to: understand what risks it faces; understand what events or hazards might cause harm to individuals or the organization; assess the risk; and identify existing and/or additional controls that are needed to either prevent the risk event(s) or mitigate the impact should the risk event(s) materialize.

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22: Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial Diseases

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Rabbit Model of Mycobacterial


Selvakumar Subbian,1* Petros C. Karakousis2 and Gilla Kaplan1,3


Rutgers University, Newark, USA; 2Johns Hopkins

University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA; 3Bill and Melinda

Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA


Understanding host–pathogen interactions is an important step in developing efficient intervention strategies to eliminate infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), in humans. Due to significant ethical and practical considerations associated with studying infectious diseases in humans, cost-effective and tractable surrogate animal models that can produce similar disease pathology have been developed and evaluated. Early approaches to the systematic selection and evaluation of animal models of human infectious diseases started during the early 19th century with the development of bacteriological research, including the pathogenesis and transmission of

TB. In fact, one of Robert Koch’s postulates mandates that ‘inoculation of the isolated human pathogen to animals must reproduce the same disease conditions’ to prove that a pathogen is the cause of an infectious disease

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6 Prediction and Design of Antimicrobial Peptides: Methods and Applications to Genomes and Proteomes



Prediction and Design of Antimicrobial

Peptides: Methods and Applications to Genomes and Proteomes

Guangshun Wang*

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine,

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495, USA


The growing antibiotic resistance issue requires the search for novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potent innate defence molecules that constitute useful templates for antimicrobial design. The establishment of databases facilitates the development of computer algorithms for peptide prediction. Most of the predictions are made based on the mature peptide sequences. These methods range from the simple rule-based to the more sophisticated machine learning. A shortcoming of these methods is that they all depend on the completeness of the representative templates used to train the programs.

There are also, however, other methods that make predictions based on the conserved genes outside of the AMP gene box. The applications of these prediction methods to genomes and proteomes followed by experimental validation further accelerate the pace of peptide discovery. A combined use of genomic and proteomic approaches allows a more complete mapping of potential AMPs in a single organism. This chapter also discusses the major approaches for pep­ tide design, including library screening,

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