869 Chapters
Medium 9780253014856

2 Changing Patterns of Diseases and Longevity: The Evolution of Health in Twentieth-Century Beijing

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

WHILE BEIJING, THE capital of China, cannot be said to be typical of the country as a whole, the relatively ample documentation of the health of its citizens will be used in this chapter to provide a window into the process of health modernization in China over the twentieth century.

The process of health modernization in Beijing began during the late Qing reforms, or “New Policies” era (1901–1911). In 1905 the Board of Police, set up under the new Ministry of Police, had three departments, one of which was the Department of Health Services (weisheng shu). The department was divided into four sections:

1. Street Cleaning: cleaning streets, public toilets, garbage disposal, and controlling sewage and litter.

2. Disease Prevention: preventing epidemics by vaccination and surveillance of hospitals, slaughterhouses, and food shops.

3. Medicine: administering medical schools and hospitals, certifying doctors, publishing medical books, and keeping statistics of births and deaths.

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Medium 9780253006455

7 The Discovery of Sperm in Higher Eukaryotes

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Semen has long been recognized as necessary for producing offspring. It is liquid, somewhat viscous, and usually clear or slightly cloudy in appearance; certainly the unaided eye can see no visible body within it. The Greeks, especially through Hippocrates and later Galen, embraced a theory of vital fluids, which they called humors. Blood was considered the major constituent of life, at least among vertebrates. It was considered the progenitor of semen in the male body, and believed to be the hereditary material that allowed a species to generate offspring in its likeness.

Semen was endowed with a capacity to impose form on the pliable material supplied by females. That material was also thought to be blood: sometimes it was associated with menstrual blood, and sometimes it was thought to be another type of semen. Female semen was not clarified, like male semen, but still bloodlike and clotted—a type of miniscule clay ready to be molded into shape by the empowering effect of male semen. For more than two thousand years, arguments were made about the relative roles that males and females play in forming a new individual through their fluids, which were commingled after copulation. There were inside–outside theories in which the male supplied the outer components of the new baby. There were theories in which the female role was passive, being shaped exclusively by the male, forcing some observable phenomena, such as the equal contributions made to the skin color of the offspring of a black person and a white person, to be swept under a mental rug.

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Medium 9781786390394

11 Synergy of Antimicrobial Peptides



Synergy of Antimicrobial Peptides

Mobaswar H. Chowdhury, Gill Diamond* and Lisa Kathleen Ryan

University of Florida Colleges of Dentistry and Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA


the microorganisms. Mechanisms of AMPenhanced antibiotic activity are not well studied, although it is postulated that the membrane altering effects allow for increased permeabilization of the membrane to the antibiotic, enhancing antimicrobial activity. Combinations of AMPs with conventional antibiotics serve the advantage of overcoming microbial resistance to the antibiotic as well as decreasing some of the toxicity of certain antibiotics in the patient. Creation of chemical compounds, termed AMP mimetics, that could replace AMPs known to combine with antibiotics to enhance activity would be

­ advantageous in solving the problem of economically feasible AMP production. The examination of synergy with this new class of antibiotics is needed, for the pharmacodynamics of synergy and antagonism between combinations of these agents is complex and varies with the specific combination of agents. So far, research results demonstrate that synergy between AMPs or their mimetics, between themselves or with existing antibiotics offers a solution to the antibiotic resistance problem.

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Medium 9781786392459

10 Public Opinion and the Retailer: Driving Forces in Animal Welfare?

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF


Public Opinion and the Retailer:

Driving Forces in Animal Welfare?

Henry Buller

The way we treat animals is an important reflection of the values of our society.

(Defra, 2004, p. 11)

10.1 Introduction

As anyone reasonably familiar with contemporary food stores will be aware, whether they are massive hypermarkets or small, local butchers’ shops, the welfare of food animals has become an important component of food marketing. Posters, flyers, pub­ licity material, product labels, brand descriptors, adverts and even the layout of supermarket shelves increasingly draw attention, either directly or indir­ ectly, to various aspects of the quality of life (and sometimes death) of the animals concerned. The discerning consumer can today choose products from animals and production systems variously described as outdoor reared, free-range, grass- or pasture-fed, low stocking density, long life, welfare approved, humanely killed, hormone-free, antibiot­icfree, cage-free, non-GMO (genetically modified organisms), organic, biodynamic, and so on. Less specific claims are made through brand or assur­ ance scheme labelling, signifying that animal prod­ ucts conform to a wider set of welfare standards

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Medium 9781786394583

No Better Than Flipping a Coin: Reconsidering Canine Behaviour Evaluations in Animal Shelters*

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

No Better Than Flipping a Coin:

Reconsidering Canine Behaviour

Evaluations in Animal Shelters*

Gary J. Patronek1† and Janis Bradley2

Center for Animals and Public Policy, Cummings School of Veterinary

Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA; 2National

Canine Research Council, Amenia, New York, USA


Conflict of interest: Gary J. Patronek is a paid consultant to the National Canine

Research Council, a subsidiary of Animal Farm Foundation. Janis Bradley is an employee of the National Canine Research Council.

Keywords: animal shelter, dog behaviour evaluation, aggression, dog personality, sensitivity, ­predictive value


Our aim was to use existing data and established principles of diagnostic test evaluation to calculate the likelihood of reliably predicting problematically aggressive behaviours in adoptive homes among dogs residing in shelters based on exposing the dogs to a series of provocative stimuli (tests) in a semi-controlled environment (behaviour evaluations).

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