657 Chapters
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2 The Cape Coloured Community

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

This Book is about women who face stigma, discrimination, poverty, and violence. It is about women who do care work for children and men, and whose responsibilities sometimes force them to make choices between their own needs and those for whom they are caring. And it is about women who must contend with all of these challenges at the same time they fear for the deterioration of their own physical selves and their lost beauty as a result of HIV. Women all over the world face similar challenges, and in that sense the women in our study represent the experience of women across many borders. The women in this case, however, also represent one particular community on the globe with its own unique history and its own particular expectations about women. This case study is about Coloured women in Cape Town, South Africa. Who are these women?

In the United States the word “colored” is an offensive holdover from the period in American history when apartheid was legal under Jim Crow laws. In South Africa, however, while there is controversy surrounding the language used to describe various groups of people in the country, the term “Coloured” is generally not perceived as a derogatory term. In fact, it is widely used by people who identify themselves as Coloured. The identity of Coloured and the character and experience of the Coloured community is an important feature of South Africa to be explored. And as our research unfolded it became an essential issue for discussion in order to understand the lives of women in the Western Cape who identify themselves as Coloured. This chapter describes a little of the history of Coloured people through slavery, colonialism, apartheid, and the struggle that finally toppled a racially defined government in the 1990s. It also provides some context for understanding contemporary issues in the Coloured community as South Africans continue the fight to depose the deeply entrenched social, economic, and political remnants of that history and as Coloured women face all of these issues in addition to gender injustice.

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Medium 9780253006455

1 Introduction

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

With rare exceptions, animals consist of sexually reproducing populations that are roughly half male and half female—at least that is a human perspective that is applied to other mammals, and generalized to all other animals. An observant individual will notice roaches mating rear end to rear end or horseshoe crabs on the beach in springtime mating with the male mounted on a female, reinforcing the idea that the image of human intercourse can be generalized. I can observe fruit flies mating in the same way without use of a microscope, and I can even tell which is male and which is female if I am looking at a solitary fruit fly resting on my finger.

But that idea of universality is undermined if I observe copulating earthworms, which seem to be engaged in some sort of symmetrical mutual engagement. The ambiguity of the earthworm’s hermaphroditism is also present in most flowering plants. Students learn that pollen bearing stamens are present in the same flower with female components—assigned scholarly names like stigma, style, and ovary—but that is also not universal.

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26 Development and Execution of Stewardship Interventions

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

26

Development and Execution of

Stewardship Interventions

Amy Hanson and Christopher W. Crank*

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, US

Introduction

Obtain Administrative Support Upfront

If the etymology of the word “stewardship” is examined, it is found that it is often used within a religious context and represents “doing in good faith” for others by giving back. It is also a concept that can be broadly applied to the environment, economics, health, property, information, theology, etc. Stewardship is generally recognized as the assignment of responsibility to shepherd and safeguard the valuables of others. This chapter discusses key stewardship concepts and principles that clinicians can use to improve antimicrobial utilization. We also discuss antimicrobial stewardship strategies that influence each step of antimicrobial prescribing, and have an impact at multiple levels

(Fig. 26.1).

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) guidelines for developing an effective antimicrobial stewardship program

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14 A Case Study of Transnational Flows of Chinese Medical Professionals: China Medical Board and Rockefeller Foundation Fellows

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

COMPELLING QUESTIONS ABOUT human health have motivated the transnational flow of physicians for millennia. Egypt was seen as the font of medical knowledge by the Greeks, Persians, and Turkic kingdoms from the thirteenth century BCE to the Roman era. Egyptian physicians were dispatched to the ancient courts of Europe and the Middle East while medical writers plumbed ancient Egyptian texts for knowledge of ancient Egyptian pharmaceutical formulas. In the first millennium AD, Arabic physicians first retrieved and then reinterpreted the classical Greek medical traditions of Hippocrates and Galen. In Asia, trade routes between the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and China facilitated the flows of medical practitioners and ideas from west to east and east to west. In her book Needles, Herbs, Gods, and Ghosts: China, Healing, and the West to 1848, Linda Barnes (2000) details the multiple Chinese influences on European medicine in the early modern era. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Jesuits included medicine in the intellectual repertoire they brought to the late Ming and early Qing courts.

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11 From Bionic Cat to Superdog: Ethical Challenges of Advanced Prosthetic Technology in Veterinary Medicine

Grandin, T.; Whiting, M. CABI PDF

11

From Bionic Cat to Superdog:

Ethical Challenges of Advanced

Prosthetic Technology in

Veterinary Medicine

Manuel Magalhães-Sant’Ana*

Disciplinary Committee, Ordem dos Médicos Veterinários, Lisboa, Portugal;

Faculdade Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

‘Four legs good, two legs bad’

(Snowball, in George Orwell’s Animal Farm)

‘Three legs good, four legs awesome’

(adapted from Kaufman, 2014)

Exploring the Issues

Disabled animals, i.e. animals suffering from congenital or acquired physical disabilities, bone cancers or other orthopaedic diseases, have benefited from recent advances in veterinary orthopaedics and traumatology. Veterinary orthotics and prosthetics (V-OP) have been used to manage pain and as a tool for rehabilitating disabled animals (Mich,

2014). Orthoses are external devices that are placed to protect and support complete limbs (Marcellin-Little et al., 2015). Static exorthoses (also known as braces) have been used for centuries in humans and gradually adapted to suit quadruped animals. The last decade saw the development of modern exorthoses, which replicate articular motion and allow for dynamic biomechanical control (Fig. 11.1). Dynamic exorthoses are used in conjuction with surgery but can also replace orthopaedic surgery in humans and animals (Mich, 2014).

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