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CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Keeping the ghosts at bay: an autistic retreat and its relationship to parental losses

Kate Barrows Karnac Books ePub

Kate Barrows

In “Mourning and Melancholia” (1917), Freud described how inadequate mourning could lead to a pathological identification with the person who is absent or lost. Instead of missing them and letting them go, the melancholic acts as though he has become them. His repetitive self-reproaches may actually represent reproaches towards the person by whom he feels abandoned and with whom he has unconsciously identified. Freud hauntingly and memorably stated: “Thus the shadow of the object fell upon the ego …. as though it [the ego] were an object, the forsaken object” (p. 249). This conceptualisation was a major step forward and laid the basis for further investigation of forms of identification which have proved central to the development of psychoanalysis. However, in the clinical material which I will present in this chapter, we can see a situation in which it is rather the shadow inside the object, the shadow of the object's internal object, which falls upon the ego. The patient whom I shall describe spontaneously used the same image when she said that she felt she only had a “shadow life”.

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Medium 9781608682065

Chapter 4. The Healing Diet: Lost Food Traditions

MD Heather Tick New World Library ePub

Eat food. Not too much.

Mostly plants.

— MICHAEL POLLAN,

In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto

Before societies existed, we humans occupied most of our time with food. We spent our days foraging and hunting for it, preparing it, and eating it. Eventually, we learned to sow and harvest it, which allowed us to live and work in communities. Then the Industrial Revolution led to agricultural advancements and cheap, high-calorie foods that required little preparation. These new foods would make meals convenient for the growing blue-collar workforce in urban centers. Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, we have drifted farther and farther from our original diets, toward more convenient ones — diets of cheaper calories that require less preparation time. Our eating habits have changed too. While our ancestors would spend hours eating and savoring their food, we see no problem with eating our lunches on the go — sitting on a bus or, worse, while running to catch one. Although our new food customs make eating easier, they are not necessarily better. Cheap calories do not mean nutritious ones, and fast food does not mean healthy food. But just how bad for us are these processed, empty calories? How much does our new food affect our health?

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Medium 9781855755185

CHAPTER FIVE. A baby’s “broken bridge” to the parents

Jeanne Magagna Karnac Books ePub

Jeanne Magagna

When a baby–mother/father relationship works, the baby keeps alive the desire to communicate with the parents through eyes, mouth, hands, body, and mind. The desire to be perceived and fully understood by his parents becomes a passionate one as the baby falls more deeply in love with his parents. He moves from crying to pointing to speaking and symbolically playing out his experiences as part of an intense wish to share emotional experiences and interests with them.

Unfortunately, pre-verbal relationships with the parents do not work for every baby, and the emotional bridge connecting the baby to his parents is sometimes broken. When this happens, a basic fault (Balint, 1968) occurs in the development of his personality. When faced with an emotional crisis at a later point in his life, the child will then be at risk of regression to not-talking, not-eating, and not being open to anything the parents have to offer him.

In infancy, when the emotional bridge to the parents is damaged or broken, the infant is desperate and tries to find a way of coping with the fear of dying, the anxieties regarding emotional disintegration, and the pain of being left alone. In early infancy, the baby lacks the inner capacities to bear such emotional experiences. Deprived of parents who are sufficiently responsive to his own particular needs, the baby turns to self-protection for safety. Not-thinking (Emanuel, 2001), often referred to as dissociation, becomes frequently resorted to as a primitive protection. Other primitive protections also develop as ways to keep the baby away from the risk of being vulnerable through needing parents who are not available to help him.

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Medium 9781780644172

6 Contribution of Epidemiological Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Munir, M. CABI PDF

6 

Contribution of Epidemiological

Knowledge and Control Strategies in the Eradication of Rinderpest Virus

Anke Brüning-Richardson1, Satya Parida2 and Ashley C. Banyard3

1

Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Leeds, UK;

2

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK; 3Animal and

Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK

Abstract

Rinderpest was one of the most devastating veterinary diseases affecting even-toed ungulates until it was eradicated globally in 2011. Caused by the rinderpest virus (RPV), at its height rinderpest was prevalent in many parts of Europe, Africa and Asia. An ancient disease documented first by Roman and Greek authors, with more recent descriptions relating to the disease and its spread among susceptible hosts in the 16th and 17th centuries, it became the focus of a global rinderpest eradication programme

(GREP). In the first stages of the GREP, this was feasible due to the development of a vaccine giving lifelong immunity and the establishment of zoosanitary measures, which originated in the 18th century. Advances in the knowledge of RPV biology and virus transmission enabled scientists to identify susceptible hosts among livestock and wildlife and to predict virus spread, which supported the eradication efforts. In addition, improvements in diagnostics and disease surveillance and the application of control strategies based on the epidemiological understanding of viral spread drove the latter parts of the GREP to its final conclusion. This included the application of ELISA and pen-side strip test technologies, and genetic characterization of the virus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, which allowed the establishment of distinct virus lineages and the identification of virus reservoirs in the field. Lessons learnt from the GREP may be applicable to the rinderpest-related disease peste des petits ruminants and its causative agent, peste des petits ruminants virus, with global eradication of this virus also a possibility.

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Medium 9781782201632

Chapter Four - Speak No Evil: The Role of Creative Therapies in Working with Severe Disability

Alan Corbett Karnac Books ePub

The sexual abuse of others is the enactment of pathological depressions and anxieties that the perpetrator has been unable to put into language. Forensic psychotherapy is concerned with putting speakable words to unspeakable actions, to allow patients relief from inflicting the agonising narrative of their life onto others. While we tend to think of psychotherapy as primarily a talking treatment, there is a growing evidence base for its more creative methodologies in the forensic world, including art therapies (Smeijsters & Cleven, 2006). Most people with intellectual disabilities, even at the mild or moderate end of the spectrum, encounter difficulties with verbal communication (Iacono & Johnson, 2004), including speech that is hard to understand, problems in understanding what is said, and difficulties in expressing themselves because of limited vocabulary and sentence formulation skills. How much should this matter in the consulting room, given the traditional privileging of psychotherapy as the “talking cure”? When words are not the primary tool of communication, we need to look to the non-verbal. Mehrebrian (1971) concluded that just seven per cent of the communication we engage in on a daily basis is verbal (words only). Thirty-eight per cent is vocal (tone of voice, silence, inflection), and fifty-five per cent non-verbal. According to Argyle (2013) non-verbal communication is five times more influential than verbal communication—this research defining non-verbal as including facial expressions, touch, gestures, interpersonal spacing, and posture. In their study into how people with intellectual disabilities and severe communication difficulties signal their distress, Regnard et al. (2007) found a median of twenty-four changes in signs or behaviours per person, indicating that a wide vocabulary of non-verbal communication was able to be accessed and expressed by the supposedly “non verbal” patient. It is hard not to conclude from these findings that our psychotherapeutic reliance on words may be in danger of blinding us to a far richer discourse.

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