657 Chapters
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Medium 9781780643960

20: Tuberculosis in South African Wildlife: Lions, African Buffalo and Other Species

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Tuberculosis in South African

Wildlife: Lions, African Buffalo and Other Species

Anita L. Michel,1* Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist,2 Peter Buss,3

Markus Hofmeyr,3 Dave Cooper4 and Roy G. Bengis5


University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Directorate Veterinary

Services, Skukuza, South Africa; 3South African National Parks,

Skukuza, South Africa; 4KZN Wildlife, St. Lucia, South Africa;


Port Alfred, South Africa

History of Tuberculosis in South

African Wildlife

Tuberculosis has been described in free-ranging wildlife species from many areas of the world with diverse geography and climates (Bengis,

1999). In Africa, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) has been reported in free-ranging lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Lochinvar National Park, Zambia (1954) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) sampled in the Ruwenzori National Park (RNP) in Uganda

(1963). In both cases the most likely source of

M. bovis was shared pastures with infected cattle. The disease was subsequently diagnosed in warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) from RNP and infection was thought to occur by scavenging diseased carcasses (de Lisle et al., 2001;

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Medium 9781780644479

4: Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF


Water-soluble Biodegradable Polymers for Drug Delivery

Bhanu Malhotra1, Harsha Kharkwal2,* and Anuradha Srivastava3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and

Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar

­Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Biological Sciences and Geology, Queensborough

Community College, Bayside, New York, USA



At the heart of polymer chemistry and biomedical applications lie water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for novel drug delivery systems. Designing multifunctional water-soluble polymer drug conjugates via copolymerization of bioactive compounds, and incorporating hydrophilic groups, makes them extremely water soluble and with improved biocompatibilities. Hydrophobic charged groups can be introduced into the polymers, which enable them to carry out specialized interactions and responses. Water-soluble polymer drug conjugates have the ability to store prodrugs (inactive drugs), facilitating the transfer of drugs passively or actively to the target site then activating them through cellular signalling cascades and bringing about the desired response. This chapter throws light on the advances made in natural and synthetic water-soluble polymer drug conjugates for various different biomedical applications.

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Medium 9781780647463

15: Housing and Husbandry

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF


Housing and Husbandry

Learning Objectives

1. Appropriate perching.

2. Basic cage construction details.

3. Minimum requirements for caging.

4. Resident bird husbandry basics.

5. Common husbandry problems.

Chain link fence secured on the ground around the perimeter for at least 2′ (0.6 m) is very effective

(Fig. 15.3).

Vertical slats

The walls should be made of vertical wood slats or other similar material. The important detail

Indoor housing

In general, birds of prey do well in dog and cat carriers, as long as these are modified to include a perch (Fig. 15.1; Table 15.1). The appropriate sized carrier should be provided so there is space above the bird’s head when it is on the perch.

Outdoor Cage Construction

Cages of the appropriate construction and size are critical to the successful rehabilitation of raptors.

Some construction factors to consider are discussed below.

Double doors

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Medium 9781780644394

12 The Role of New Diagnostics to Enhance Antibiotic Stewardship Efforts

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF


The Role of New Diagnostics to

Enhance Antibiotic Stewardship Efforts

Kimberle C. Chapin and April M. Bobenchik*

The Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence,

Rhode Island, US


Clinical diagnostics performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory for the purposes of identifying infectious diseases or antibiotic susceptibility has changed significantly in the past 20 years. The transitions have come on three major fronts: less culturebased to more rapid technologies and molecular based assays; less subjective interpretive reporting to an increase in automation and objective results; and finally, how implementation of new technologies into the laboratory and clinical practice achieves success. The drivers for rapid diagnostic implementation are as likely to be initiated from outside the laboratory as from within the lab itself, and often stem from initiatives to support other hospital or healthcare goals, including: rapid PCR testing for

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Medium 9781780642994

10 The Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture (GINA) Alliance and the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (NCRSP)

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF


The Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture (GINA) Alliance and the

Nutrition Collaborative Research Support

Program (NCRSP)

Cheryl Jackson Lewis*

US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA


The US Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Gender Informed Nutrition and Agriculture

(GINA) Alliance, piloted in Uganda, Mozambique and Nigeria, has proven effective in reducing hunger and poverty. The programme employed a gender-focused, community-based approach to improving household food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan African communities, with a particular emphasis on the nutritional status of children under 5 years. Overall, the GINA programmes in the three countries were able to reduce inadequate weight-for-age of 3000 children under 5 years during the period from the programme baseline to follow-up evaluation. Additionally, GINA resulted in increased availability of nutritious foods in participating households; increased awareness and understanding of the basic causes of malnutrition; increased food production, leading to greater consumption of nutritious foods and increases in income; a link between markets and GINA farmer groups; and the development of gender-diverse farmer groups complete with a well-functioning organizational structure. GINA’s focus on gender roles led to an upgrading in the status of women and recognition of them as producers and processors of food. As a result, women’s control over their assets, as well as the size of their assets, increased. As a result of the successful pilot, USAID is now scaling up the GINA model through a new US$15 million Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 15 First Aid Advice for Common Feline Behaviour Problems

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 15

First Aid Advice for Common Feline

Behaviour Problems

The following advice is designed to do no more than help manage the cat’s behaviour problem in the short term and to help prevent the current problem from getting any worse. Specific advice aimed at resolving the problem cannot be given until a good understanding has been reached as to why the cat is behaving as he is, which can only be achieved through a combination of both behavioural and veterinary investigation.

General Advice for all Problems

Do not attempt to physically punish or reprimand the cat. This includes actions such as squirting the cat with water or shouting at the cat. A cat will not understand why you are angry and attempting to punish him is unlikely to be successful and more likely to make him frightened of you. If the attempt at punishment or reprimand causes the cat pain or fear the problem may escalate, or other more serious behaviour problems may develop (Fig. A15.1).

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Medium 9781786394583

Keynote Presentation: Making Animal Welfare Sustainable – Human Behaviour Change for Animal Behaviour: The Human Element

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Keynote Presentation: Making

Animal Welfare Sustainable – Human

Behaviour Change for Animal

Behaviour: The Human Element

Jo White1,2* and Suzanne Rogers2

Progressive Ideas, www.progressiveideas.co.uk; 2Human Behaviour

Change for Animals, www.hbcanimalwelfare.com


Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: human behaviour change, animal behaviour, animal welfare

Those working in veterinary behaviour medicine and animal welfare continue to deliver groundbreaking work that provides a greater understanding of the possible reasons why animals behave as they do, together with insights into human–animal relationships and animals welfare needs. However, the challenge of ensuring that these important findings are delivered at the coal face by those interacting and impacting upon animals is pivotal, if ongoing and emerging animal welfare issues are to be positively addressed.

For many years the veterinary profession, animal welfare organisations and compassionate individuals have worked to improve the lives of animals in many settings; including farming, working, companion, research, entertainment and animals in the wild. While a great deal has been delivered that has improved animal welfare, issues of suffering, abuse and neglect continue, with the cause in the majority of cases being the human animal’s behaviour. So why is it that many of those interacting with animals, either do not follow the available advice given by veterinarians, animal behaviourists and other experts, to improve their animals life? Alternatively, in contrast, follow the advice or behaviour of people who use approaches that lead to negative outcomes for the animal and its welfare?

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Medium 9781786394583

Olfactory Enrichment in Dogs: Possible New Applications

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Olfactory Enrichment in Dogs:

Possible New Applications

Stefania Uccheddu1*, Stijn Schoelynk2, Adinda Sannen2,

Hilde Vervaecke2, Heidi Arnouts2, Jara Gutiérrez

Rufo3, Chiara Mariti3, Angelo Gazzano3 and Anouck


Vet Ethology, Overijse, Belgium; 2Ethology & Animal Welfare,

Agro- & Biotechnology, ODISEE University College, Sint-Niklaas, Belgium;


EtoVet, Dip. Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy


Funding: This study was funded by the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Foundation.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, essential oils, olfactory enrichment, shelter dogs, welfare


Environmental enrichment improves the overall well-being of animals living in captivity. In stressful conditions, enrichment may increase the animal’s ability to cope, thereby improving its welfare. Several enrichment programmes have been developed in shelters to meet animal needs. Although current literature shows the effectiveness of olfactory enrichment in welfare improvement in dogs, cats and horses (Wells, 2004, 2009; Graham et al., 2005; Ellis, 2009; Ellis and Wells,

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Medium 9781626569072

7. Myth #7 Health care organizations can be fixed by managing them more like businesses

Mintzberg, Henry Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Health care organizations can be fixed by managing them more like businesses.

When it comes to managing everything, this is a prevailing myth in our societies, especially the U.S, that business has it right while most other institutions, especially government, have it wrong. Therefore, all must ape business, if not actually become businesses.

Across government services, this agenda has been promoted as the “New Public Management,” which is a euphemism for old corporate practices (Mintzberg, 1996). As a consequence, much of the public sector now ambles about like an amnesiac, pretending to be business. When an official of the George W. Bush White House staff was questioned in 2002 on a belated start to a propaganda offensive for action against Iraq, he replied, “From a marketing point of view, you don’t introduce new products in August.” War had become a new product! When that administration named its secretary of the army, he promised to bring in “sound business practice.” He came from Enron, just before its spectacular collapse.

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Medium 9781786391858

19 The Future and Moving Forward Together

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF


The Future and Moving

Forward Together


In a traditional book, this would be the place to have a ‘conclusion’. However, ‘conclusion’

­suggests an end. Instead of wishing to see this as the point to conclude the discussion, this part is constructed as the position from which to move forwards, in research, industry and activist senses, in how we look at the relation between tourism and animal welfare and how we encourage the tourism industry and tourists towards preventing poor welfare of animals. We hope that the book, in addition to being a source of information and opinion, can help to drive improvements in animal welfare. Consequently, the chapter provides a brief look at the potential future of tourism and animal-related tourism, and animal welfare debates. What is the likely future of animal welfare in tourism? Finally, what should be the research agenda to improve welfare?

What is the Future of Tourism and Animal-related Tourism?

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Medium 9781786394583

Living with and Loving a Pet with Behaviour Problems: The Impact on Caregivers

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Living with and Loving a Pet with

Behaviour Problems: The Impact on Caregivers

Kristin Buller1 and Kelly C. Ballantyne2*

Clinical Social Worker, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA


Conflict of interest: The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, companion animals, human–animal bond


Many studies have investigated the impacts of behaviour problems on companion animals but few have investigated the impacts of these problems on their caregivers. Studies in human medicine show that caring for mentally ill family members has several impacts on the caregiver’s life, and caregivers of mentally ill companion animals may experience similar challenges. The objectives of this study were to provide a detailed and impartial view of the caregiver’s experience as well as to inform further research and support.

Materials and Methods

A convenience sample of 63 pet owners took part in a survey. Responses were analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method used for identifying, analysing and reporting patterns within data.

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Medium 9780253014856

5 Epidemics and Public Health in Twentieth-Century China: Plague, Smallpox, and AIDS

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

WHILE EPIDEMICS HAVE occurred throughout Chinese history, the contemporary understanding of public health is a recent import from the West, and these two topics are not necessarily related. But due to the fact that public health and the prevention of epidemics are so closely linked in our modern understanding, it has become common to discuss the two subjects as one in contemporary academic research. Chinese public health came into existence during the intensely rapid changes of the twentieth century, which was also a time rife with epidemics.

This chapter will focus on the relationships between epidemics and the evolution of public health in China, with particular attention to the plague, smallpox, and HIV epidemics. It asserts that the public health and hygienic movements often served the political purposes of the state rather than necessarily addressing the most critical medical problems.

Examined merely on the basis of extant historical records, the frequency of China’s epidemics has seen a constant increase (Zhang 2008, 32–33). Based on statistics from available historical records through the year 1949, the Republican era (1912–1949) experienced the greatest frequency of epidemic outbreaks (Li 2004, 1). Our own statistical analysis of the modern period (1573–1949) also shows that the frequency of epidemics in the Republican era was much greater than in previous times, with 3.08 occurrences per year, while that number was only 1.09 for previous eras (Yu et al. 2004, 24–25). After 1949, owing to the increasing details and completeness of relevant medical records and statistics, there are no years without any reported epidemics. The emergence of this phenomenon in the modern period is certainly related to the fact that the occurrence and spread of disease was facilitated by such aspects of modernity as rapid increases in population, social mobility, and ever-increasing internationalization (Yu 2003, 340–344). More importantly, however, I fear that this apparent trend may also reflect the degree to which there now exists an interest in recording, maintaining, and preserving the most complete possible data. It is only from the twentieth century onward, after the creation of the Public Health Administration, that the practice of recording public health and mortality statistics became one of its key programs. Since then, statistics regarding epidemic diseases have obviously seen a steady increase in both quantity and detail, to the point where it has become impossible to separate the gradual increase in records on epidemics from the increasingly detailed statistics on health and life produced by public health administrations and research departments (Liu 1996 [1937], 441–446).1 In the twentieth century, epidemic diseases—and acute infectious diseases in particular—have been an important factor in threatening the lives of the Chinese people and in influencing both the Chinese psyche and the social order. Both the epidemics themselves and the fact that their danger was ceaselessly recorded and emphasized also hastened and promoted the establishment of public health measures.

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Medium 9781780642949

13: The Human–Animal Interaction

Bailey, D. CABI PDF


The Human–Animal Interaction

Pippa Swan*

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

13.1  Introduction�

13.2   A Historical Context�

13.3   Towards Enlightenment and Legislation�

13.4   The Status of Animals�

13.5   Moral Considerations�

13.6   Human Attitudes�

13.7   The Range of Relationships�

13.8   Positive Human–Animal Relationships�

13.9   Animal Cruelty�

13.10  Family Violence and the Link�

13.11  Hoarding and Bestiality�

13.12 Conclusion�













13.1 Introduction

13.2  A Historical Context

That animals and humans always were, and will continue to be, intricately and inextricably linked is borne out by the arts, from caveman drawings through painting and literature to photography; and by science, from Darwin to current studies of animal biology and behaviour. The relationship includes dependence, respect and affection, as well as power, exploitation and abuse.

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Medium 9781780644394

30 Pharmacoeconomic Implications of Antimicrobial Adverse Events

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF


Pharmacoeconomic Implications of

Antimicrobial Adverse Events

Cheston B. Cunha*

Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, US


Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) have several objectives that result in the optimal use of antimicrobials. Implied in optimal antimicrobial therapy are the notions of using the best available drug for any given infectious disease diagnosis, optimizing the dosing of the selected drug, and using that drug for the shortest duration of therapy that is clinically effective (Cunha et al., 2013). Optimal drug therapy also implies decreased use of inappropriate antimicrobials. It is hoped that optimal antimicrobial therapy may minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, particularly among aerobic Gramnegative bacilli (GNBs), which can be multidrugresistant organisms (MDROs) (Cunha, 2001; Mach et al., 2007). ASPs require infectious disease leadership and a coordinated effort with microbiology, with pharmacy, and with infection control to be effective (Goff et al., 2012). They have been shown to be cost-effective and are an added benefit to hospitals that have them (Nicolau, 2009; Signorovitch et al., 2010; Sick et al., 2013; Zimlichman et al.,

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Medium 9781786391858

14 Cats and Dogs International

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF


Cats and Dogs


Darci Galati*

President/CEO of CANDi

*  Corresponding author: dgalati08@gmail.com


© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Cats and Dogs International

The idea for CANDi – Cats and Dogs International – was born when my three young daughters and I were on a family vacation in Mexico in 2006. We were literally astounded by the staggering number of stray cats and dogs in the vicinity. There did not seem to be any animal welfare laws in place to protect them, let alone humane shelters or even veterinary care. Most of the animals were emaciated and in desperate need of medical attention. This had a profound effect on my children, who were distraught at the notion that they would soon be flying back home and leaving behind the cats and dogs they had fed and helped to fend for themselves. I knew I had to do something and I promised my daughters that I would make a difference. That was the impetus behind the creation of CANDi, a non-profit global organization with a mission to save the lives of stray animals at tourist destinations.

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