869 Chapters
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Medium 9781786394583

Hypothermia Triggers Depression-like Behaviour in Mice Forced Swimming Test

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Hypothermia Triggers

Depression-like Behaviour in

Mice Forced Swimming Test

Çigdem Altınsaat1*, Hasan Çalıs¸ kan2, Nesrin

Sulu1 and Etkin S¸ afak1

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara

University, Turkey; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine,

Ankara University, Turkey

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: depression, forced swim test, hypothermia, mice

Introduction

Depression is a prevalent public health concern. Different environmental factors such as hypothermia, hypoxia and mid-season nutritional deficiency can cause depression-like behaviour in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia on depression-like behaviour.

Materials and Methods

Forty-two male mice, 10–12 weeks old were used in this study. All subjects were fed ad libitum during the experiment. Subjects were randomly divided into seven groups (n=6) based on water temperature (8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 26°C).

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Medium 9781786394040

4 Parasites of the Cardiovascular System

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF

4

Parasites of the

Cardiovascular System

Babesiosis

What is babesiosis?

Babesiosis is a blood protozoal disease caused by tick-transmitted intra-erythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. These protozoan organisms live inside the red blood cells of animals.

How many Babesia species infect dogs?

A number of Babesia spp., including Babesia canis, B. gibsoni, B. vogelii and

B. vulpes, are known to infect dogs in Europe. The two Babesia species most commonly infecting dogs are the large piroplasm (B. canis) and the small piroplasm (B. gibsoni). The former usually occur in pairs and appear pearshaped, while the latter are smaller and circular.

What is known about the epidemiology of Babesia infection in the UK?

Even though babesiosis has been reported in an untravelled British dog, babesiosis has been considered an exotic disease and only identified in dogs returning from travel to Europe. However, in 2016 babesiosis due to B. canis was confirmed in four dogs from Essex with no history of foreign travel and

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Medium 9781937554637

7 Managing Data and Research Records

R. Jennifer Cavalieri Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Managing study data and documentation may seem daunting and tedious. This chapter demonstrates ways that research personnel can effectively manage their study information by providing ideas for creative tools and templates and identifying professional habits to cultivate. The goal is to collect sound study data and transfer this raw data into a useable system. New and experienced research personnel may benefit from ideas on how to do this efficiently.

The investigator is responsible for the integrity of the research data and the physical and electronic security of the research records. Research coordinators, assistants, and regulatory specialists, working under the direction of the investigator, perform the day-to-day regulatory support, data collection, and documentation of clinical trial data.

A study sponsor, the source of funding, develops the protocol and arranges for research sites to generate the data needed to answer the research question. The sponsor has overall responsibility for the trial and should employ qualified personnel to handle and validate the data, perform the analysis, and write and submit the trial reports.

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Medium 9781935476504

12 Pediatric Ethics: What Makes Children Different?

Connie M. Ulrich Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

–Lucia D. Wocial, PhD, RN

Nurse Ethicist, Indiana University Health Adjunct Assistant Professor Indiana University School of Nursing

• Children may not be adults, but nurses owe them the same obligation of respect.

• Children should be allowed the opportunity to participate in decisions about their own health care.

• Nursing caring behaviors can promote parents’ trust and confidence that they are doing the right thing for their children.

• The close relationships nurses form with children and their family are central to nurses’ role in addressing ethically challenging situations in pediatrics.

Children are not miniature adults. They face different types of illnesses, have an incredible capacity for recovery, and are not considered fully independent autonomous agents. First and foremost, it seems unnatural to consider that children get serious illnesses or die. We tend to view children as innocents and so feel that any illness or harm that comes to them is somehow unfair. (Jecker & Pagon, 1995). Life-threatening injury and illness in childhood create intense emotional burdens on those who are charged with making decisions for those children, compounding the ethical challenges in these circumstances. The relationships among children, their parents, and those who care for them add another layer of complexity to the ethical issues in pediatrics.

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Medium 9781780643960

20: Tuberculosis in South African Wildlife: Lions, African Buffalo and Other Species

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

20 

Tuberculosis in South African

Wildlife: Lions, African Buffalo and Other Species

Anita L. Michel,1* Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist,2 Peter Buss,3

Markus Hofmeyr,3 Dave Cooper4 and Roy G. Bengis5

1

University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Directorate Veterinary

Services, Skukuza, South Africa; 3South African National Parks,

Skukuza, South Africa; 4KZN Wildlife, St. Lucia, South Africa;

5

Port Alfred, South Africa

History of Tuberculosis in South

African Wildlife

Tuberculosis has been described in free-ranging wildlife species from many areas of the world with diverse geography and climates (Bengis,

1999). In Africa, tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) has been reported in free-ranging lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Lochinvar National Park, Zambia (1954) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) sampled in the Ruwenzori National Park (RNP) in Uganda

(1963). In both cases the most likely source of

M. bovis was shared pastures with infected cattle. The disease was subsequently diagnosed in warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) from RNP and infection was thought to occur by scavenging diseased carcasses (de Lisle et al., 2001;

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Medium 9780253355270

7 Interferences and Inclusions

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

In southern Tanzania, degedege and malaria are considered two of the most common threats to the well-being of pregnant women and young children. Responding to international and national concerns that malaria contributes significantly to poverty and to high rates of maternal and child mortality in Africa, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health has implemented programs to motivate stricter adherence to malaria prevention and treatment protocols. These programs include local public health education initiatives that aim to impress upon people the importance of recognizing certain physical symptoms as malarial and the urgency of the need to go to the health clinic at the first sign of these symptoms. In these efforts, the “traditional” malady known in Kiswahili as degedege has come to be translated as the “modern” malady of malaria. By tracing the processes involved in treating degedege and the processes involved in treating malaria, this chapter examines what is at stake in assertions that degedege is malaria.

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Medium 9781780643328

9 Self-help and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Care: a Preliminary Review of Existing Models in Low-and Middleincome Countries

Aikins, A.de-C.; Agyemang, C. CABI PDF

9

Self-help and Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Care: a Preliminary Review of

Existing Models in Low- and

Middle-income Countries

AMA DE-GRAFT AIKINS1*, PASCALE ALLOTEY2 AND LILIAN

LEM ATANGA3

1Regional

Institute for Population Studies, University of Ghana; 2Monash

University, Malaysia; 3University of Bamenda, Cameroon

9.1 Introduction

Individuals living with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in many lowand middle-income countries (LMICs) experience multiple challenges. The quality of medical care is poor, as health systems resources focus on a complex burden of infectious and chronic conditions, and minimal investments are made in chronic disease management [1, 2]. Continuity of medical care is affected by the existence of traditional and complementary medical systems, which are more readily accessible and have cultural legitimacy for a number of populations [3–5]. Public health education about NCDs is limited: as a result there is poor knowledge of the common NCDs, their risk factors, and their medical and psychosocial impact among lay society, patients and non-specialist healthcare providers. NCDs present major financial and psychosocial challenges for affected individuals, families, households and communities (hereafter referred to as NCD-affected communities) [1, 2]. This has implications for the quality and sustainability of social support for individuals living with NCDs and their caregivers. Discrimination, stigma and related psychosocial problems emerge for individuals living with conditions that are negatively perceived and/or lead to culturally devalued disabilities such as blindness, loss of limbs and sexual dysfunction [4, 6].

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Medium 9781845936839

3: Investigating Disease Outbreaks

Sergeant, E.; Perkins, N. CABI PDF

3

Investigating Disease Outbreaks

3.1  Introduction

A disease outbreak is a short-term epidemic or a series of disease events that are clustered in time and space. In many cases, the cause of the outbreak is unknown, at least initially.

The disease events are usually new cases of a known disease occurring at a higher frequency than that normally expected, or cases of a previously unrecognized disease.

An outbreak, by its nature, requires a rapid investigation and implementation of control measures, often before a final aetiological diagnosis can be confirmed. An outbreak investigation is therefore a systematic process to identify risk factors for the disease that can be manipulated to prevent the further transmission of the disease-causing agent, control or stop the outbreak, and prevent future outbreaks.

Prompt and effective investigation of outbreaks is also an essential component of disease surveillance, particularly for new and emerging diseases. Active investigation of disease incidents provides ongoing surveillance for the detection and characterization of new and emerging diseases.

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Medium 9781591203193

15. What Causes Alzheimer’s Disease?

Mary T. Newport Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

W

hat triggers the chain of events that ultimately results in the death of brain cells? Despite the very many millions of dollars spent on research into this question and the thousands of researchers all over the world working on it, there is no answer. At present, we do not know with certainty what causes Alzheimers disease.

Heredity plays a major role in whether we will develop Alzheimers or not, but environmental factors appear to influence how our genetic makeup will play out as we age. Any number of toxins or infectious agents could get the ball rolling, or at least contribute to the disease process. A history of traumatic brain injury is a well-known risk factor for the disease. The following are examples of research related to just a few of the suspects.

GENETICS

About 0.1 percent of people with Alzheimers have the familial form of the disease, passed to them as a dominant mutated gene from their parent, and these unfortunate people usually develop the early onset form of the disease (before age sixty-five). The vast majority of people with Alzheimers have the sporadic form of the disease, meaning that it is not the result of a specific genetic mutation. However, our genetic profile can place some of us at greater risk than others.

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Medium 9781780644554

1: Introduction: Why Do We Need to Prepare?

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

1 

Introduction: Why Do We Need to Prepare?

C. Sellwood1 and A. Wapling2

National Lead Pandemic Influenza, NHS England, London, UK; and Honorary

Associate Professor, Health Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response,

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

2

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response, NHS

England (South), UK

1

Key Questions 

• What is the key underpinning legislation for emergency preparedness, resilience and response

(EPRR) in the UK?

• What are the main categories of major incidents and emergencies?

• Who benefits from EPRR processes being embedded in health organizations?

• What could be the repercussions of health organizations not undertaking or engaging in emergency preparedness activity?

• What is the Sendai Framework and why is it relevant to health emergency preparedness?

1.1  Introduction

Incidents and emergencies, by their nature, can occur at any time and in any place. Man-made, accidental or naturally occurring, these can pose significant threats to the health of the population. From earthquakes to terrorism there is a responsibility for communities to have arrangements in place to preserve life, prevent deterioration and promote recovery.

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Medium 9781786391520

13 Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infections

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

13 

Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Complex Infections

Sylvia I. Wanzala1 and Srinand Sreevatsan2,*

1Department

of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University,

East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Population Medicine,

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA

13.1 Introduction

laborious multistep procedure involving the caudal fold test (CFT) and the comparative cerviBovine tuberculosis (bovine TB) is a zoonotic cal test (CCT) or g-interferon release assays. The infection in cattle caused by the intracellular current diagnostics are problematic: CFT lacks bacterium, Mycobacterium bovis that belongs to specificity for M. bovis and fails to detect all disthe Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB eased cattle, while the g-interferon assay is costly complex), a group of related mycobacteria that and requires blood samples to be processed cause TB in mammals. Bovine TB is the most within 24 hours of collection. Moreover, early prevalent infectious disease of dairy cattle detection of subclinical infection by serological worldwide (Cosivi et al., 1998), causing a con- tests is hindered, since the humoral immune servative annual loss of about US$3 billion response in bovine TB occurs at a late stage of

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 7 Introducing Cats and Dogs

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 7

Introducing Cats and Dogs

There are many households where cats and dogs live together peacefully; however, this is not always the case, and situations can occur that are highly stressful and even potentially dangerous for the cats involved (Fig. A7.1). With careful consideration before acquiring a new pet, and with careful preparation and introductions, the chances of such situations arising may be lessened.

If You Have a Dog and are Considering Getting a Cat

First, consider if your dog is likely to be ‘cat friendly’. Unfortunately, there is no way to be completely certain that your dog will not attempt to chase or attack a new cat or kitten in the house, but your dog’s past experiences with cats and aspects of his general behaviour can provide some indication as to whether or not your dog is suitable to be around cats.

Did your dog live with a cat as a puppy? Dogs that have been socialized with cats when young, preferably under 12 weeks of age, are more likely to consider cats as friends when adult.

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Medium 9781786394583

Link Between Chronic Gastric Diseases and Anxiety in Dogs

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Link Between Chronic Gastric

Diseases and Anxiety in Dogs

Muriel Marion1*, Patrick Lecoindre2, Nathalie Marlois3,

Catherine Mège4, Claude Béata5, Guillaume Sarcey6 and Gérard Muller7

Cabinet médico-chirurgical Montolivet, Marseille, France; 2CVC Clinique

Vétérinaire des Cerisioz, St Priest, France; 3Clinique Vétérinaire de l’Albarine,

Ambérieu en Bugey, France; 4Clinique Vétérinaire Les Grands Crus,

Chenôve, France; 5Consultant Vétérinaire, Toulon, France; 6Clinique vétérinaire Saint Roch, Gap, France; 7Clinique Vétérinaire de Lille St

Maurice, Lille, France

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: chronic gastric disease, anxiety, dog

Introduction

Anxiety in dogs manifests as a collection of physical and behavioural signs. The clinical signs that are often reported include trembling, panting, urination and defaecation (Overall et al., 2001; Tiira et al., 2016). Aggressiveness, destructive behaviour, wandering, running away, inhibition and vocalising are some of the frequently reported behaviours.

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Medium 9780253357090

5 AIDS Policies for Markets and Warriors: Dispossession, Capital, and Pharmaceuticals in Nigeria

HANSJORG DILGER Indiana University Press ePub

Kristin Peterson

Most of the literature on globalization that theorizes flexible capital, flows (media, migration, technology), global cities, cosmopolitanism, and local–global relationships proceeds from an analysis of finance and manufacturing capital.1 Such paradigms account for accumulation, speed, and the migratory patterns of both people and technology via capital circulating among cybernetic and physical spaces. As one imagines the enormity of capital movement, what is said of the spaces and places that are emptied out, from which these voluminous forms of capital are originally extracted? As it is widely recognized that the African continent continues to provide raw material in the form of oil, minerals, and cash crops to the rest of the world in crumbling and non-reproducible ways, can there be an analysis of an emptied-out space as the left-behind effect of such movement? Can there be an accounting of this space that is connected to but defies overlap with other spaces in the transnational realm; an account that, though cannot always imagine how raw material and capital are transformed and consumed beyond its boundaries, is not parochial in the estimation of its own loss?

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Medium 9781780642949

3: Law and Animals

Bailey, D. CABI PDF

3 

Law and Animals

Deborah Rook1* and Pippa Swan2*

Northumbria Law School, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK;

2

Clare Veterinary Group, Ballyclare, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK

1

3.1 �Challenges to the Legal Status of Domestic and Captive Animals by Deborah Rook�

24

3.1.1  The property status of domestic and captive animals�

24

3.1.2  Pet custody cases�

25

3.1.3  Direct legal challenges to the property status of animals�

25

3.1.4 �The basis of a challenge to the legal status of animals – autonomy versus sentiency�27

3.1.5  Utilitarianism in practice�

27

3.1.6  The concept of unnecessary suffering�

28

3.1.6.1  Necessity as a balancing exercise�

28

3.1.6.2  Property status and proportionality�

30

3.1.7 Conclusion�

30

3.2  Unnecessary Suffering by Pippa Swan�

31

3.2.1 Introduction�

31

3.2.2  A legal definition�

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