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7 Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3

Munir, M. CABI PDF

7 

Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3

Fernando Rosado Spilki

Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Abstract

Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV-3) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily

Paramyxovirinae, genus Respirovirus. Together with other viral and bacterial agents, bPIV-3 is associated with the clinical condition known as ‘shipping fever’, in which the animal develops clinical signs after transport over long distances, and bovine respiratory disease complex in cattle. Enveloped bPIV-3 virions have seven proteins encoded by a single-stranded RNA and have a negative-polarity genome, consisting of approximately 15,000 nt in length. Distribution of bPIV-3 infections is worldwide and the prevalence of specific antibodies is high in the cattle population. In North and South America,

Asia and Europe, bPIV-3 infections are endemic, with high seropositivity rates in beef and dairy herds.

The bPIV-3 isolates are antigenically similar, although viral diversity may be observed at the nucleotide level; three distinct genotypes have been described, and subgenotypes may occur. Prevention of clinically evident illness caused by bPIV-3 is likely to be achieved by general good husbandry practices, including hygiene measures, reduction of stocking density, control of animal transit, quarantine of new individuals arriving to the herd and vaccination. There is no consensus on the efficacy of vaccines presently on the market. The presence of evident clinical signs, levels of serum antibodies, shedding of the virus through the nostrils and lung lesions are commonly used to evaluate the efficacy of bPIV-3 vaccines under field conditions. These studies are highly controversial, since commercial vaccines carry other viral and bacterial agents related to respiratory disease, and factors such as environmental conditions and maternal immunity may also influence the results.

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Medium 9781786392459

5  Trophy Hunting and Animal Welfare

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

5

 Trophy Hunting and Animal Welfare

Mark Jones and Chris Draper

We should protect the most vulnerable and helpless in society, not destroy them – much less derive pleasure from doing so.

Sir Roger Moore KBE 1927–2017

5.1 Introduction

The idea of trophy hunting may conjure up a picture of ‘hunters’ stalking individual ‘big game’ animals belonging to iconic species across often inhospit­ able terrain, sometimes for days, pitting their wits against often dangerous adversaries and enduring the discomforts and hardships of the bush for the chance of bagging an animal to display on a wall in a trophy room back home.

Whether or not this was ever a reality, trophy hunting has expanded in scale and scope and now encompasses a diverse range of activities, in large part driven by commercial interests. Many indi­ viduals or groups of animals belonging to a very large number of species, some threatened with extinction, are targeted. Some are hunted in their natural environment, although increasingly popu­ lations are managed, or in some cases bred specifi­ cally for hunting, and even hunted while in captivity, to provide trophies for paying clients.

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Medium 9781937554996

10 Caring as Sacred Practice

Lucia Thornton Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“The highest happiness of man…is to have probed what is knowable and quietly to revere what is unknowable.”

–Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

In the model of whole-person caring, caring for people is considered to be sacred work. The final concept of the model, caring as sacred practice, helps evolve the attitude and approach that we bring to our work and into our lives. Transforming our workplace is first and foremost a matter of transforming ourselves. So beginning to perceive ourselves as sacred is the first step in this journey.

How do we perceive ourselves as sacred? What does it mean to do sacred work? The idea of sacred is not to be misconstrued with being religious and singing hymnals in the hallways. It is not about being sanctimonious, self-righteous, or holy (as in holier-than-thou). It does not mean that we must be somber and serious in our dealings with people or that we can’t engage in activities that are fun and playful. It has nothing to do with being pompous or boring. Rather, sacred is about having a deep respect and reverence for life. It is born of an understanding that all life is precious and that all people are to be valued and treated with kindness. It comes from a deep knowingness that the purpose of our life is not simply to do our work but to do our work with great love and compassion.

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Medium 9781780643960

7 The Global Distribution of Mycobacterium bovis

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

7 

The Global Distribution of

Mycobacterium bovis

Noel H. Smith*

Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK

Introduction

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtb complex) of bacteria includes an ever-­growing number of named species of pathogenic bacteria all causing a very similar pathology (tuberculosis) in many different mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The most important member of the Mtb complex is M. tuberculosis which is, both currently and historically, responsible for high morbidity and mortality in humans.

M. bovis, however, is the commonest cause of tuberculosis (bovine tuberculosis, bTB) in bovids. The preferred host of M. bovis is domesticated cattle, although this pathogen can also be isolated from man and many other mammals (Smith et al., 2006a). The sequence divergence within the Mtb complex is minimal; around one change in 2000 bp (0.05%), and many different species have been ‘shoehorned’ into this complex based on differences in the host they were initially isolated from. Because the definition of ‘species’ is controversial in general (Mallet, 2010), and more so within the Bacteria and Archaea

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Medium 9781780644172

11 Rabies Virus

Munir, M. CABI PDF

11 

Rabies Virus

Paulo Eduardo Brandão

University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract

Rabies virus (RABV) is the type species in the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae, with a negative-­ sense linear non-segmented 12 kb RNA molecule with genes encoding N (nucleoprotein, P (phosphoprotein), M (matrix protein), G (glycoprotein), Ψ (pseudogene or G–L intergenic region) and L (large,

RNA replicase protein). For molecular epidemiology, when the aim is simply to backtrack sources of infection or the geographical origin of a given RABV strain, complete sequences of all genes have the same value, resulting in epidemiologically consistent phylogenetic topologies. Rabies molecular epidemiology is of major use in defining sources of infection in human cases and in understanding transmission among wild animals, based on the fact that different reservoir groups harbour different lineages of RABV and molecular signatures present in the genome of such lineages allow a highly accurate identification of the aggressor species in ante- or post-mortem situations. RABV lineages from terrestrial carnivores cluster in the groups Cosmopolitan, Arctic, Arctic-like, Africa 2 and 3 and

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Medium 9781780644394

14 Epidemiology of Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Organisms

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

14

Epidemiology of Multidrug-resistant

Gram-negative Organisms

Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki,1 Antonis

Markogiannakis,2 Leonidas Tzouvelekis,1 and George L.

Daikos1*

1

Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece;

Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece

2

Introduction

Hospital infections caused by multidrug-resistant

(MDR, resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes), extremely drug-resistant (XDR, resistant to all but two classes, such as polymyxins and glycylcyclines), and pandrug-­ resistant (PDR, resistant to all commercially available antibiotics) bacteria are a global phenomenon, and of these, Gram-negative organisms are of particular importance (Magiorakos et al., 2012).

Nevertheless, the isolation frequencies of such organisms differ widely depending on the setting. As a rule of thumb, in settings where infection control practices are inadequate and the incidence of healthcare-­ associated (HCA) infections is high, the phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance is more prominent. The consequences are dire; infections caused by Gramnegative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) dramatically increase morbidity and mortality. In addition, they are costly and have, on many occasions, literally led to severe limitations of healthcare resources. MDROs are not new in healthcare facilities; ever since the 1980s, strains of enterobacterial species have exhibited MDR phenotypes that were resistant to newly introduced extended-­spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), as well as aminoglycosides. Since then, there has been a clear propensity for an increasing frequency of MDROs, and for the escalation of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes.

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Medium 9781591203193

1. Steve Before the Fall

Mary T. Newport Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

S

teve is the love of my life. We have known each other for nearly forty-five years and have been married for forty-one. For the first three decades, when I thought about our future, I always pictured that we would live long, full lives and grow very old together. Alzheimers disease changed all of that, and much sooner than I would ever have expected.

We met in 1968 when he was eighteen years old, a freshman at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio, and I was sixteen years old, a high school junior, on a snowy evening in the parking lot of Good Samaritan Hospital. He was working full-time on the evening shift in the housekeeping department to pay for college and was the first member of his family to graduate from college, receiving a bachelor of science and business administration (BSBA) in accounting. He tells everyone that he chose accounting because, during career day at his high school, a counselor asked him if he could count to ten. When Steve said yes, the man said, Well, then you should be an accountant; you will make a lot of money. So for Steve it was accounting (he didnt make a lot of money!).

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Medium 9780253014863

5 The Demographic History of Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century / Peter Boomgaard

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

5   The Demographic History of Southeast Asia in the Twentieth Century

Peter Boomgaard

From the middle of the twentieth century, Southeast Asia witnessed a rapid fall in mortality, inaugurating a fundamental demographic transition. By 1945, the very high mortality from infectious diseases in Southeast Asia—detailed in the chapters by Eric Tagliacozzo, Kirsty Walker, and Mary Wilson—had yielded to improved sanitation and the gradual improvement of health facilities and the availability of antibiotic drugs. This chapter considers Southeast Asia’s demographic transition in long historical perspective, providing the demographic background to this volume’s consideration of the politics of health and crisis. It shows, too, that significant underlying drivers of Southeast Asia’s population (and population health) were often invisible to contemporary observers. In the 1950s and 1960s, mortality decline in Southeast Asia provoked alarm as much as relief. Scholars and others were getting worried about high population growth rates. While death caused by starvation had disappeared in most of Europe and North America (“the West”), such was not the case in many Third World countries, then called Underdeveloped Countries (UDCs). In these countries, recurrent famines and high birth rates were not seldom to be found in each other’s company.

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Medium 9781591202042

CHAPTER 9 - Escaping the Paradox

James K. Rone Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub

H

ypothyroidism is a disease known to be common that, paradoxically, may be rampantly overlooked. When I contemplated writing about this paradox of hypothyroidismthe disease we know so well, yet often dont seem to know at allI assumed the result would be controversial, even heretical, in my professional circle. Not that I sought controversy, but I had things to say about my years of caring for thyroid patients, conclusions and concerns sprouting from those experiences that I thought would be labeled maverick at best, and crackpot at worst, by my mainstream peers. My intent was to present reasonable speculations, extrapolating modern thyroidology into uncharted territory.

To my surprise, though, as I waded into the project, I found published support in widely respected mainstream journals and texts for almost everything I wanted to say. Thus, with the realization that I was coloring less outside the lines than I thought, my approach changed. I became, in my own mind, less a rebel battling hardheaded science, and more a slayer of myths, myths pervading modern thyroidology as it is routinely practiced. These include:

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Medium 9780253006455

11 The Balance Theory of Sex Determination

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

From 1907, when Thomas Hunt Morgan began working on fruit flies, until 1915, he and his students believed that their sex chromosome composition was 2N = 8,XX for females and 2N = 7,XO for males because they had misinterpreted a paper that Nettie Stevens wrote in 1907. Once Morgan and his students realized that Drosophila melanogaster used the XX female and XY male system for sex determination, they had to reconcile the role of the Y chromosome in sex determination.1 Since it was well known from Edmund B. Wilson’s and Stevens’s work that some Diptera had XO males and others had XY males, they concluded that the Y could not be playing a role in the sex determination of males.

That inference was reinforced when Calvin Blackman Bridges (1889–1938) discovered a phenomenon he called nondisjunction, the topic on which he wrote his PhD dissertation, which was published in 1916.2 Bridges found an unexpected appearance of a white-eyed male in a cross that should have given red-eyed males. If one parent is a white-eyed male and the female parent is red eyed, all the progeny should be red eyed. When Bridges tried to mate the white-eyed male, he found it was sterile. He also found that if he did a cross with a white-eyed female and red-eyed male, the offspring should be white-eyed sons and red-eyed daughters: a distribution that the laboratory referred to as crisscross inheritance. But Bridges found a female that was white eyed on some occasions. That exceptional female was fertile, and when mated to a red-eyed male she gave an unusual distribution of progeny: about eight percent of the offspring being of an unexpected kind with respect to their eye color and sex.

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Medium 9781937554712

11 The Nursing Culture and Impacts Upon the Job Search

Lisa Mauri Thomas Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Lead yourself, lead your superiors, lead your peers, and free your people to do the same.

Dee Hock

You came into contact with the nursing culture the first time you met a nurse or visited a hospital or clinic. You noticed the uniform and made a split-second judgment about the nurse’s professional demeanor. Over the years, your view of nursing broadened and refined itself until you decided to become a nurse, too. You likely had to work harder to get into nursing school than your peers choosing other professions; just to get into nursing school can be very competitive. You realized quickly that the workload would be heavy, and you may have questioned your ability to do what it takes to be trained as a competent nurse. You learned about the qualities and temperament needed. And you did it; you became a nurse! But your work was not done by any means. New nurses quickly learn the confusing challenges of putting all that training into actual day-to-day practice. The nursing culture can be perplexing and downright scary as you learn the ropes and become not just skilled but savvy in navigating the landscape.

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Medium 9781780642994

34 Using Information Networks to Promote Improved Nutrition and Rural Development: FAO’s Experience of Promoting School Milk Programmes

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

34

Using Information Networks to Promote

Improved Nutrition and Rural Development:

FAO’s Experience of Promoting School

Milk Programmes

Policy and Programme Development Support Division ( TCS),*†

Technical Cooperation Department (TC)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Summary

As a result of the lack of a mechanism to exchange information on school milk programmes among FAO members, FAO’s Trade and Markets Division (EST) attempted to bridge this gap by using e-mail networks and an associated Internet site. Arising out of this process, 19 national and international conferences were organized dealing with the administration and financing of school milk programmes. E-fora members also agreed to celebrate a World School Milk Day. Following the first such day in 2000, the event is now celebrated in around 40 countries worldwide. School milk programmes predominantly rely on government support; however, there are a number of examples of programmes that operate without public financing.

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Medium 9780253014863

6 “Rural” Health in Modern Southeast Asia / Atsuko Naono

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

6   “Rural” Health in Modern Southeast Asia

Atsuko Naono

Introduction

Over the course of the past century in Southeast Asia, the term “rural” received sometimes sporadic and sometimes considerable attention from colonial governments, postcolonial governments, and international and private organizations concerned with health—such as the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO), the Rockefeller Foundation, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other non-governmental organizations (NGOs). When and how rural medicine began to be viewed differently from urban medicine, when colonial doctors began to see the medicine differently in rural space and urban space, and when the idea that the village was a place where health was dealt with differently from anywhere else, however, are all questions that have hardly been dealt with directly in the literature on the history of medicine in Southeast Asia. Government records do not make the task any easier. Colonial and postcolonial medical reports are rich in statistics on rural and urban areas, but this terminology is rarely defined. While we might easily define Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Saigon, or Singapore as urban areas, in the colonial period, just as today, no single definition of what a rural area constitutes has been agreed upon. During the colonial period, the government authorities identified the village as the major unit of rural society, giving the village an importance and attributing to it administrative functions that it probably never had. These views influenced scholarship on Southeast Asia into the 1980s. It has been only recently that scholars have tried to understand rural Southeast Asia from the inside.1

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Medium 9781780644394

10 The Role of the Antibiogram in Antibiotic Stewardship

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

10

The Role of the Antibiogram in Antibiotic Stewardship

Gary V. Doern*

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, US

Introduction

For the purposes of this discussion, the term antibiogram will be used to refer to a cumulative summary of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test results obtained with bacteria and/or fungi recovered from patients with infection over a defined period of time in a given healthcare setting. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations

(JCAHO) requires that a cumulative antibiogram is generated in all acute care hospitals in the US at least once annually. Guidelines for constructing cumulative antibiograms have been developed and promulgated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards

Institute (CLSI) (Hindler et al., 2014). When crafted appropriately and distributed wisely, the information contained in cumulative antibiograms can serve as a valuable tool for optimizing antimicrobial therapy in patients with infection, an extremely useful information resource for active antimicrobial stewardship programs, and, ultimately, a vehicle for diminishing the burden of antimicrobial resistance in many different healthcare settings.

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Medium 9781935476504

7 Research Advocacy in Clinical Nursing

Connie M. Ulrich Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

–Kim Mooney-Doyle, MSN, RN

Doctoral candidate, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing

–Gwenyth R. Wallen, PhD, RN

Chief of Nursing Research and Translational Science, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center

–Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN, FAAN

Associate Professor of Bioethics and Nursing University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Secondary Appointment, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics New Courtland Center for Health and Transitions

• Clinical practice and clinical research are distinctly different aspects of patient care.

• Informed consent is an essential element of the ethical conduct of research and is an ongoing process.

• The ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice can guide nurses in their daily care of patients enrolled in research.

Nurses often state that they go into nursing to make a significant difference in the lives of their patients and families. Actively diminishing the pain and suffering of those who are acutely, critically, or chronically ill is especially rewarding to them. Staff nurses on the front lines of health care delivery consistently assess and evaluate the physical and psychosocial needs of their patients. Research is not usually on the minds of practicing nurses, yet research is integral to improving patient-related outcomes. In fact, Willis and Grace (2011) argue that nurses are ethically responsible for understanding the science behind their patients’ conditions, including learning about topics that advance the theoretical and empirical knowledge base of nursing practice. Additionally, Grady and Edgerly (2009) note that “in many settings, nurses are ethically responsible for contributing to both the promotion of good science and to the protection of the rights and welfare of patient subjects, a balance which requires knowledge, competence, advocacy, creativity, and close working relationships within the research and clinical teams” (p. 3).

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