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Appendix 10 Cats, Babies and Children

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 10

Cats, Babies and Children

Cats can be loving and fulfilling pets for both adults and children, but problems can sometimes arise that might result in a child being bitten or scratched and the cat becoming stressed and frightened. As well as aiming to keep the child or baby safe, it is also wise to do the best you can to avoid the cat becoming stressed, because a stressed cat is more likely to develop behaviour problems such as indoor urine marking or aggression.

A New Baby

Before the baby arrives

The arrival of a new baby can be a highly stressful time for a pet cat and it is important to prepare well in advance.

Try to keep your cat(s) out of the room that you intend to use as the nursery. It will be easier if you start to deny your cat access to this room long before the baby is due rather than trying to shut him out once the baby has arrived.

Allow your cat to become accustomed to the sights, sounds and smells of a new baby.

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Medium 9781786391728

5. Indirect Costs: Extending the Scope of Economic Value

Hall, S.; Dolling, L.; Bristow, K. CABI PDF

Indirect Costs: Extending the

Scope of Economic Value

5

The previous chapter considered direct economic costs, however, there is growing recognition that companion animals also provide many significant indirect financial benefits (still referred to as costs in economic terms). In this chapter, two areas are chosen to illustrate the significance of indirect costs associated with companion animals: (i) the effect of companion animal ownership on human health (considering examples relating to the physical, mental and social health of people) and its economic implications; and

(ii) the additional health benefits of economic value provided by animalassisted interventions and the wider support of individuals with increased need in our society. Other pet-assisted activities are likely to provide indirect economic benefits (e.g. Pets as Therapy (PAT) dogs, the Kennel Club’s Bark and Read programme) but no evaluative data could be sourced.

5A Human Health and Well-being

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Medium 9781780644479

1 Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery: An Introduction

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

1  Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery:

An Introduction

Harsha Kharkwal1,* Bhanu Malhotra2 and Srinivas Janaswamy3

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University, Noida, India; 2Amity Institute of Biotechnology and

Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research, Amity University, Noida, India;

3

Department of Dairy and Food Science, South Dakota State University,

South Dakota, USA

1

Abstract

Natural polymers are macromolecules composed of repeating structural units joined by covalent bonds. Carbohydrates, proteins and muscle fibres are known examples and have potential as drug delivery systems. A typical delivery system aims at slow and tissue-specific release, and as natural polymers exhibit biodegradability and biocompatibility they are well suited for this purpose. Natural polymers are also utilized as excipients and over the years, new advances in the treatment of diseases using the approach of site specific drug delivery by the utilization of polymers have emerged with several promises. This chapter highlights some available examples with an emphasis on their potent applications and properties in the drug domain.

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Medium 9781786394040

Self-assessment Answers

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF

Self-assessment Answers

Chapter 1

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (d)

Chapter 2

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (a)

4. (b)

5. (a)

Chapter 3

1. (b)

2. (a)

3. (d)

4. (a)

5. (c)

© CAB International 2018. Parasites and Pets (Elsheikha, Wright & McGarry)�

147

Self-assessment Answers

Chapter 4

1. (d)

2. (b)

3. (d)

4. (c)

5. (c)

Chapter 5

Fleas

1. (c)

2. (a)

3. (b)

4. (d)

5. (b)

Lice

1. (b)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (d)

5. (a)

Mites

1. (a)

2. (d)

3. (c)

4. (b)

5. (d)

Ticks

1. (d)

2. (a)

148

Self-assessment Answers

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (d)

Leishmaniosis

1. (c)

2. (d)

3. (b)

4. (a)

5. (c)

Chapter 6

1. (a)

2. (d)

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Medium 9781780642994

21 Measurement of Dietary Diversity for Monitoring the Impact of Food-based Approaches

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

21

Measurement of Dietary Diversity for Monitoring the Impact of Food-based

Approaches

Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division (AGN),*† Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department (AG)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Summary

Monotonous diets based mainly on energy-dense, but micronutrient-poor starchy staples are common in food-insecure areas and contribute to the burden of malnutrition, particularly to inadequate micronutrient intake. Food-based strategies have been recommended as the first priority to meet micronutrient needs.

An essential element to food-based approaches involves dietary diversification – or the consumption of a wide variety of foods across nutritionally distinct food groups. Increased dietary diversity is associated with increased household access to food as well as increased individual probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity is measured as the number of individual food groups consumed over a given reference period. FAO has developed guidelines on the use of a standardized tool for measuring dietary diversity that can be administered at either the household or individual level. The tool uses an open recall method to gather information on all the foods and drinks consumed by the household or individual over the previous 24 h. The foods and drinks mentioned by the respondent are then recorded into one of 16 standardized food groups. Data collected using the dietary diversity tool can then be analysed in several different ways to provide a picture of dietary patterns within a community as well as among vulnerable groups. Examples of analytical approaches and programmatic uses are drawn from studies in

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Medium 9781786390547

14 Pressing Animals beyond Their Biological Limits

Grandin, T.; Whiting, M. CABI PDF

14

Pressing Animals Beyond Their

Biological Limits

Bernard Rollin*

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Throughout my academic career as a philosopher specializing in animal ethics, I have avoided making predictions about the future. After all, if the CIA, equipped with cameras in space that could photograph a pack of cigarettes in the shirt pocket of Russian soldiers, were caught completely unaware by the collapse of the Soviet Union, what chance did I have at accurate foretelling? Eventually, however, I realized that, at least in the biblical sense, prophecy did not mean gazing into a crystal ball, functioning as a TV set pointing into the future; rather, the prophets of the Old Testament were adroit at identifying the likely implications of current tendencies, as was the case when

Jeremiah prophesied the defeat and exile of the Hebrews if they continued to vex the

Babylonians.

If, then, we are to assay this weaker sense of prophecy, it is obligatory to look to where we have been in order to anticipate where we are likely or possibly going. And thus it is reasonable to begin with the advent of domestication of animals more than

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Medium 9781780644394

21 Current Approach to Optimal Use and Dosing of Vancomycin in Adult Patients

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

21

Current Approach to Optimal Use and Dosing of Vancomycin in Adult

Patients

Joseph J. Carreno1, Dmitriy Martirosov,2 and Thomas P.

Lodise1*

1

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York, US;

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US

2

Introduction

Despite its approval nearly 60 years ago, vancomycin remains a mainstay in therapy for invasive infections due to Gram-positive bacteria (Rybak et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2011). In the US alone, it is estimated that clinicians administer over 100 million days of vancomycin therapy a year (Kirst et al.,

1998). The high rate of vancomycin use is related to the growing prevalence of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

(MRSA). In the past, MRSA was confined to critical care unit settings (Moran et  al., 2005, 2006,

2012), but now it is the most common S. aureus antibiotic susceptibility phenotype across all healthcare settings, including general hospital patient wards, skilled nursing homes and facilities, and dialysis centers (Capitano et  al., 2003; NNIS

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Medium 9781786391858

7 A Comparison of Tourism and Food-provisioning Among Wild Bottlenose Dolphins at Monkey Mia and Bunbury, Australia

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

7

A Comparison of Tourism and

Food-provisioning Among Wild

Bottlenose Dolphins at Monkey

Mia and Bunbury, Australia

J. Mann1*, V. Senigaglia2, A. Jacoby1 and L. Bejder2&3

1

Georgetown University, Washington, DC; 2Murdoch University,

Perth, Western Australia; 3University of Hawaii, Honolulu

*  Corresponding author: Mannj2@Georgetown.edu

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

85

J. Mann et al.

Introduction

Tourism focused on viewing and interacting with cetaceans has grown exponentially in the last

20 years, becoming a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide (O’Connor et al., 2009; Higham et al., 2014). Although most tour and commercial operations are boat-based (i.e. whale- and dolphin-watching trips) or swim-with-dolphin operations, feeding wild dolphins from boats or the shore has become another popular means of gaining access to wildlife. To address some of  the negative effects of food-provisioning wild marine mammals (e.g. Christiansen et  al.,

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Medium 9781845936839

14: Introduction to Risk Analysis

Sergeant, E.; Perkins, N. CABI PDF

14

Introduction to Risk Analysis

14.1  Introduction

Risk is defined as the combination of the likelihood of occurrence and the likely severity of the consequences of an adverse event.

Risk analysis is the process of identifying what might happen, how likely it is to happen and how bad it would be (consequences) if it did happen.

Risk analysis usually includes thinking of things that might lower the risk to an acceptable level (risk management) and letting others know about these things (risk communication).

We all use risk analysis at an informal and personal level all of the time. When someone considers an action such as crossing a busy road they will usually consider the risks and may choose to cross where they are or move to a safer place such as a pedestrian crossing and wait until the walk signal is displayed.

14.1.1  Risk analysis in livestock health and biosecurity

Import risk analysis

Much of the development of risk analysis in animal health has been in the area of import risk analysis (IRA). IRA methods are trade-based, focus on differences between importing and exporting countries as a way of identifying possible hazards, and concentrate on sanitary methods as options for risk management.

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Medium 9781786394583

Circadian Distribution and Characterisation of Social Behaviour in a Group of Domestic Donkeys ( Equus asinus)

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Circadian Distribution and

Characterisation of Social

Behaviour in a Group of Domestic

Donkeys (Equus asinus)

Simona Normando*, Paolo Mongillo, Francesca

Visentin, Raffaella Amina Mosaner and Lieta Marinelli

Dept BCA, Padua University, Legnaro (PD), Italy

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: donkeys, social behaviour, circadian rhythm

Introduction

Following a decrease in number, the domestic donkey population in Italy is rising, due mainly to their involvement in meat/milk production and Animal Assisted

Interventions. However, to date only little scientific literature exist on this species’ behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate intra-species affiliative social behaviour (e.g. allo-grooming, proximity maintenance, contact maintenance) in donkeys.

Materials and Methods

Thirteen donkeys (10 females, 3 geldings, aged 3–13 years) stabled in a 480 m2 pen with a 45 m2 stable were observed. In phase I, donkeys’ behaviours were recorded from videos using an instantaneous scan sampling method for 20 minutes every other hour for 3 non-consecutive days to assess circadian distribution of social behaviour. In phase II, behaviours were recorded using a continuous focal animal sampling method for 4 days during the hour of the day in which most of the social behaviours had taken place during phase I, to define intra-species social interactions.

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Medium 9780433308829

CHAPTER FOUR. Individuation

Michael Fordham Karnac Books ePub

In Psychological types Jung defines individuation as follows :— ‘It is the development of the psychological individual as a differentiated being from the general, collective psychology. Individuation, therefore, is a process of differentiation, having for its goal the development of the individual personality’ and he adds later on: ‘Individuation is practically the same as the development of consciousness out of the original state of identity which is ‘ … the original non-differentiation between subject and object…’. This state is characteristic of primitive mentality for it is the ‘real foundation of participation mystique … of the unconscious state of the civilized adult and of … the mental state of early infancy …’. In addition he asserts that ‘Identity with the parents provides the basis for subsequent identification with them; on it also depends the possibility of projection and introjection.’ (1921, p. 441). It is the differentiation of the individual personality out of the state of ‘identity’ that I select as being the core of the definition. I shall show how the basis of it is completed by the age of two. Before doing so, however, I want to note that when Jung includes ‘general, collective psychology’ in his definition he is referring to the social and religious life of the community constructed by adults. Its equivalent in infancy is the mother.

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Medium 9781786394583

Keynote Presentation: A Multimodal Approach to Resolving Tension Between Cats in the Same Household: A Practical Approach

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Keynote Presentation: A Multimodal

Approach to Resolving Tension

Between Cats in the Same

Household: A Practical Approach

Sarah E. Heath*

Behavioural Referrals Veterinary Practice, Upton Chester, UK

Conflict of interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.

Keywords: behaviour, cats, inter-cat conflict, stress

Introduction

Cats are increasing in popularity in many Western countries, and multi-cat households are very common. While many of these households are successful and harmonious, it is recognised that some owners encounter difficulty, either regarding the presentation of behavioural responses which cause them concern or regarding the physical diseases seen in one or more of the cats. Common physical disease presentations from multi-cat environments include idiopathic cystitis

(Kruger et al., 2009) and infectious disease (Speakman, 2005). Also, obesity has been shown to be influenced by feedings styles (German and Heath, 2016) which in turn may be affected by the presence of more than one cat in the household.

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Keynote Presentation: Use of Psychopharmacology to Reduce Anxiety and Fear in Dogs and Cats: A Practical Approach

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Keynote Presentation: Use of

Psychopharmacology to Reduce

Anxiety and Fear in Dogs and Cats:

A Practical Approach

Barbara L. Sherman*

College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh,

North Carolina, USA

Conflict of interest: The author has served on the Behaviour Advisory Boards for Elanco

Animal Health, Lilly Animal Health, Novartis Animal Health, Shearing-Plough Animal

Health, Virbac Animal Health and Zoetis Animal Health.

Funding: National Science Foundation (#557751)

Keywords: anxiety, fear, behavioural drugs, dogs, cats

Abstract

Anxiety and fear responses indicate impaired welfare in dogs and cats and often lead to erosion of the human–animal bond. In combination with simple behaviour modification regimes, psychopharmacologic agents may be given strategically to attenuate anxiety and fear responses (Hart and Cooper, 1996). The purpose of this review is to elucidate pharmacologic regimes that may be used strategically to manage such negative emotional states in dogs and cats, particularly in specific situations, such as travel, confinement and veterinary visits (Gruen et al., in press; Mills and Simpson, 2002). The goal is for dogs and cats to be less anxious, less fearful, to have the capacity to learn new behavioural responses and to improve welfare. The application of specific drugs in a number of categories, including benzodiazepines, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors, and alpha 2 agonists, will be described, the literature briefly summarised, and case examples provided.

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13: Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

13 

Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

Bhanu Malhotra1,*, Harsha Kharkwal2 and Anupam Pradhan3

Amity Institute of Biotechnology and Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research,

Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 2Amity Center for Carbohydrate

Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry, Amity

University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India; 3Global Health, College of Public Health

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA and Queensborough Community

College, City University of New York, Bayside, New York, USA

1

Abstract

Topical eye drugs are the most convenient and conventional ways of drug administration to the eyes, especially in the cases of anterior segment ailments. Drug delivery is restricted due to the presence of various static barriers such as the presence of the corneal layer, sclera, retina, blood retina barriers, and certain dynamic barriers including lymphatic clearance, conjunctival blood flow and tear dilution. A major challenge of the ocular drug systems is the delivery of drugs to the posterior segments of the eye. In recent years certain influx transporters to the ocular tissues have been researched and discovered. Liposome-, nanoparticle- and nanomicelle-mediated drug transport can overcome static and dynamic barriers to drug delivery in the eye. The use of biodegradable polymer materials as novel drug carriers for sustained release of the drug at the target site is nowadays a thoroughly researched field. Non-invasive biopolymer-based ocular drug delivery systems, which overcome all the limitations of topical delivery, are attracting considerable interest. This chapter presents a detailed description of various biopolymers used in ocular delivery strategies, and discusses their promising future.

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Medium 9781609945176

Two Hitting Bottom

Longman, Phillip Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

No other health-care provider in the United States has had such a scandal-filled and controversial past as the VA, and so it is no wonder that many Americans have long pointed to its example as proof that government-provided health care is a very bad idea. Yet a closer look at the checkered history of the VA reveals subtler lessons, both about how government-run institutions can and do fail and about how ordinary men and women can reinvent them—even over the objection of their bosses.

The story begins with one of the biggest political scandals in American history. One afternoon in 1923, a visitor to the White House was mistakenly sent to “The Red Room” on the second floor. Approaching the door, the visitor encountered the commander in chief with his hands around a man’s neck shouting, “You yellow rat! You double-crossing bastard. If you ever …”1

The object of Warren G. Harding’s wrath, so goes the story, was Colonel Charles R. Forbes. Forbes was a dashing and charismatic man, fond of playing poker and living the high life. Both Harding and, especially, his wife, it was said, found him to be great company when they first met him while on vacation in Hawaii. “Colonel Forbes was the type of man around whom women always have buzzed,” explained one Harding loyalist in his memoirs.2

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