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14 Lyme Disease in Children

Halperin, J.J. CABI PDF

14 

Lyme Disease in Children

Eugene D. Shapiro

Departments of Pediatrics, Epidemiology and Investigative Medicine,

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

14.1 Introduction

Our modern understanding of Lyme disease began when, in the mid-1970s, parents of a cluster of children who lived on a small street in

Lyme, Connecticut, with what originally was thought to be juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, reported this ‘outbreak’ to health authorities.

Although we now know that a manifestation of

Lyme disease, erythema migrans, was recognized in Scandinavia in the early 20th century

(Afzelius, 1921), the expanded spectrum of the manifestations of Lyme disease became apparent when Dr Allen Steere and colleagues investigated this unexplained ‘epidemic’ of arthritis, which led to the first report of what eventually was recognized as Lyme arthritis (Steere et al.,

1977). The illness was characterized by recurrent attacks of asymmetric swelling and pain in a few large joints, particularly the knee. About a quarter of the patients noted an erythematous papule that developed into an expanding, red, annular lesion (now known to be erythema migrans), as much as 50  cm in diameter, that preceded development of the arthritis by weeks to months (Steere et al., 1977). Most of the patients (children and adults) who developed the rash also eventually developed arthritis. While the overall prevalence of the arthritis was <0.5% among residents of the area, 10% of the children who lived on four particular roads developed the illness. From these original

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Appendix 6 Helping a Grieving Cat

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 6

Helping a Grieving Cat

Do Cats Grieve?

Following the loss of a feline companion or a family member it is sometimes reported by owners that their cats exhibit behaviours such as increased vocalizing, pacing and searching for the lost individual, followed by a reduction in appetite and becoming withdrawn and inactive. This reaction, which may last for just a few days or sometimes months, does seem to indicate that the cat may be grieving.

How Can We Help?

Getting another cat might not be the best idea

If a close feline companion has been lost, providing another ‘friend’ can seem to be the obvious solution. But unfortunately, this is not always a good idea and may add to, rather than reduce, the stress and anxiety experienced by the grieving cat for the following reasons:

●● Despite having lived with another cat, the resident cat may not be so accepting of a stranger, especially whilst grieving for the lost companion.

●● If the newcomer to the household is another adult it is possible that he may regard the resident grieving cat as a rival and act aggressively towards him.

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19 The History of Behavioral Gender Assignment

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Identifying genes for homosexuality is difficult, but it is even more difficult to assign a genetic or innate basis for gender roles. Why should this be so difficult? Because gender roles are notoriously variable. At the time of this writing, I am 79 years old. Almost three generations ago, when I was a child, my father was known as a breadwinner and my mother was known as a housewife. Most males were expected to earn a living for the family. If you mentioned the word “doctor,” I thought of a male. If you mentioned the word “nurse,” I thought of a female. In those days the police were policemen. Firefighters were firemen. Job assignments were sometimes genderized with suffixes—an actor was a male and an actress was a female. It was also widely believed that women were nurturing, emotional, and not as cerebral as men. Men were the thinkers, deciders, and protectors. Women cried, and men were supposed to tough it out. I remember my surprise when in June of 1940 I came home and saw my father crying. He told us Paris had fallen to the Nazis. It was so unusual I have never forgotten it.

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13 The History and Interpretations of Hermaphrodites and Intersexes

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

The concepts of hermaphroditism, sexual chimerism, sexual mosaicism, intersexuality, and gynandromorphism are all connected through a common aspect. They involve the presence, in an individual, of the sexual phenotype of both sexes to some degree, either at once or at some time in their life cycle as adults. In the broadest sense, the term intersex is most inclusive, and it is purged of connotations of the classic mythology of Hermaphroditus and his encounter with Salmacis. Unfortunately, the biological use of the term intersex has usually excluded errors of mitosis leading to mosaicism. Richard Goldschmidt (1878–1958) first introduced the term “intersexuality” to genetics in 1915, when he was working on gypsy moth sex determination. Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students first used the term “gynandromorph” in genetics in 1914 to describe mosaicism, usually an XX/X somatic composition of flies that had lost an X-chromosome due to non-disjunction after fertilization.1

Intersexuality implies a genetic or environmental cause for the dual-sexual aspect, in which all the cells of the body have the same genotype and chromosome composition. The term “chimerism” is applied to a special type of mosaicism. It has a classical legend behind it: numerous deities were part human and part animal in Egyptian and Greek mythologies. The Egyptian Sphinx is a part-human, part-lion, chimera that is familiar to most of humanity. In human biology, the term chimerism refers to individuals produced from four gametes (“tetragametic”) with two separate fertilizations, a fusion of what should have been non-identical twins into a single individual. In contrast, biologists use the term mosaicism to describe individuals who have a mitotic, nondisjunctional event (or gene mutation after zygote formation), leading to two different genetic compositions or cell lines that were derived from one initial fertilization. In medicine and psychology, the term “disorder or difference of sexual differentiation” (DSD) is replacing all of these terms when discussing patients with quite varied modes of origin. Time will tell whether this term is specific enough or accurate enough to convey information about the condition, as this new usage is put into public discourse. It is unlikely that the term DSD will be applied to fruit flies or species other than humans. Such fine distinctions among these terms are almost entirely of twentieth-century origin, because neither the sex chromosomes nor genes in relation to sex determination were known before then.

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Medium 9781786391858

10 Managing Tourism’s Animal Footprint

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

Managing Tourism’s

Animal Footprint

10

Daniel Turner*

Former Associate Director on Tourism and EU Compliance,

Born Free Foundation (www.bornfree.org.uk), now Founder and Director of Animondial (www.animondial.com)

*  Corresponding author: danielnicholasturner@gmail.com

106

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

Managing Tourism’s Animal Footprint

We believe the way tourists interact with captive whales and dolphins needs to change and we want to play an active role in supporting this transition . . . We will not sign up any new

­attractions that feature captive whales and dolphins for theatrical shows, contact sessions (such as ‘swim-with’ ­programmes) or other entertainment purposes.

Virgin Holidays (February 2017)

… if an animal attraction is found not to be fully compliant with the ABTA Global Welfare

­Guidance for Animals in Tourism, Thomas Cook won’t sell it.

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Medium 9781786394040

6 Parasites of the Eye and Nervous System

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF

6

Parasites of the Eye and Nervous System

Thelaziosis

What is thelaziosis?

Thelaziosis, also known as eye worm infection, is caused by nematodes of the genus Thelazia, which are transmitted by flies into the orbital cavities and surrounding tissues of many species of wild and domestic mammals.

Out of 16 species of Thelazia described so far, T. rhodesii infects sheep;

T. skrjabini infects cattle; T. californiensis and T. callipaeda infect carnivores, including dogs, cats, foxes and wolves, and also rabbits. The disease is mainly seen in summer and autumn when the vector flies are active. It has been suggested that more than one species of Diptera is involved in its transmission; for example, the facefly, Musca autumnalis, transmits the worm to cattle, and Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae family) is a proven vector of the nematode in dogs and wild carnivores.

How are eye worms transmitted?

Adult worms live in the eyes under the nictitating membrane. The females release first-stage larvae (L1). When other flies feed on lachrymal secretions, they pick up the L1s which then go through two moults inside the fly, eventually to the third-stage infective larvae (L3). When the fly feeds again, the

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Medium 9781780643960

29: Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

29 

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial

Infections

Joseph O. Falkinham III*

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA

Introduction

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that share environments with animals, poultry and humans. The causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is the only classic pathogen of the group; all other subspecies are opportunistic pathogens. For the opportunists, disease follows exposure to the portion of the population that is transiently susceptible. Quite possibly the major sources of

NTM infection for humans are drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing (Falkinham et  al., 2001; Falkinham, 2011). As NTM are natural inhabitants of soils (Iivanainen et al.,

1997; De Groote et al., 2006), soil is a source of infection for both humans and animals (via dusts). NTM are quite hardy; their wax-rich outer membrane contributes to their resistance to disinfection and antibiotics (Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). As the NTM are innately resistant to anti-tuberculosis agents, drug therapy is problematic, even in humans and companion animals. For agronomic animals, for example pigs, it is more cost effective to reduce levels of NTM in the animal’s environment.

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Medium 9780433308829

CHAPTER SEVEN. Infantile autism: a disorder of the self

Michael Fordham Karnac Books ePub

An outline theory of the self and its relation to individuation has been developed and the ground has now been laid for considering theoretically a particular disorder of childhood.

Pioneering work has been done in defining the syndromes of infantile autism by Kanner, Bradley, Bender, Heller, De Sanctis, Weygandt, Despert, Creak and others, while the psychoanalysts Mahler, Klein, Isaacs, Rodrigu6, Bettelheim and Tustin have made significant contributions to its psychological structure and its origins.

It is apparent, when reviewing the literature, that die cases described, analysed, and treated by differing therapeutic methods, with varying results, are difficult to evaluate because diagnoses are mostly insufficiently specific and the prognosis consequently uncertain. Creak tried to resolve the problem by isolating nine characteristics and specifying that to make a diagnosis of autism a child must show a specified number of them. Her method aimed at defining objective criteria, but the way in which they were interpreted by clinicians showed that they were unreliable so, if the characteristics can be interpreted so differently, it is doubtful whether her own achievement can be assessed as objective either.

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Medium 9781786392459

8 Intensification – the Pressures of Volume

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

8

Intensification – the Pressures of Volume

Joyce D’Silva

8.1  We Looked at Each Other

We looked at each other – she and I. Our eyes caught and held, despite the cacophony around us.

She was just one of 65,000. I was with the farm manager and a colleague. She was in a cage with four other females, surrounded from above and below by others in similar cages. She had only a few matted feathers left on her neck. Her cagemates showed similar nakedness. They had been there for about a year we were told. She would go for slaughter in another 6 weeks, most likely for pet food, paste or soup.

As we looked at each other I felt almost overwhelmed by the terrible state she was in and the knowledge that this was how most of her life had been spent – and how her final few weeks would be spent. We still held eye contact. From behind me

I heard the farm manager say, ‘We really do think this is the best way to keep hens’. That was one of the most surreal moments of my life.

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23 Activities of the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) of FAO to Improve Food and Nutrition Security

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

23

Activities of the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) of FAO to Improve

Food and Nutrition Security

Animal Production and Health Division (AGA),*† Agriculture and

Consumer Protection Department (AG)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Summary

Livestock have multiple important roles and functions, including their direct contribution to food availability and access for smallholders. Livestock products are major sources of protein, micronutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins B12, A and riboflavin) and fats. They are particularly important for poorly nourished people and infants in developing countries. At a global level, the livestock sector is undergoing unprecedented changes due to increased demands for foods derived from animals, especially in the urban areas of the rapidly growing economies. This is placing increasing pressures on natural resources. The changes in the livestock sector have significantly outpaced the capacity of governments and societies to provide the necessary policy and regulatory framework. The Animal Production and Health Division of FAO takes an active role in identifying the drivers of the sector as well as the risks and policy options for enhancing food security and peoples’ livelihoods and health while, at the same time, protecting the environment.

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Medium 9781786390394

3 Disulfide-linked Defensins

Wang, G. CABI PDF

3 

Disulfide-linked Defensins

Monique L. van Hoek*

School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the

­literature on disulfide-linked defensin peptides. Key proteomic and genomic aspects of vertebrate defensins, including the

­characteristics of α-, β- and q-defensins are described. The host-defence role of vertebrate defensins is reviewed, as well as

­possible implications for this activity of peptides in their development as potential therapeutics. Approaches for the synthesis or heterologous expression of the defensins are reviewed. The mechanism of action and in vivo role of each class of vertebrate defensins are discussed, as is the therapeutic potential of the defensin peptides. The similarities and differences of vertebrate, bivalve, arthropod and plant defensins are explored. Finally, a brief discussion is presented of other disulfide-linked antimicrobial peptides that may not meet the criteria for defensins.

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Appendix 3 Reducing Resource Competition in a Multi-cat Household

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 3

Reducing Resource Competition in a Multi-cat Household

Conflict between cats that live in the same house is most often due to competition for important resources, such as food, water, resting places and even litter trays. How we provide and locate these resources can help greatly to minimize competition and reduce the risk of fighting and other conflict behaviours.

Food

Feed household cats separately with a good distance between their food dishes

Unlike dogs and humans who are affiliative hunters and food gathers, cats are solitary self-reliant predators. In other words, each individual cat hunts only to provide food for itself, the exception being a mother cat with kittens. This also means that cats do not share their food and will choose to eat at a distance from other cats, who could potentially steal a highly valued and, for a wild or feral cat, hard-won meal.

If food dishes are placed close to each other or the cats are expected to eat from a single dish, they then will have no other option than to eat side-by-side, giving the false impression that they are happy to do so, but in fact this situation is a common cause of stress and increased antagonism in multi-cat households.

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Medium 9780253355270

Conclusion: Postcolonial Ontological Politics

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

If post-colonialism is the time after colonialism, and colonialism is defined in terms of the binary division between the colonizers and the colonized, why is post-colonial time also a time of “difference”? What sort of “difference” is this and what are its implications for the forms of politics and for subject formation in this late-modern moment?

—Stuart Hall, When Was the Postcolonial?

Traditional medicine is a highly politicized and deeply intimate battle over who and what has the right to exist. As a modern category of knowledge and practice—forged through encounters between traditional healers, scientists (from Tanzania, Britain, China and elsewhere), biomedical practitioners, government bureaucrats, and international development organizations among others—it embodies the frictions central to postcoloniality. It grounds arguments for a history that is not bound by colonial categories of knowledge, in the intimate care of loved ones and the bodies of kin. Close attention to struggles for control over the right to determine what objects are central to life and the relations that sustain them reveals a new story of colonization, post-independence socialism, and its collapse in the face of economic liberalization. Postcolonial healing tells this history as a series of struggles over rights to existence and over the particular forms of materiality that support different claims to existence. In other words, postcolonial healing reveals contemporary struggles not only over material and conceptual resources but also over who gets to determine what is material and what is immaterial, or “merely” conceptual.

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Medium 9781780644554

15: CBRN Incidents

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

15 

CBRN Incidents

R.P. Chilcott1 and S.M. Wyke2

Head of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Hertfordshire,

Hatfield, UK

2

Principal Public Health Scientist, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and

Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, UK

1

Key Questions 

What is a CBRN incident?

What are the common causes?

What are the key response elements for dealing with casualties during a CBRN incident?

Are there specific considerations for fatality management?

15.1  Introduction

The threat from global terrorism has increased over the last decade. In particular, it has become apparent that certain organizations may wish to seek injury or death to unprotected civilians through the deliberate release of hazardous substances such as chemical warfare agents or toxic industrial chemicals. Indeed, such events have already occurred, most notably during the

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Medium 9781780644394

23 The Role of Pharmacists in Antimicrobial Stewardship

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

23

The Role of Pharmacists in

Antimicrobial Stewardship

Haley J. Morrill,1,2* Monica Dorobisz,3 and Kerry L.

LaPlante1,2,4

1

Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island, US; 2University of

Rhode Island College of Pharmacy, Kingston, Rhode Island, US; 3Department of Pharmacy, Kent Hospital, Warwick, Rhode Island, US; 4Warren Alpert Medical

School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, US

Introduction

Antimicrobial stewardship cannot be described without the involvement of pharmacists. As antimicrobial stewardship inherently involves the appropriate selection, dosing, route of administration and duration of antimicrobial drug therapy, there is a direct link to the roles and responsibilities of the pharmacist.

In fact, hospital pharmacists have been involved in practices to improve antimicrobial use, such as recommending antimicrobial dose adjustments for organ dysfunction and managing antimicrobial formularies, long before any formal recommendations for antimicrobial stewardship existed. These types of achievements have placed pharmacists in the forefront of antimicrobial stewardship. Pharmacists’ knowledge of pharmacotherapy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, influence over antimicrobial use, and established membership on multidisciplinary committees puts them in a unique position of influence (ASHP, 2010a,b).

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