1005 Chapters
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Medium 9781855758988

7: Assessment for therapy

Peter Blake Karnac Books ePub

The role of assessment for the child therapist includes trying to understand the psychodynamics of a child, and applying this understanding in consultation with parents and other professionals. One of the more specific questions asked is whether this child should be offered analytic therapy. Klein felt that every child could benefit from psychoanalysis, the so-called prophylactic analysis, but the modern realities of time and money mean that some discrimination is necessary to determine who would benefit most. Decades of analytic child work have resulted in a greater sophistication of thought. We would now question the idea that every child could benefit from analytic therapy, and question whether ‘standard’ analytic therapy could actually harm a child. I am referring to an interpretative approach in which direct interpretation can shatter the child's or adolescent's fragile sense of self (Spiegel 1989).

If not all children are to be offered therapy, which children are suitable for this form of intervention? One way to approach this decision is to consider three basic questions:

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Medium 9781780490045

4. Lost boys: aspects of projective identification, countertransference, and enactment with three boys

Gillian Miles Karnac Books ePub

Jane Cassidy

As a child psychotherapist, I took part in the Childhood Depression Project over a period of three years and worked with three different young people. All were boys, all were living with their lone mothers, and the mothers were struggling with their own serious issues, alongside their real concern for their children. The children/young people were all very depressed, in and out of school, and were often isolated at home.

Although the Project was primarily a comparative one of individual psychotherapy and family therapy, it highlighted several specific areas for me personally. These were, that:

»  time-limited psychotherapy is effective

»  parental and childhood depression is often enmeshed and is muddled with transgenerational aspects

»  the recognition of countertransference and projective identification are important, as a means both of communication and of understanding the internal world

»  tape recording of psychotherapy sessions can be extremely useful, both for the therapist as a method of increasing self-awareness and as an additional tool in understanding a child’s way of relating

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Medium 9781786394583

The Effect of Paw Preference on Problem-solving Ability in Cats: Preliminary Results

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

The Effect of Paw Preference on

Problem-solving Ability in Cats:

Preliminary Results

Sevim Isparta1*, Yasemin Salgirli Demirbas2 and Gonçalo

Da Graça Pereira3

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University,

Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,

Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey; 3Centro para o Conhecimento Animal,

Algés, Portugal


Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: cat, paw preference, problem solving, laterality


Many authors have suggested that behavioural lateralisation increases neural capacity to carry out simultaneous processing (Vallortigara and Rogers, 2005).

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between strength of paw preference and problem-solving ability in domestic cats.

Materials and Methods

Fourteen cats were tested in a kennel environment, at a cattery. Informed consents were obtained from the cat owners prior the study. A cat toy on a wand was presented to each cat to determine the paw preference. A problem-solving test, which included three different steps (T1, T2, T3), was administered to each cat.

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 2 Play

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 2


Although the frequency of play activity decreases with age, it is an activity that is just as important for adult cats as it is for kittens. Insufficient opportunity for play can lead to behaviour problems such as aggression related to frustration and stress.

Cats and kittens engage in two types of play.

Social Play

This is play with another cat or kitten, or sometimes with another animal with which the cat has become well socialized. The following behaviours are a normal part of social play:

Stand-over and belly up: One cat or kitten lies on its back and ‘fights’ with another cat that stands over it. Claws remain retracted and bites are gentle and inhibited.

Pounce: The cat or kitten crouches and then pounces on or towards another cat or kitten. May be used to initiate play.

Chase: Running after or away from another cat or kitten.

Face-off: Sits near another cat or kitten and bats or swipes at it with retracted claws.

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Medium 9781780646824

11: Man’s Best Friend?

Webber, R. CABI PDF

Man’s Best Friend?



The dog probably domesticated itself, realizing that there were benefits in hanging around human settlements where there would have been odd scraps of food, and particularly bones, that it could eat. As men went off on hunting parties they were probably trailed by wolves, which in time they found could be useful in assisting the hunt, and by barking to warn of danger back in the home. Gradually, this association became accepted, and wolves were welcomed into the settlement and actively fed. This probably occurred some 14,000 to 12,000 years ago, meaning that members of the dog family are man’s oldest domesticated animal.

This long association has allowed humans plenty of time to contract the diseases of dogs or for them to serve as reservoirs of an intermediate infection, as can be seen in Table 11.1. After humans, no other animal poses such a risk in the number and kind of disease that it can transmit to us.

Some of these have already been mentioned, such as plague, typhus, Chagas’ disease and schistosomiasis in which the dog plays an indirect part, but of more direct involvement are rabies, hydatid disease and toxacariasis.

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Medium 9780253010544

6 Staking a Claim as Normal through Work and Relationships with Men

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

Stigmatization Appears to be a major barrier for women to overcome in order to disclose their HIV status. While stigmatization is a critical factor for everyone living with HIV, the force of stigmatization may be intensified in specific ways for women, since they must make their way through the multiple layers of challenges of particularly gendered forms of HIV stigmatization. Gendered HIV stigma may be internalized, causing psychological pain, or it may manifest itself in more concrete ways, such as preventing women from working or going to school and thus making them feel they are not valued members of society and unable to realize their full potential as human beings. Nevertheless, women find ways of shielding or “disguising” themselves from the full force of gendered HIV stigma and othering that takes place in their lives. One way women respond is to find ways to normalize themselves. Discourses about men and about work emerged in our interviews as normalizing processes to counter stigma.

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Medium 9781780644394

33 Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Intensive Care Unit

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF


Antimicrobial Stewardship in the

Intensive Care Unit

Mahlet Tadele1,2, Hugh G. Boothe,2 Melvin E. Stone

Jr.,1,2 and John McNelis1,2*


Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx New York, US; 2Jacobi Medical

Center, Bronx, New York, US


In the past two decades there has been an alarming rise in both the rate of hospital-acquired resistant pathogens to commonly prescribed antibiotics and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms

(MDROs) in the community (Roberts et al., 2009).

This rise has been attributed to a significant increase in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, often inappropriately. Examples of inappropriate use include use of the wrong antibiotic, prolonged use of certain antibiotics beyond the recommended duration of therapy, treating viral syndromes and colonization with antibiotics, and using the wrong dosage and treating very susceptible bacteria with broad-spectrum antibiotics. The above examples, coupled with the decline in development of newer antibiotic agents, have made the judicial use of antibiotics critical. Indeed, the Infectious Diseases

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Medium 9781930538757

3 Getting Started: Finding Ideas for Research

Christine Hedges Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. Let your journey begin.”

–Chinese philosopher Lao-tzu

Marianne Chulay


• Your own clinical experience is a good place to start for research ideas.

• Myriad other resources can help you find a good research idea.

• Good potential research questions have important characteristics that you should adhere to when devising your question.

• A formal rating process will help you to objectively evaluate your potential research study.

After you have a strong supportive research infrastructure in place, you can begin to think about topics for research studies. The first step in the research journey is to identify a topic for a research study. Of all the steps in the research process, none could be more important than finding a good research idea that can lead to a potential research question. If you rush through this beginning step without making sure you select a research question appropriate to your practice situation that is feasible for conduct by clinicians and important to patient care, you could go down a path that will make completion of your research journey difficult or impossible.

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Medium 9781607320739

CHAPTER NINE Research and Caring

Jan J. Nyberg University Press of Colorado ePub

This chapter will address the topic of research in general and specifically as it relates to caring. The chapter will not be exhaustive of the material available on research—that would take another whole book, but it will discuss the two major types of research and then see how those methods have been used in research in general, nursing administration research, and research on caring.

Nursing research, according to Cronin (1993), is the pursuit of scientifically based knowledge on which the practice of nursing can be based. Hinshaw (1989) reminds us of the complexity of phenomena in nursing practice. Most of the questions that are raised are multivariate and often involve several levels of the health care system. That is, most nursing care outcomes are partially the result of care by others (such as doctors, physical therapists, and others), so it is difficult to study patient care problems and specify exactly what the results of nursing care are. Hinshaw says that questions to be considered when setting research priorities are: 1. how do the discipline’s priorities fit within the major health needs of society? 2. how can research priorities be identified and operationalized professionally and organizationally while allowing for scientific creativity and guidance of the discipline’s body? and 3. because of the number of high-priority areas of study, how can the major questions in each area be identified while still allowing the addition of new priorities as society and nursing change?

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Medium 9781855755161

3 Contributions by other psychoanalysts and psychiatrists to the subject of skin and psychoanalysis

Jorge Ulnik Karnac Books ePub

As has been seen in the work of Freud, allusions to the skin within psychoanalytic theory are manifold, and there are also several authors who have written about this subject within post-Freudian psychoanalysis. In addition, the skin is usually an “entrance door” for all those who become involved in psychosomatic problems, and when it is time to offer clinical examples, eczema (Schur, 1955; Pichon-Riviere, 1971), psoriasis (Korovsky, 1978), hives (McDougall, 1989) and other dermatoses are usually included. To mention all the authors would be an enormous task which is beyond the scope of this work. In consequence, I shall make reference to some authors whose ideas will be mentioned or discussed in the remaining chapters of this book, or to those authors who have developed subjects the intrinsic importance of which justifies their inclusion.

In “La piel como órgano de expresión” [The skin as an organ of expression] (1978), Roberto Fernández makes reference to Freud and to other psychoanalytical authors, and takes interesting contributions from biology in order to enrich his own theory. For example, he mentions Portmann, a scholar of nature, who emphasizes the purely ornamental value of certain forms of life beyond the mere functions of conservation, comparing the skin to clothes, where the protective effect is not everything; rather, it is accompanied by the striking trait of the model.

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Medium 9781591203193

21. The Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Issue

Mary T. Newport Basic Health Publications, Inc. ePub


n general, it is a good idea to discuss any significant change such as adding coconut oil to the diet with your physician to make sure there are no contraindications. I hope that physicians everywhere will become aware of the potential for medium-chain fatty acids to help in certain conditions and will get past the misconception that coconut oil is an unhealthy fat.

Prior to making the effort to learn as much as possible about coconut oil, I saw it in natural food stores and wondered why it was on the shelf. Like many other people, including physicians, I was told somewhere along the way that coconut oil is an artery-clogging fat. How the theory (called the lipid hypothesis) that a diet high in fat and cholesterol increases the risk of death from heart disease came about is the subject of an article written by biochemist and internationally renowned authority on fats Mary Enig, Ph.D., titled The Oiling of America. Her article recounts how the edible oil industry engineered the dietary change that took place during twentieth-century America from natural oils like butter, lard, and coconut oil to mostly highly processed vegetable oils. Even though there were many contradictory studies, saturated fats came to be considered harmful and polyunsaturated fats healthy.

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Medium 9781780643960

17: Tuberculosis in Pigs and Wild Boar

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF


Tuberculosis in Pigs and Wild Boar

Christian Gortázar,1* Joaquín Vicente,1 José de la Fuente,1

Graham Nugent2 and Pauline Nol3


SaBio-IREC, Ciudad Real, Spain; 2LandCare Research, Lincoln,

New Zealand; 3USDA-APHIS-VS-Wildlife Livestock Disease

Investigations Team, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA


The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a native wild suid with an ancestral range reaching from the Far East to Western Europe and northern Africa. It is the ancestor of the domestic pig.

Maintenance of backyard and semi-free-ranging domestic pigs, along with escapes and releases of pigs, wild boar or their crossbreds, have resulted in an almost global distribution of the different forms of S. scrofa.

Wild boar and pigs are mostly herbivores obtaining their food often by rooting the ground.

They also consume invertebrates such as insects and earthworms, as well as small mammals and birds, or carrion if it is available. Wild boar and feral pig densities can easily reach values of over ten individuals per square kilometre. However, true densities are difficult to assess and most monitoring is based on cull or hunting harvest data. These data indicate increasing populations throughout the ancestral range, as well as in areas with introductions.

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Medium 9781780644479

10: Microencapsulation for Controlled Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and Prebiotics

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF


Microencapsulation for Controlled

Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotics and


Preeti Panthari1,* and Harsha Kharkwal2

Amity Institute of Phytochemistry and Phytomedicine, Amity University, Noida, India;


Amity Center for Carbohydrate Research and Amity Institute of Phytomedicine and

Phytochemistry, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India



Microencapsulation of bioactive compounds (such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 lipids and probiotics) has been increasingly studied extensively due to interest in nutraceutical components and functional foods. The main objective of this technique is to protect the bioactive compounds from diminished functionality due to environmental conditions such as oxygen, pH, humidity, light or temperature. Among the different microencapsulation processes, spray drying produces a final powder product with good-quality properties for distribution, transportation and storage. In this regard, a wide variety of encapsulation agents have been studied for increasing the viability of the bioactive compounds and to promote an additional functionality in the final product as well, such as prebiotics. Prebiotics are soluble carbohydrates that humans are unable to digest, which selectively enhance Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth (microorganisms commonly present in the human gut). Some examples include inulin, fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides) and galacto-saccharides. In addition, several microorganisms (probiotics) have demonstrated beneficial effects in humans, and these have been attributed to lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid production, as well as to a reduction in the pH of the colon, which causes a decrease in the survival of pathogenic bacteria. This chapter considers the enhanced efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics through microencapsulation in addressing gastrointestinal diseases.

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16 Funding Your Study

Christine Hedges Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Money, by itself, does not make good research. Good researchers do that.”

–Lawrence Locke, Waneen Spirduso, and Stephen Silverman

Claudia DiSabatino Smith


• Before you seek funding, take the time to estimate your actual costs; do not underestimate and do not overestimate.

• After estimating your study costs, create a formal study budget that matches your potential funder’s guidelines.

• For nurses who develop strong research studies, many sources of public and private funding are available.

After you have developed a solid, feasible research study, it is time to consider how the proposed study will be funded. Most contemporary hospitals and/or clinical agencies do not include money for nursing research studies in their annual operating budgets. Therefore, it is important for you and your research team to spend time designing a study that is not only feasible for you to conduct in your setting, but one that is financially feasible. This chapter explains how to estimate costs associated with conducting your study and how to develop an effective budget to cover those costs. It also suggests where to look for available money and provides tips for increasing your success in securing the funding. Some basic principles of grantsmanship will be presented, along with a list of possible research funding sources.

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Medium 9781607320739

CHAPTER ELEVEN The Organization and Practice of Nursing

Jan J. Nyberg University Press of Colorado ePub

This chapter will examine the practice and organization of nursing. It covers Benner’s (1984) taxonomy of nurse practice, and some considerations of how to organize the health care system so as to enhance caring nursing practice.

Watson (1990) wrote about the failure of the patriarchy. She says that it is time to look at structural problems in the health care system to create environments where caring, healing, and the health work of nurses can exist. In the past, the work of women and nurses has been invisible, but a new paradigm is arising where caring and women’s work can be identified and appreciated. The current model for health care and for our society has been the patriarchy, which elevates men and logic as primary forces. Watson asks if caring is something to fear because it can threaten human power, oppose control and domination, and make one vulnerable to human dilemmas, reminding us that we are all equally human and in need of caring. “The basis of the present condition of health care policy, politics, and practice and our present lack of caring consciousness and wider vision, are the results of a failure of our morality which demands a revolution of consciousness” (p. 63). Watson wants to see a movement away from the failed patriarchy toward a caring morality. Where the patriarchy was linear and pitted person against person and nation against nation, caring can contribute to the health and healing of individuals and nations. She notes that, if we constantly have to justify and defend our caring (as we often do in health care), it hardens our compassion and represses our emotions. If caring is to be sustained, those who care must be strong and courageous. The current morality that guides our health care policy is out of touch with the astonishing theoretical, philosophical, and scientific thinking that is transforming a new view of reality described repeatedly in this book. Watson asks, “Could it be that nursing’s ‘Invisible’ caring is ‘shadow matter’ that fills in the void, offers a counterpoint for the chaotic forces in the universe?” (p. 65). She sees nursing as having a great responsibility in introducing the new paradigm, which is undergirded by caring. The struggle is on between those who would leave the force of logic and power in charge, and the forces in our society who are ready to receive and participate in a caring paradigm. Nursing’s responsibility is awesome—in patient care and also in creating a new society—and the nurses who will lead this movement are nursing administrators who have embraced the values of caring and will bravely move the philosophy of caring into the dominant place in health care systems and in society. Caring cannot be our own little secret that we practice when no one is watching, it must be our proud service of everyday life.

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