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Medium 9781937554712

9 Be the Best Nurse Candidate Ever

Lisa Mauri Thomas Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

As we let our light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence actually liberates others.

–Marianne Williamson

The economy continues to swing back and forth like a pendulum between recession and growth, between austerity and prosperity, as we move between bearish and bullish financial markets. Though you cannot change the direction of the pendulum swing, you can understand where it is now and where it’s headed. You can arm yourself with knowledge around best steps to take and ways to either protect yourself or take advantage of the situation, because the pendulum swing directly impacts employment and hiring practices.

You have likely heard the phrase that it is “easier to find a job when you already have a job.” Reasons are three-fold: Your current income keeps you from feeling desperate to find something/anything else, you can be more selective and only accept offers that are truly in your best interest, and you are more desirable as a candidate. Yes, more desirable by other employers. Many employers consider their prime (or only) candidate pool to be comprised of those who are already working in their field. It is believed that the skill sets of those workers are more current, and it is assumed that those who are unemployed will have more problems or emotional baggage. It is harsh, but true.

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Medium 9781780643328

3 Chronic Non-communicable Diseases and Infectious Diseases

Aikins, A.de-C. CABI PDF

3

Chronic Non-communicable

Diseases and Infectious

Diseases

TOLU ONI1* AND NIGEL UNWIN2

1University

of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2University of the West

Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados

3.1 Introduction

The concept of the epidemiological transition was introduced by Omran [1] to capture interrelated changes in demography, disease patterns and economic development. Omran described how, with economic development, death rates from infectious diseases tend to fall, especially in infants and children, fertility declines, the population starts to age and chronic non-communicable diseases

(NCDs) become the predominant health problems. In the classic epidemiological transition paradigm, as occurred for example in western Europe, this process took place over two to three centuries and was associated with the agricultural and industrial revolutions. In today’s globalized world, however, many poorer countries are undergoing rapid changes that are associated with continuing high levels of certain infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis and malaria, while concomitantly developing high rates of NCDs. For example, rapid urbanization, mechanization of the rural economy and the increasing activities of transnational food, drink and tobacco corporations are all associated with behavioural changes that increase the risk of NCDs.

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Medium 9781780647876

6: Recommendations for Thermography Application

Soroko, M. CABI PDF

6

Recommendations for

Thermography Application

In summary, the use of thermography may prove particularly useful for the following:

• Diagnosis of limb injuries: abscesses, laminitis, navicular bone syndrome, tendon and ligament inflammation, and stifle, carpal and tarsal joint inflammation.

• Diagnosis of back injuries: spinous process inflammation, supraspinal and interspinal ligament inflammation and intervertebral inflammation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae, back muscle inflammation and sacroiliac joint injury.

• Diagnosis of neurological disease.

• Detection of subclinical inflammation, allowing protection of the horse from serious injury or extended healing times.

• Monitoring of treatment, in particular anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness, informing managers and thus ensuring adequate time is allowed for full

­recovery.

• Monitoring the impact of training, in particular the impact of exercise overload, horse adaptation to training overload and evaluation of proper muscle balance.

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Medium 9780433308829

CHAPTER ELEVEN. Notes on the psychotherapy of infantile autism

Michael Fordham Karnac Books ePub

There are a number of defined ways of treating autism. The children may be removed from home either as an emergency operation or as part of a treatment strategy (cf. Goldfarb, 1961, Bettelheim, 1967). In an institution the environment may be used by adults in varying ways. The one relevant to this discussion aims to let the children regress with the idea that they will, in the course of time, reach the source of their traumata and relive in a more healthy and normal way the earlier situations that caused the disorder.

Bettelheim (1967) has conducted the most thorough long-term project of treating autistic children away from home. By providing consistent and skilful management over years he obtained improvements that appear to be greater than would be expected without the treatment. His study is the most encouraging so far conducted.

The need for special care, so well documented by him, has been supplemented by Winnicott’s demonstration that a psychotic child’s mother could provide it; he also uncovered splitting processes in a therapeutic consultation with favourable results, which the family could build upon.

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Medium 9780253014429

4 Medicine with a Mission: Chinese Roots and Foreign Engagement in Health Philanthropy

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Zhang Xiulan and Zhang Lu

THE EARLIEST SUSTAINED foreign philanthropic involvement in China came from a wide array of church-sponsored philanthropies. Although such philanthropies are no longer prominent in China, their legacy has been considerable. Drawing on a range of archival sources, this chapter first briefly sketches the Chinese charitable landscape in which Western church-sponsored initiatives arrived. It then provides examples of the wide variety of projects that developed, considering both how these ventures were funded and their relationship with the state. Finally, it considers their legacy: paving the way for other foreign philanthropic engagement, establishing medical institutions that continue to thrive today (although they are no longer linked to their original church heritage), and, most significantly, acting as an initial point of contact for Western and Chinese health care practices, influencing medical education and management models that have carried through to the present day.

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Medium 9781938835155

8 for coworkers, managers, and monitors

Karolyn Crowley Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

IN THIS CHAPTER:

Bringing Professional Substance Abuse Out of the Shadows

Roles and Responsibilities for Managers and Coworkers

Potential Signs of Substance Abuse

Hiring

Work-Site Monitoring

Confronting a Nurse With Substance Use Infractions

Best Practices and Communication

When it comes to addressing substance use disorder (SUD) issues, some medical professionals will respond with understanding and support for treatment, while others will react from prejudice and insufficient education. It’s ironic that well-educated, scientifically minded, and research-based professionals are relatively new to the recognition, education, and treatment of colleagues with SUDs. It just goes to show that it is one thing to intellectually agree with something (like the DSM V) and quite another to effect systemic behavioral changes. Fortunately, there is power in knowledge. And for those reading this book, your knowledge will help power the change toward healthier responses to colleagues who are suffering from substance use disorder.

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Medium 9781786391520

5 Mycobacterium bovis Molecular Typing and Surveillance

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

5 

Mycobacterium bovis Molecular

Typing and Surveillance

Robin A. Skuce,1,2,* Andrew W. Byrne,1,2 Angela Lahuerta-Marin1 and Adrian Allen1

1Veterinary

Sciences Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast, UK; of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, UK

2School

5.1  Bovine Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium bovis is a highly ‘successful’ pathogen with a worldwide distribution (Bezos et al., 2014). In several countries, bovine tuberculosis (TB) remains a major and costly infectious disease of cattle and other domesticated, feral and wild animals (Pollock and Neill, 2002;

Mathews et al., 2006; Carslake et al., 2011). It is considered the most complex and costly multispecies endemic disease currently facing the

­government, veterinary profession and farming industry in the UK and Ireland at least (­Reynolds,

2006; Sheridan, 2011), where it impacts negatively on-farm profitability, trade and the welfare of affected farming families. It can also decimate years of livestock genetic improvement.

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Medium 9780253006455

17 The Identification and Role of Sex-Determining Genes

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

Life can be resilient and vulnerable at the same time. We rejoice at stories of Olympic medalists who overcome severe injury or a childhood marked with tragedy. At the same time, nature can dish out genetic disorders resulting in births incompatible with life—severely limiting in organ function or leaving an adult with chronic illness. What makes life so vulnerable is the nature of genetic material. Something as simple as altering or removing one nucleotide pair out of some three billion present in a sperm or an egg can result in one of those debilitating or lethal genetic conditions. That doesn’t happen if one pulls a single brick out of a multistoried building. It won’t collapse no matter where that brick is removed. If the gene happens to involve the sex-determining programs in the embryo, the results can be quite dramatic.

The sex-determining genes can be found on the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. This is no surprise, because many organ systems are involved in sex pathologies. They can result from abnormalities of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, the adrenal cortex, the gonads, or those embryonic structures that will form the internal and external genitalia. A major gene involved in male sex determination is the SRY gene. It is on the Y chromosome and located at Yp11.3, i.e., on the short or p arm of the Y chromosome at band region 11.3 (Figure 17.1). Andrew H. Sinclair found the SRY gene while he was working with Peter Goodfellow’s laboratory at Cambridge University in 1990.1 Prior to that, in 1987, David C. Page believed that what was called the “testes determining factor” (TDF) was a zinc finger gene in a different region.2 The TDF was known to be Y-associated from cytological studies of certain partial or complete sex reversals. Thus, a baby with X isoYp sex chromosomes has a duplication of the p arm. Such an individual is a male and sterile, because the q arm of the Y provides the genes associated with spermatogenesis, but otherwise functional. But a baby with X isoYq has a duplication of the q of the Y chromosome and an intact X chromosome and is missing the short arm of the Y chromosome. Because such babies are born as females with no testes, that is where the testes determining factor has to be located. The gonads of such babies are streaks, like those of babies with Turner syndrome. They also show other symptoms similar to those associated with Turner syndrome, suggesting that some growth factor is associated with the Yp region.

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Medium 9781855759800

CHAPTER SIX. Final reflections

Silvia Elena Tendlarz Karnac Books ePub

The title of this book stressed our particular interest in the problem of psychosis, but this did not mean, however, that other disorders produced by suffering were ignored. We studied the modalities of neurosis, mental deficiency, the anorexic disorders, depressive states, and the incidence of the desire of the Other in the appearance of anxiety. The question of the direction of treatment was particularly emphasized in the study of psychosis, a key to the study of clinical cases.

Rather than concluding, I would like to leave open exactly those questions that clinical work forces us to pose. The treatment of children with a clear psychotic symptomology faces the same difficulties as treatment of psychotic adults: the management of the transference and the position of the analyst, the type of intervention, and the orientation of treatment towards a delusional contouring or towards the creation of a stabilizing suppleance.

We established that infantile autism is a form of psychosis and is not the same as what will eventually be seen as deficiency or backwardness. However, it is an open question as to why some children respond well to treatment and others do not, and why others maintain the suppleance constructed in their analysis, whilst with others these easily collapse.

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Medium 9781780643960

19: Tuberculosis in Wild and Captive Deer

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

19 

Tuberculosis in Wild and

Captive Deer

Mitchell V. Palmer,1* Daniel J. O’Brien,2 J. Frank Griffin,3

Graham Nugent,4 Geoffrey W. de Lisle,5 Alastair Ward6 and Richard J. Delahay6

1

National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa; 2Michigan Department of Natural

Resources, Lansing, Michigan; 3University of Otago, Dunedin,New Zealand;

4

Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand; 5National Centre for

Biosecurity and Infectious Disease, Upper Hutt, New Zealand; 6Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK

Introduction

Bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium are Gram-­ positive, acid-fast organisms that include several major human and animal pathogens.

Although human tuberculosis is generally caused by M. tuberculosis, indistinguishable clinical signs and disease can be caused by

M. bovis. The range of susceptible hosts to

M. bovis is extremely broad and includes humans, cattle, swine, carnivores and deer.

Deer have played an important role in human history. Excavations of early prehistoric sites in Europe indicate that both deer and wild boar (Sus scrofa) were important sources of meat for early humans. Red deer

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Medium 9781855757288

Appendix D

Dorothy Heard Karnac Books ePub

1 How avoidant was he? (information strands 1 and 3)

How much did this lessen/decrease or remain unchanged in the course of the session?

2 How much does the client approach the assessor in terms of the body language used and degree of initiative taken to converse? (information strands 1 and 3)

How much did this vary in the course of the session?

3  How mixed were the two styles and was one or other linked to any particular topic?

4  What levels of emotion were shown, what kind of emotion and about what topic or circumstance? (information strands 1 and 3)

5  In what manner did the client relate to the assessor - warmly, defensively, on guard or compliantly?

1  How intelligent did the client appear to be?

2  How incomplete was the information given by the client and what was his earliest memories? (information strand 3)

3  How coherent and how organised was the presentation of information? If there was incoherence, how closely was this linked to a particular topic? (information strand 3)

4  How much evidence did the client give of being able to think of themselves and others using metacognitive skills?

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Medium 9781780642994

11 Guyana’s Hinterland Community-based School Feeding Program (SFP)

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF

11

Guyana’s Hinterland Community-based

School Feeding Program (SFP)

Suraiya J. Ismail,1* Edward A. Jarvis2 and Christian Borja-Vega3

Social Development Inc, Georgetown, Guyana; 2Ministry of Education,

Georgetown, Guyana; 3The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA

1

Summary

Four of Guyana’s ten administrative regions are inhabited largely by its indigenous peoples, the

Amerindians, often in remote communities where poverty and food insecurity are common and access to basic services is limited. Food supplies come from subsistence agriculture, hunting, fishing and costly imports from coastal regions. The diet lacks diversity, chronic undernutrition levels are high and school attendance is poor. In 2006, the Ministry of Education established the Hinterland Community-based

School Feeding Program (SFP), whose objectives include raising community participation in schools, increasing student attendance and academic performance, and improving the nutrition of primary schoolchildren. The impact evaluation of the SFP (2007–2009) covered 20 intervention schools and 44 control schools. Stunting rose by 3% in the control group but fell by 3% in the intervention group. The SFP increased attendance by 4.3%. Participation in learning activities improved in intervention schools but declined in control schools. Children in intervention schools performed better in national academic assessment tests. The SFP conferred the greatest benefit on children who had the poorest nutritional status at baseline. Parents participated fully in food production and meal delivery activities. Households benefited through increased employment and a more varied food supply. The SFP also contributed to preserving food security through a period of food price volatility, has a low cost per child relative to other programmes and has reduced dependence on imports. Outstanding challenges include increasing access to agricultural inputs and safe water, and reaching the most remote communities. Preliminary discussions indicate that communities are keen to continue the SFP, and can suggest ways to reduce the cost to the Ministry.

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Medium 9781855758988

1: The analytic legacy

Peter Blake Karnac Books ePub

WHY HISTORY?

Rosa, a 17-year-old girl, has just thrown a brick through the window of a church. This is next to the clinic she attends for weekly psychotherapy.

Anne, her therapist, hears the breaking glass and rushes out of the clinic to see Rosa and a small group of girls running away. In this scene it is hard to see how Anne knowing about the history of psychoanalytic work with children could be of any relevance to helping her work with Rosa, yet it is. Anne must recover from the shock of this incident and begin to think about why Rosa is doing this. This thinking is crucial in determining what she will do. But she is not alone in this process. She has the benefit of over one hundred years of thinking and clinical experience of great minds to help her understand what may be going on for Rosa. The conceptual and technical tools used by current child therapists are the legacy of previous generations of therapists, who have shared their thoughts in publications and supervision. To understand, and more importantly, to challenge these historical wisdoms, it is imperative to know how they evolved and in what context they were formed.

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Medium 9781786391520

8 Molecular Virulence Mechanisms of Mycobacterium bovis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

8 

Molecular Virulence Mechanisms of

Mycobacterium bovis

Alicia Smyth and Stephen V. Gordon*

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

8.1 Introduction

Infection with Mycobacterium bovis is an ongoing problem both to human and animal health, costing billions annually in economic losses

(Skuce et al., 2011; Muller et al., 2013). While eradication in some countries has met with success, infection of animals and humans with

M. bovis is still reported globally. Understanding the virulence mechanisms that allow M. bovis to survive in vivo, cause disease and transmit to new (and diverse) hosts will be key to the ultimate eradication of M. bovis infection.

M. bovis is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the grouping of genetically related mycobacterial species that cause tuberculosis in mammals (Frothingham et al., 1994; Smith et al., 2006). Theobald Smith was the first to demonstrate that the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle, and indeed other animal hosts, was not the same as the human bacillus, a finding that ultimately led to the description of the bovine-adapted species

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Medium 9781607320739

CHAPTER TEN Organizational Effectiveness and Quality Management

Jan J. Nyberg University Press of Colorado ePub

Organizations exist for a purpose. All organizations have goals that they try to meet. That means they must have a way to judge whether they are meeting their goals or not. That judgment can be termed organizational effectiveness or quality management. Some organizations have well- defined goals—making judgment of effectiveness easy—and some organizations seem to just run every day with no sense of purpose.

Organizational effectiveness can mean various things to different people, in the organization and outside of it. For example, employees may have the goal of organizational survival so they can keep working, while those coming into the organization as patients will feel that the organization is effective if they get well. Some measures of organizational effectiveness include:

In a health care organization, there are many interested people who may all have different goals. The doctors want a workshop that makes it easiest to care for their patients. The administrators want an organization that “runs well” and makes a profit. The board of directors want to make a profit, but may also be quite aware of the societal obligation. The community wants a place that is convenient and gives “good care.” The employees want good pay, a nice work environment, and the resources that allow them to do their best work. The suppliers want an organization that orders lots of expensive equipment and pays its bills on time. The payers (usually insurance companies) want good care, but they want it to be cheap—they would prefer to not have their clients in health care organizations at all. The government (who now pays about 40 percent of health care bills) wants an accredited organization that will accept their payment. Indeed, organizational effectiveness is at best an elusive concept, since all of these wants are legitimate. Also, in health care, there is no margin for error—we must do everything right the first time or our customers may have no ability to come back!

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