1185 Slices
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9780253014429

10 GONGOs in the Development of Health Philanthropy in China

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Deng Guosheng and Zhao Xiaoping

In China, the philanthropic and nonprofit sector is unique and distinctive. The nongovernmental organizational (NGO) landscape in China is largely divided into two groups—government-linked and independent NGOs—the latter of which ranges from grassroots to international organizations. The distinction between the two is based on whether government or civil society has started the organization and, thus, controls its governance and operations (Wang and Liu 2004). Government-organized nongovernmental organizations, or GONGOs, dominate China’s NGO and philanthropic landscape.

GONGOs are not unique to China and are found around the world, although they may be more prevalent in socialist countries transitioning to a market economy, like the former Soviet satellite states (Young 2004). Often, they are seen as “extended arms of the government” (Wu 2002) or considered in opposition to “legitimate civil society.” Among some groups, GONGOs may be viewed with suspicion as “nothing but agents of governments that created and funded them” (Moisés 2007). Yet nonsocialist countries also have government-linked bodies that are widely considered to be part of the nonprofit sector, such as the Japan Foundation, the British Council, the International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development in Canada, and the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) in the United States. These organizations were founded or encouraged by the government, receive government funding, and are usually legally registered as charitable organizations in their home countries.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781786390394

5 Discovery of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Using Combinatorial Chemistry and High-throughput Screening



Discovery of Novel Antimicrobial

Peptides Using Combinatorial Chemistry and High-throughput Screening

Charles G. Starr and William C. Wimley*

Department of Biochemistry SL43, Tulane University Health Sciences Center,

New Orleans LA, 70112-2699, USA


The field of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) research has now spanned 4 decades in which many hundreds of AMPs have been discovered, designed or engineered. Yet, despite a vast literature, obvious sequence– structure–function relationships are rare, creating a bottleneck in the discovery of novel AMPs. Instead of rigorous structure– function principles, AMP activity may be best addressed using the physical chemistry concept of ‘interfacial activity’, which does not currently allow for explicit prediction and engineering of AMP activity. In this chapter we address a way to circumvent this engineering bottleneck: combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening.

Combinatorial methods are first discussed from the perspective of library synthesis techniques for both indexed and nonindexed methods. This is followed by a discussion of available high-throughput

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780646824

1: The Sexual Revolution

Webber, R. CABI PDF

The Sexual Revolution


Origin of Life

The general consensus is that life originated in the oceans some 4 billion years before present from the heat and nutrients of hydrothermal vents.

Although the heat originated from volcanic processes and was intense, it was cooled by the surrounding ocean and a gradient of temperature was created that provided the ideal conditions for life to start. This first life was very simple, just a cell wall containing cytoplasm, and could quite easily have happened, as shown by Wagner in his book Arrival of the Fittest; it was termed a prokaryote.

All cell walls are made from amphiphilic lipids, which are so called because one end likes water and the other likes oils and not water. This property enables lipid molecules to be directionally arranged, a phenomenon that is seen if a thin film of oil is spread on to water, in which it naturally forms into globules, thereby separating the oily components from the water outside. This is thought to be how simple cell walls originated, to be subsequently improved upon by random mutations of their organic contents.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855754553

PART FIVE. On the stages of analysis

R. Horacio Etchegoyen Karnac Books ePub

In part 4 of this book we studied in some detail the nature of the analytic process. We began by distinguishing situation and process. We then reviewed the principal theories that try to explain it, with which we had to consider multiple and sometimes divergent—if not opposing— points of view.

Now we have a less complex task, on a lower theoretical level, which is nonetheless interesting, and it is to typify the stages of analysis. As we examine them, the reader will verify their practical importance, no less than the support the previous arduous study provides in their understanding.

To begin this chapter, we must pose a prior problem, and it is whether stages in analytic treatment really exist—because they may not exist. In fact, most writers think they do; I do not know whether some doubt this, but the discussion—however brief—is in any case pertinent. A stage in this context means that in the evolution of the psychoanalytic process there are characteristic, definite moments, different from the rest, with special dynamics that distinguish them.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855753600

7. Anticipations: initial interviews

Janine Sternberg Karnac Books ePub

Students were interviewed in groups, on the expectation that ideas would then be taken up and expanded by the members of the small group. Although direct questioning was likely to elicit only answers largely on a conscious level and there was a likelihood that these would be heavily influenced by what the training institutions’ explicit expectations were, it was thought that in a fairly unstructured free-ranging discussion it would be possible to notice underlying assumptions and, through the use of grounded theory (Atkinson & Coffey, 1996; Strauss & Corbin, 1998; Taylor & Bogdan, 1998), to extrapolate themes that would go beyond the supposedly “correct answers”. Each group was asked two questions: (1) “What do you expect to learn from undertaking an infant observation that might be relevant to you as future clinicians in training?” (2) “Was the fact that the course that you’re on has an observation component something that attracted you to the course, or not?”

Each meeting lasted approximately one hour and was taped and the tapes transcribed. Each statement in turn was then examined in light of grounded theory, and the many complex issues I thought it contained extracted from it. These issues were grouped in clusters (as described in chapter 6). Some aspects did not fit within that framework, and these were noted.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855758094

CHAPTER ONE: Historical foundations

W.M. Bernstein Karnac Books ePub

Freud, a neurologist, began his work at the end of the 19th century. He predicted accurately that technologies to study the biology of brain processes would not be developed for a hundred years (Kandel, 2006). In the meantime, he devised a psychological model of mental structures and processes. Psychoanalysis understands the mind's tasks as aiding biological survival and reproduction. Freud described how instinctual, biological drives for security and sex become transformed in the course of living in a social environment. For example, the human infant's hunger drive is enacted by shameless eating. Later, sucking, grabbing, and gurgling are supplanted by more civilized eating behaviours such as using utensils and “table manners”.

Freud's most general theoretical constructs were presented in “Beyond the pleasure principle” (1920). He made a distinction between two basic mental arrangements: the pleasure principle and the repetition compulsion. Simply enough, the pleasure principle states that we are motivated to behave in ways that produce pleasurable feelings and thoughts. I assume in the psychoanalytic tradition that feelings of pleasure and pain are always involved, at various levels of consciousness, as both causes and effects of thoughts and behaviours.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780433308829

CHAPTER FOUR. Individuation

Michael Fordham Karnac Books ePub

In Psychological types Jung defines individuation as follows :— ‘It is the development of the psychological individual as a differentiated being from the general, collective psychology. Individuation, therefore, is a process of differentiation, having for its goal the development of the individual personality’ and he adds later on: ‘Individuation is practically the same as the development of consciousness out of the original state of identity which is ‘ … the original non-differentiation between subject and object…’. This state is characteristic of primitive mentality for it is the ‘real foundation of participation mystique … of the unconscious state of the civilized adult and of … the mental state of early infancy …’. In addition he asserts that ‘Identity with the parents provides the basis for subsequent identification with them; on it also depends the possibility of projection and introjection.’ (1921, p. 441). It is the differentiation of the individual personality out of the state of ‘identity’ that I select as being the core of the definition. I shall show how the basis of it is completed by the age of two. Before doing so, however, I want to note that when Jung includes ‘general, collective psychology’ in his definition he is referring to the social and religious life of the community constructed by adults. Its equivalent in infancy is the mother.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780642994

24 The Role of the Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP) of FAO in Supporting Crop Diversification for Sustainable Diets and Nutrition

Thompson, B., Amoroso, L. CABI PDF


The Role of the Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP) of FAO in

Supporting Crop Diversification for

Sustainable Diets and Nutrition

Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP),*† Agriculture and

Consumer Protection Department (AG)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy


FAO’s Plant Production and Protection Division (AGP) works to strengthen global food security by promoting sustainable crop production intensification (SCPI), which aims at producing more from an area of land while at the same time conserving resources, reducing negative impacts on the environment and enhancing natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services. The basic concept is the integration and harmonization of appropriate crop production practices, technologies and policies in order to increase crop productivity in a sustainable manner, thereby meeting the key Millennium

Development Goals of reducing hunger and preserving natural resources and the environment for future generations. AGP also supports crop diversification for sustainable diets, nutritional health and income generation, and supports the global food economy through the implementation of international treaties. The focus of AGP’s activities is to enhance and strengthen: (i) effective and strategic decisions that increase crop production using an ecosystem approach and nutrition-sensitive crop diversification; (ii) national capacities to monitor and to respond effectively to transboundary and other important outbreak pests; (iii) policies and technologies appropriate to needs of members to reduce negative impact of pesticides; and (iv) conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources with strong linkages between conservation, plant breeding and seed sector development.

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253355270

3 Making Tanzanian Traditional Medicine

Stacey A. Langwick Indiana University Press ePub

In 1968, a research officer in the Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Development attended the first Symposium on African Medicinal Plants, which was held in Senegal. Upon his return, he claimed for scientists the role of transforming “the old or indigenous ways of curing diseases” into “new” forms of modern treatment (see first epigraph to Part 1). His argument for transforming “primitive medicaments” through scientific investigation reflected the broader recommendations crafted during this gathering of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) member states (Kasembe 1968). The symposium marked a shift in emphasis from the colonial prohibition against some healing practices to the funding, research, and legalization of traditional medicine in postcolonial Africa.

The ontological implications of the colonial separation of belief and knowledge, spirit and substance, and harming and healing have structured the postcolonial search for the scientific truth of traditional medicine. The newly independent Tanzanian government focused its attention on the commodification of plant, animal, and mineral products that might enable Africa to better position itself in a variety of global relationships. The idea that science might convert plant, animal, and mineral products into desperately needed pharmaceuticals found purchase in the highest levels of the first post-independence administration, led by Julius Nyerere. Stocking the new network of clinics and dispensaries that comprised the fledgling national health care service with pharmaceutical drugs ate up a significant proportion of the nation’s hard currency reserves. Tanzanian leaders hoped that scientific research into medicinal plants would offer a solution to the economic challenges cash-strapped African countries faced. By recasting plant material as a resource for an indigenous pharmaceutical industry, traditional medicine held out the promise of greater economic independence.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855755727

CHAPTER FIVE: The history of murder

Ronald Doctor Karnac Books ePub

Ronald Doctor

The story of the crime of murder is nearly always a cover-up, an attack on history and its meaning. Hyatt-Williams (1998) gives us the concept of the “death constellation”—the many-faceted situation from which murder is generated. This is like an iceberg—only a small portion is visible.

In most cases murder occurs concretely only after it has been committed many times previously in daydreams, nightmares, and sometimes in unconscious fantasy that has never become conscious. Before the deed, conscious efforts—sometimes unconscious ones too, both sado-masochistic and psychotic—are designed and devoted to keeping the impulse to murder encapsulated in order to prevent action. Then a sudden reversal takes place internally which breaks the murderousness loose from its cordoned-off status, and the energies of the individual become devoted to enacting the murderous deed. The death constellation always includes a psychically traumatic and indigestible experience to do with loss and death.

See All Chapters
Medium 9781937554873

8 Leadership: A Matter of “Refereed” Experience

Christopher Lance Coleman Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

Franklin Shaffer, EdD, RN, FAAN
CEO, CGFNS International

When we look for good art, we look for a “juried” art show, where a panel of experts chooses only the best art works. When we need access to the most valid research, we look in “refereed” journals only. All this is well and good, but despite the plethora of literature on the subject of leadership, reading the literature will not help you become a leader. Leadership skills can be acquired a number of ways—through mentorships, training programs, on the job experience, and so forth. However, they are not acquired by reading a book! The reason for this is that leadership skills are primarily learned, tried, and tested through experience (Zelinsky, 1991).

Whether they are male or female, many nursing leaders believe that all leaders need the same characteristics; that people excel owing to these characteristics; and that neither intelligence nor “caring” are gender specific. The differences in how individual nurses actualize the nursing role account for varying levels of success. Indeed, this might be so, but gender plays a significant part in who you are and how you actualize your potential. If gender bias exists as an unrecognized, unaddressed component of nursing education programs, the outcomes degrade the profession and limit our ability to recruit and retain a robust workforce (Anthony, 2006).

See All Chapters
Medium 9780253014863

12 Health or Tobacco: Competing Perspectives in Modern Southeast Asia / Loh Wei Leng

Tim Harper Indiana University Press ePub

12 Health or Tobacco

Competing Perspectives in Modern Southeast Asia

Loh Wei Leng

In spite of the wide acceptance of tobacco since its introduction from the New World of the Americas to Europe in the mid-sixteenth century, and thereafter disseminated farther afield to other continents by the seventeenth century, there have been those who have been very critical of its use.1

As early as 1604, King James I of England, in his now well-known “Counterblaste to Tobacco,” a diatribe against “this vile custome of Tobacco taking,” which he felt was “a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lung”; and even as the smoking habit became popular in the twentieth century, dubbed the “cigarette century,” the negative effects of addiction on the consumer have long been recognized.2 What accounts then for the “deadly persistence” of this product when nicotine, the primary addictive agent in cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars and pipe tobacco, has been said to be “the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death”?3

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855751972

4. Reflections on the psychoanalytic study of character

Richard Ekins Karnac Books ePub

Clifford Yorke

“My dear Tony,” she then blandly replied. “I’ve never known any one like you for not having two grains of observation. I’ve known people with only a little; but a little’s a poor affair. You’ve absolutely none at all, and that, for your character, is the right thing: it’s magnificent and perfect.”

Henry James, The Other House (1948, pp. 53-54)

A background to reflections

I propose to take, as a background to these few reflections, a selective account, interspersed with comment, of an International Colloquium on Character, held at the Anna Freud Centre in 1990.1 There have been other international discussions on the psychoanalytic understanding of character, but this was the only one of which I have first-hand knowledge. It was also well reported; it covered a good deal of ground; and it raised significant questions, not all of which are in sight of resolution.

Summarizing the proceedings at the closing plenary session, Wallerstein (1991) took the opportunity to state some views of his own. He felt that, while it was helpful and informative, the conference had drawn attention to the limitations of psychoanalysis; and the weekend’s deliberations had opened up “vast areas of psychoanalytic ignorance” (p. 249). And he added:

See All Chapters
Medium 9781780647463

4: Fluid Therapy and Treatments

Scott, D.E. CABI PDF


Fluid Therapy and Treatments

There are many commonly performed treatments and procedures used in avian medicine. Raptors are very tolerant and usually cooperative, but it is important to become proficient. Practicing with cadavers is always a good idea before attempting to work with a live patient.

Learning Objectives

1. How to provide fluid therapy.

2. Various bandages including the figure-8 wrap.

3. Advanced procedures such as blood transfusions.

4. Humane euthanasia.

Fluid therapy: routes of administration

The maintenance requirement is 50 ml/kg/day and this volume can be administered in many ways including orally, subcutaneously, intravenously, or intraosseously. The route depends on many factors, the most important being the patient’s clinical condition.

Oral Fluids and Formula

Oral fluids and/or dietary supplementation are appropriate when the patient is able to stand, is able to keep its head elevated and when there is little chance of regurgitation or aspiration. The stomach volume can be roughly estimated as

See All Chapters
Medium 9781855759800

CHAPTER TWO. The structure of the subject

Silvia Elena Tendlarz Karnac Books ePub

Psychosis is characterized by the foreclosure of the Name-of-the-Father and the lack of inscription of the logical operation of separation. We will take up the dialectic between alienation and separation in the structure of the subject in order to demonstrate its particularity in psychosis.

Need, demand, and desire

It was Lacan who introduced the distinction between these three terms. Freud himself never spoke of “demand”. This tripartite distinction was amended during the course of Lacan’s teaching. The term “need” was dropped and the concept of jouissance took its place.

Nevertheless, we find the starting point of this distinction in Freud. In the Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895), Freud presents us with a schema which regulates the search for pleasure. A baby cries in response to a need, but one which is unknown to the observer. Initially, the baby is completely helpless: he cannot move or act so as to eliminate the experience of displeasure. But the cry prompts a specific external action, an intervention by a “primordial other” that will create the conditions for the first “experience of satisfaction”, and the disappearance of this indeterminate need. From then on, when a stimulus emerges, the child will wait for the reappearance of the primary object of satisfaction, which will then pacify it. But between the satisfaction achieved and that which is longed for, there is always a difference, which is called “desire”. Faced with frustration, the psyche brings into action “desire”. Thus, paradoxically, Freud states in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) the principle of unpleasure mobilizes desire. Together with this imprint of jouissance given by the primordially lost object, a signifying inscription is produced which traces the path of repetition.

See All Chapters

Load more