657 Chapters
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Medium 9781786394583

Association Between Catecholaminergic Genes and Impulsivity in Dogs

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Association Between

Catecholaminergic Genes and Impulsivity in Dogs

Claire Colsoulle1, Jean-Yves Matroule2, Jérôme

Copine2, Benoit Bihin2, Eric Depiereux2 and

Claire Diederich2*

1

Université de Louvain, Belgium; 2University of Namur, Belgium

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: genetic markers, canine, dopamine transporter, personality trait, tyrosine hydroxylase

Introduction

The catecholaminergic system-related genes are known to control for neurotransmitters influencing behaviours. Dogs’ impulsivity is now considered as a personality trait involving higher general activity throughout contexts. This study aimed at identifying possible associations between a selection of catecholaminergic genes (SLC6A3, TH, COMT, ADRB11) and dogs’ impulsivity scores.

Materials and Methods

Eighty-three pet dogs (33 Border Collies, 15 German Shepherds, 29 Labradors and 6 Golden Retrievers) were scored for impulsivity with three behavioural tests

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Medium 9781780643960

12: Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Edited by H Mukundan, Los Alamos National Laboratory CAB International PDF

12 

Mycobacterial Infections in Camelids

Shelley Rhodes,1* Tim Crawshaw,1 Ricardo de la Rua-Domenech,1

Sue Bradford,1 Konstantin P. Lyashchenko,2 Gezahegne Mamo,3

Di Summers,4 Ulli Wernery5 and Patrik Zanolari6

1

Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK; 2Chembio Diagnostic

Systems, Inc., Medford, USA; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia; 4Camelid TB Support and Research Group; 5Central

Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;

6

Vetsuisse-Faculty of Berne, Berne, Switzerland

Introduction

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease of mammals caused by infection with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) (Smith et al., 2009). The disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas, primarily in the respiratory system and associated lymph nodes, from which the mycobacteria are excreted and infect other susceptible individuals. Most cases of TB in farm animals are caused by infection with

M.  bovis, the member of the MTBC that causes bovine TB. However, TB in camelids caused by infection with M. microti (another member of the MTBC), M. kansasii and

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Medium 9781780644479

11: Chitosan in Drug Delivery and Targeting for Cancer Treatment

Kharkwal, H.; Janaswamy, S. CABI PDF

11 

Chitosan in Drug Delivery and

Targeting for Cancer Treatment

Anirbandeep Bose1,2 and Tin Wui Wong1,2*

Particle Design Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA,

Selangor, Malaysia; 2Non-Destructive Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research

Centre, iPROMISE, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia

1

Abstract

Chitosan is a linear heteropolysaccharide consisting of β(1-4) linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glycopyranose units. It is derived from chitin, the second most abundant polymer after cellulose, and which is available in the epidermis or exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps; in insects such as grasshoppers and dragonflies; in fungal cell walls, including those of the enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes); and in bacteria. Chitosan has been employed as the primary matrix former in pharmaceutical dosages with drugs, peptides, proteins and genes to treat gastric, duodenal, liver, breast, ovarian, lung, colorectal, pancreatic, leukaemia, nasal and kidney cancers. The chitosan-based dosage forms have been decorated with both passive (enhanced permeability and retention effect) and active targeting (receptor-mediated endocytosis) elements. Depending on the route of administration, these forms could be enteric coated, designed by means of chitosan–drug conjugation or equipped with superparamagnetic components for drug targeting and/or providing an alternative treatment strategy (e.g. hyperthermia) to kill the cancer cells. The drug targeting effectiveness and specificity of dosage forms can be enhanced through chemical modification of chitosan with ligands such as folate and galactose. Subjecting chitosan to chemical modification also leads to an increase in the transfection efficiency of therapeutics in the cancer cells. This chapter provides an introspective outlook on cancer-targeted carriers made of chitosan and its derivatives. It emphasizes the physicochemical aspects of chitosan and derivatives in relation to cancer targeting mechanisms of carriers.

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Medium 9780253010544

8 Care Work and Violent Men

Anna Aulette-Root Indiana University Press ePub

Chapter 7 Described the problems with care work that women do, especially for their children, but problems also exist in the care work they do for the men in their lives. Ironically, the discussion of care work for men in our interviews with the women was mostly talk about men within a context of abuse. The women are caring for men partners, despite their own HIV-related problems and, even more surprisingly, despite the abuse inflicted upon them by the men for whom they are caring. Women drew on discourses of femininity in describing how men need their care, even in abusive situations. Some of the women acknowledged that being a “proper wife,” which includes caring for men’s sexual needs, has taken a toll on their physical health, yet they continue not only to live with their male partners but also to take care of them. The following excerpts illustrate the women’s struggles to take care of men, many times in the midst of an abusive relationship.

Shareen’s trouble started when she got married, two years before we interviewed her. A short time into the marriage she found out about her husband’s positive HIV status when she visited him in the hospital. She had taken the liberty of reading his medical chart at the foot of his bed, which listed him as being HIV positive. Once she learned that he had tested positive, she believed it was necessary to have herself tested for the virus. She explained to us how painful it was to get tested secretly and alone while he was in the hospital.

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Medium 9780253014429

7 International Philanthropic Engagement in Three Stages of China’s Response to HIV/AIDS

Jennifer Ryan Indiana University Press ePub

Ray Yip

Since the start of the first outbreak of the HIV epidemic in 1989, China has come a long way in its response to this global pandemic—from total denial to now a strong response. In many ways, the real response came relatively late, around 2003, but the response was by far one of the strongest among developing countries. Throughout this journey, both from denial to awakening and from a weak to a strong response, international partners have played an important role. The complex nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, particularly regarding cultural and behavioral factors that result in intense stigma and discrimination, have made the response very challenging worldwide and even more so in China. Additionally, China’s health system has undergone tremendous changes in the past three decades, which have contributed to challenges in effective HIV prevention and care beyond social and culture factors. The nature of the management structure of the system, exacerbated by inefficient financing mechanisms, has resulted in reduced access to and quality of service, especially for those with challenging or costly conditions. For these reasons, international efforts have played an important role in assisting China in confronting these challenges. The purpose of this chapter is to recount the contributions of international philanthropy, broadly defined, to China’s HIV/AIDS response in the context of sociocultural, political, and health system constraints. This review is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to highlight the roles of different organizations that, during various time periods, have made significant contributions to addressing specific aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China.

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Medium 9781786391858

15 Animal Welfare – Driving Improvements in Tourism Attractions

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

15

Animal Welfare – Driving

Improvements in Tourism

Attractions

Clare Jenkinson* and Hugh Felton

Association of British Travel Agents, London, UK

*  Corresponding author: cjenkinson@abta.co.uk

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

135

C. Jenkinson and H. Felton

Viewing and interacting with animals can be a popular and rewarding part of a holiday. ABTA consumer research found that one in four people had some kind of interaction with animals as part of their trip and it was recognized that the travel industry can play an important part in enabling the experience to be a positive one for customers, local people and, most importantly, the animals themselves.

Travel provider members of ABTA’s Animal Welfare Working Group analysed the rapid growth of animal attractions and animal interactions experiences within the supply chain. Strong links have developed between tourism destinations and animal attractions, and for customers good animal welfare standards were becoming increasingly important. Our members were

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Medium 9781780644554

1: Introduction: Why Do We Need to Prepare?

Wapling, A. CABI PDF

1 

Introduction: Why Do We Need to Prepare?

C. Sellwood1 and A. Wapling2

National Lead Pandemic Influenza, NHS England, London, UK; and Honorary

Associate Professor, Health Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response,

University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK

2

Regional Head of Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response, NHS

England (South), UK

1

Key Questions 

• What is the key underpinning legislation for emergency preparedness, resilience and response

(EPRR) in the UK?

• What are the main categories of major incidents and emergencies?

• Who benefits from EPRR processes being embedded in health organizations?

• What could be the repercussions of health organizations not undertaking or engaging in emergency preparedness activity?

• What is the Sendai Framework and why is it relevant to health emergency preparedness?

1.1  Introduction

Incidents and emergencies, by their nature, can occur at any time and in any place. Man-made, accidental or naturally occurring, these can pose significant threats to the health of the population. From earthquakes to terrorism there is a responsibility for communities to have arrangements in place to preserve life, prevent deterioration and promote recovery.

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Medium 9781780647838

Appendix 14 Teaching your Cat or Kitten to Accept Veterinary Examination

Atkinson, T. CABI PDF

Appendix 14

Teaching your Cat or Kitten to Accept

Veterinary Examination

Going to the vets and being physically examined can be an intrusive and unpleasant experience for many cats and kittens, unless it is something that the cat has become fully accustomed to and especially if it is an experience that has become associated with something enjoyable, such as being given tasty food treats.

●● Start by preparing the food treats for your cat. These can be dry treats broken up into very small pieces or some form of soft food such as mashed up tuna, meat paste or yoghurt that can be given on a spoon. The food should be placed in a pot, preferably one with a lid, especially if your cat may attempt to steal the treats.

●● Begin the training at a time when your cat is relaxed but not actually asleep.

●● Concentrate on one area at a time at each training session.

●● Keep your pot of treats (or soft food) nearby and reward with a treat immediately after each pretend examination.

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Medium 9781786391520

10 Innate Immune Response in Bovine Tuberculosis

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

10 

Innate Immune Response in

Bovine Tuberculosis

Jacobo Carrisoza-Urbina,1 Xiangmei Zhou2 and

José A. Gutiérrez-Pabello1,*

1Departamento

de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina

Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,

México; 2Veterinary Pathology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine,

China Agricultural University, P. R. China

10.1 Introduction

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens, of which some of its functions include participation in activation and direction of adaptive immunity, as well as maintaining the integrity and tissue repair (Kumar et al., 2011). The innate system is integrated by macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells. These cells use pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) for their activity, which are responsible for identifying the presence of conserved structures between microorganisms known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs); similarly, they recognize molecules from damaged cells known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMs).

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Medium 9781780644394

21 Current Approach to Optimal Use and Dosing of Vancomycin in Adult Patients

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

21

Current Approach to Optimal Use and Dosing of Vancomycin in Adult

Patients

Joseph J. Carreno1, Dmitriy Martirosov,2 and Thomas P.

Lodise1*

1

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York, US;

Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US

2

Introduction

Despite its approval nearly 60 years ago, vancomycin remains a mainstay in therapy for invasive infections due to Gram-positive bacteria (Rybak et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2011). In the US alone, it is estimated that clinicians administer over 100 million days of vancomycin therapy a year (Kirst et al.,

1998). The high rate of vancomycin use is related to the growing prevalence of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

(MRSA). In the past, MRSA was confined to critical care unit settings (Moran et  al., 2005, 2006,

2012), but now it is the most common S. aureus antibiotic susceptibility phenotype across all healthcare settings, including general hospital patient wards, skilled nursing homes and facilities, and dialysis centers (Capitano et  al., 2003; NNIS

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Medium 9781780646824

6: Missionaries of Death

Webber, R. CABI PDF

Missionaries of Death

6

Samoa

John Williams, the great missionary from the London Missionary Society

(LMS), had achieved remarkable success in converting most of the Polynesian people to Christianity. Within just a few years, he had seen the transformation of these distant Pacific Islanders from war-mongering cannibals to passive Christians. Now he was to turn his attention to the much bigger challenge of the Melanesian (meaning ‘black’) Islands. He felt sure he was going to succeed: against all odds he had done so in Samoa (Fig. 6.1), he had

God on his side, soon he would be able to claim even greater numbers of converts to the religion he so believed in.

He had chosen to launch his crusade on the island of Tanna, part of what was then called the New Hebrides, so named by Captain Cook, who was probably thinking of places nearer home. Williams left a couple of his missionaries to learn the language and then proceeded to Erromanga

(now Erromango) to do the same. However, when he went ashore he was immediately clubbed to death, so it is not on the coral islands of Polynesia that the great missionary is buried, but on Erromanga that his grave is to be found. It is likely that he was thought to be a sandalwooder, one of the unscrupulous exploiters of the precious sandalwood, so landing unarmed made him easy prey.

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Medium 9781780648583

PART IV: TERTIARY EFFECTS

Butler, C.D. CABI PDF

13 

Famine, Hunger, Society and

Climate Change

Colin D. Butler

Faculty of Health, The University of Canberra, Australia, and

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health,

The Australian National University, Australia, and Benevolent

Organisation for Development, Health & Insight (BODHI)

And he gave it for his opinion that he that could make two ears of corn or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together.

(Swift, 1729)

13.1  Introduction: Famine,

Population Growth and the Cold War

In 1966, a famine was emerging in the chronically impoverished, caste-ridden northern Indian state of Bihar. Its ecological causes combined drought and flood with limited use of the then emerging technology to extract groundwater using tube wells (Brass, 1986).

India was an important Asian democracy.

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Medium 9781786391858

6 A Tale of Two Zoos: Tourism and Zoos in the 21st Century

Carr, N.; Broom, D.M. CABI PDF

6

A Tale of Two Zoos: Tourism and Zoos in the 21st Century

Lee Durrell*

Honorary Director, Durrell Wildlife Conservation

Trust, Jersey, UK

*  Corresponding author: Lee.Durrell@durrell.org

© CAB International 2018. Tourism and Animal Welfare (N. Carr and D.M. Broom)

81

L. Durrell

My zoo has had to cope with a dual personality in the last few years. For most of its existence, it believed in itself to be a ‘zoo’. A decade ago it re-branded as a ‘wildlife park’, but now it is a ‘zoo’ again. This is Jersey Zoo, started by my late husband, Gerald Durrell nearly 60 years ago.

The somersault was caused by successive executive teams and their varying interpretations of the tourism they believe drives our success. Our single main source of income, as for most zoos, arises from our visitors – gate receipts and secondary spend – but we are located in a small catchment area. To make ends meet, we must be very attractive to visitors, local and non-local, perhaps more so than other zoos.

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Medium 9781786394583

Survey on Shock Collar Use in France: Providing Practical Results for Regulatory Guidelines Development

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

�Survey of Shock Collar Use in France: Providing Practical

Results for Regulatory Guidelines

Development

Sylvia Masson1*, Isabelle Nigron2 and Emmanuel Gaultier3

Clinique de la Tivollière, Voreppe, France; 2Clinique vétérinaire Nigron

André, Roanne, France; 3FERCEA, Cabrieres d’Avignon, France

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: e-collar, dog training, punishment, shock, dog welfare

Introduction

Electronic collar training is controversial and current legislation regarding e-collars varies from no regulation to a complete ban across Europe. The main goal of this study is to characterise the practical use of such tools in France, where no regulation exists, and to compare it to theoretical experimental data, to provide accurate information for a potential future regulation. Additionally, a study on the differences between types of collars was conducted to investigate potential nuances.

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Medium 9780253006455

16 The Seven Sexes of Humans

Elof Axel Carlson Indiana University Press ePub

In 1958, when I was a freshly minted PhD from Muller’s laboratory at Indiana University, I took my first academic job at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. There, I was asked to teach a course in human genetics for medical students, which was a challenge because I had never had a human genetics course. As an offshoot from my dissertation study on the structure of the dumpy locus in fruit flies, I had published an article on the parallel of that gene complex to the Rh blood groups. That was my only contact with human genetics. I spent a lot of time in the library at Indiana University, and at Queen’s University when I arrived there, reading what I could about human genetics, including Curt Stern’s pioneering text in this field.1 I hit the medical books and journals, looking for human parallels to genetic processes in fruit flies and other organisms. When I came to the topic of sex determination, I knew that fruit flies and humans both had XX female and XY male sex chromosomes. I read Jones and Scott’s fine text on hermaphroditic and pseudohermaphroditic disorders, and dipped into some human embryology texts to follow what was then known about sex differentiation in humans, both in normal and in clinically abnormal sexual development.2 I organized the information in my mind and presented it in a series of lectures that I called, at the time, “the seven sexes of man.”

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