869 Chapters
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Medium 9781786392459

1 Habitat Loss: Changing How Animals Think?

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

1

Habitat Loss: Changing

How Animals Think?

Paul C. Paquet and Shelley M. Alexander

1.1 Introduction

What if ecologists, conservationists, animal advocates, and decision makers conceived of habitat as an

‘experience’ comprising more than suitable patches of land and water where animals live, find food, shelter, protection, and mates for reproduction?

How might we view the effects of habitat loss and degradation if scientists and others considered that habitat for animals mirrors how we, as humans, experience our own environment: giving rise to language, emotion, feeling, morality, and culture?

We might then understand habitat to be the fabric of being, extending beyond the physical and numerical aspects that have traditionally limited the concept when applied to wild animals. Accordingly, we would recognize that the destruction of habitat means more as well; likely resulting in the impoverishment of community and individual well-being, and dramatically changing the way animals perceive and experience their environment. This ghettoization of experience in these otherwise vital ‘places’ is not unlike what homeless people who have been forced to live a marginal existence might suffer.

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Medium 9781937554712

8 Interviewing: The Floor Is Yours

Lisa Mauri Thomas Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

The most important ingredient we put into any relationship is not what we say or what we do, but what we are.

Stephen Covey

This chapter explores how to be authentically you while presenting yourself in the best possible light. If you are yourself, the hiring manager will have the best sense of whether or not you’ll be a good fit with the existing team. By being yourself, you won’t have to worry about showing your true colors once you get the job. If you try to be something you’re not in an interview, it shows. The interviewer may not be able to name what it is, but will sense it is there and be put off by it. Read on to discover that interviewing is not a game but one of seeking best mutual fit. In doing so, you’ll recognize that if you don’t get a particular offer, it is not news to take personally. And when you do get that offer, you’ll understand that it wasn’t how you played the game, but that you are indeed the best new player for the team.

Be yourself. By being yourself, you will shine with confidence.

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Medium 9780253356512

5. From Corrosion to Collapse: The Destruction of Native Communities

Nicholas A. Robins Indiana University Press ePub

“Neither Livestock nor Lands nor Houses”: A Horrific Homecoming1

The mita, mercury, and silicosis did not just kill and maim individuals, they also did the same to countless indigenous communities throughout the altiplano and valleys as their effects reverberated throughout the region. As a key element in the colonial exploitative equation, the mita exacerbated both the ongoing abuses against Indians by their overlords as well as divisions among the elite as they competed for Indian labor. Further complicating the situation were the myriad physical and mental effects of quicksilver and silicosis previously described. In addition, while Potosí was for many years the most important mining town in the Andes, silver production and mercury pollution occurred throughout the region on both small and large scales. As a result, both free and forced laborers, mine owners, colonial officials, clergymen, artisans, and anyone or anything else in these areas that breathed were at a high risk of being poisoned. Governors, priests, officials, and commoners did not stay in one place but often moved as they sought better lives or purchased new jurisdictions, positions, and parishes. The result was that the human effects of mercury and silver production were by no means limited to Huancavelica, Potosí, and other mining centers, and those who were poisoned became carriers who imported their afflictions to towns and cities that did not produce silver or mercury. Such was the profoundly exploitative nature of colonial society, however, that mercury only exacerbated entrenched practices and abuses. Examining what natives had to contend with in their villages rounds out the picture of what awaited them if they returned home from the mita, and underscores the broader, regional effects of the amalgamation economy.

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Medium 9781930538757

7 Planning Your Study: Quantitative Research Designs

Christine Hedges Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”

–Steve Jobs

Christine Hedges

WHAT YOU’LL LEARN IN THIS CHAPTER

• Good research questions will determine the design you choose for your study.

• Two broad categories of quantitative design are experimental and non-experimental. Myriad research designs exist within each category.

• Assuring validity is important when designing a quantitative study.

• Staff nurses who are designing quantitative studies should consider various aspects of the their study and consult with an experienced researcher before deciding upon a design.

A finished product appears so seamless. When you attend a symphony, the sublime tones reach your senses in perfection, never hinting at the hours of orchestral rehearsal and preparation that came before. Likewise, your excellent nursing care appears effortless and expert to your patient—the patient does not see your educational preparation, nursing care plan, or practice guidelines that prepared you to provide expert care.

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Medium 9781786391520

13 Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infections

Chambers, M.; Gordon, S.; Olea-Popelka, F. CABI PDF

13 

Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Complex Infections

Sylvia I. Wanzala1 and Srinand Sreevatsan2,*

1Department

of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University,

East Lansing, Michigan, USA; 2Department of Veterinary Population Medicine,

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota, USA

13.1 Introduction

laborious multistep procedure involving the caudal fold test (CFT) and the comparative cerviBovine tuberculosis (bovine TB) is a zoonotic cal test (CCT) or g-interferon release assays. The infection in cattle caused by the intracellular current diagnostics are problematic: CFT lacks bacterium, Mycobacterium bovis that belongs to specificity for M. bovis and fails to detect all disthe Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB eased cattle, while the g-interferon assay is costly complex), a group of related mycobacteria that and requires blood samples to be processed cause TB in mammals. Bovine TB is the most within 24 hours of collection. Moreover, early prevalent infectious disease of dairy cattle detection of subclinical infection by serological worldwide (Cosivi et al., 1998), causing a con- tests is hindered, since the humoral immune servative annual loss of about US$3 billion response in bovine TB occurs at a late stage of

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Medium 9781786394583

Playful Activities Post-learning Improve Retraining Performance a Year Later in Labrador Retriever Dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris)

Denenberg, S. CABI PDF

Playful Activities Post-learning

Improve Retraining Performance a Year Later in Labrador Retriever

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Nadja Affenzeller1,2* and Helen Zulch1

Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Group, School of Life Sciences,

University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Department of Companion Animals,

Clinical Unit of Internal Medicine Small Animals, University of Veterinary

Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria

1

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: dog, memory, play, rest, training performance

Introduction

Arousing and emotional situations are known to improve cognitive performance and memory of events. It is thought that beta-adrenergic activation and the release of specific stress hormones enhance memory consolidation and lead to an increase in remembering through facilitation of memory recall (McGaugh, 2000).

This has been shown in humans, non-human primates, rodents (Cahill et al.,

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Medium 9781937554385

3 Social Media: The Easy, Fast, And Fun Way To Communicate

Brittney Wilson Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

The Internet has revolutionized the way we communicate with each other and whom we define as friends. We are swiftly becoming a global community and have opportunities to network with almost anyone in the world. Geographic location has become largely insignificant, and entire social communities exist solely online.

Although using social media is a fun and efficient way to connect with friends and family, social networking is also great for your career. If you are passionate about nursing, then increasing your nursing knowledge while communicating with other nurses online will be both pleasurable and potentially even financially beneficial.

NERDY NOTE

Did you ever think about the fact that social media removes limitations and costs from worldwide communication?

I have friends in Minnesota whom I see and hear from more often than the friends who live just a few blocks down the street.

Before we go much further, we should probably define social media:

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Medium 9781786394040

6 Parasites of the Eye and Nervous System

Elsheikha, H.M.; Wright, I.; McGarry, J. CABI PDF

6

Parasites of the Eye and Nervous System

Thelaziosis

What is thelaziosis?

Thelaziosis, also known as eye worm infection, is caused by nematodes of the genus Thelazia, which are transmitted by flies into the orbital cavities and surrounding tissues of many species of wild and domestic mammals.

Out of 16 species of Thelazia described so far, T. rhodesii infects sheep;

T. skrjabini infects cattle; T. californiensis and T. callipaeda infect carnivores, including dogs, cats, foxes and wolves, and also rabbits. The disease is mainly seen in summer and autumn when the vector flies are active. It has been suggested that more than one species of Diptera is involved in its transmission; for example, the facefly, Musca autumnalis, transmits the worm to cattle, and Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae family) is a proven vector of the nematode in dogs and wild carnivores.

How are eye worms transmitted?

Adult worms live in the eyes under the nictitating membrane. The females release first-stage larvae (L1). When other flies feed on lachrymal secretions, they pick up the L1s which then go through two moults inside the fly, eventually to the third-stage infective larvae (L3). When the fly feeds again, the

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Medium 9781938835155

2 overview of addiction and recovery: setting the stage

Karolyn Crowley Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

IN THIS CHAPTER:

Joining the Club

Defining Recovery

Classic Traps and Defense Mechanisms

From Fronting to Denial

Common Addiction Terminology

Recovery Program Terminology

We believe those who can heal themselves through surrender, dedication, and support in turn become the real healers of the world. Much of healing depends on understanding and communication. This chapter provides a cultural context for general concepts and terms related to drug/alcohol abuse, dependency, and recovery. Included are descriptions of common defense mechanisms and areas of denial.

As mentioned in Chapter 1, “The Bottom Dropped Out,” opening this book establishes your membership into a club that has members with substance use disorder (SUD) issues. Affiliate members know someone with SUD issues. Most everyone in the United States is an affiliate member of this club, whether they know it or not. Following are some national statistics that bear witness:

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Medium 9781786392459

11 Vertebrate/Invertebrate – When Do We Start Caring?

Butterworth, A. CABI PDF

11

Vertebrate/Invertebrate – When

Do We Start Caring?

Michael J. Kuba

11.1 Introduction

Ultimately, our decision what to eat or not to eat, and how we treat our food before it is consumed, is a subjective one. It depends on our cultural background and our system of beliefs. Unlike their many invertebrate relatives, decapod crustaceans (Wiese,

2002) and cephalopods (Gutnick et  al., 2016) are complex animals, that are also sought as a food source throughout the world (Fig. 11.1). Yet their production, harvesting, transport and preparation for consumption are unregulated in most countries.

Perhaps this is why many ‘Westerners’ might be okay with throwing ‘Harry the lobster’ into a pot of boiling water, but will get upset to see a horse or donkey ending up in a sandwich. But in the 21st century should our culture and our emotions be the ones to guide us? Are there objective criteria to make an educated decision? Can science help solve this problem – which animals should be protected?

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Medium 9781780644394

36 Importance of Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Antimicrobial Stewardship: Immersion of Future Healthcare Professionals

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

36

Importance of Interdisciplinary

Collaboration in Antimicrobial

Stewardship: Immersion of Future

Healthcare Professionals

Jacob Morton1* and Kerry L. LaPlante1,2,3

1

Providence VA (Veterans Affairs) Medical Center, Rhode Island, US; 2Brown

University, Providence, Rhode Island, US; 3University of Rhode Island College of Pharmacy, Kingston, Rhode Island, US

Introduction

To effectively facilitate patient care and the optimization of antimicrobial regimens, stewardship efforts are essential. According to the Infectious

Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the entire concept of antimicrobial stewardship is founded upon interdisciplinary collaboration

(Dellit et al., 2007). Interdisciplinary collaboration, also referred to as interprofessional collaboration, is defined as “Occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care”

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Medium 9781937554996

10 Caring as Sacred Practice

Lucia Thornton Sigma Theta Tau International ePub

“The highest happiness of man…is to have probed what is knowable and quietly to revere what is unknowable.”

–Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

In the model of whole-person caring, caring for people is considered to be sacred work. The final concept of the model, caring as sacred practice, helps evolve the attitude and approach that we bring to our work and into our lives. Transforming our workplace is first and foremost a matter of transforming ourselves. So beginning to perceive ourselves as sacred is the first step in this journey.

How do we perceive ourselves as sacred? What does it mean to do sacred work? The idea of sacred is not to be misconstrued with being religious and singing hymnals in the hallways. It is not about being sanctimonious, self-righteous, or holy (as in holier-than-thou). It does not mean that we must be somber and serious in our dealings with people or that we can’t engage in activities that are fun and playful. It has nothing to do with being pompous or boring. Rather, sacred is about having a deep respect and reverence for life. It is born of an understanding that all life is precious and that all people are to be valued and treated with kindness. It comes from a deep knowingness that the purpose of our life is not simply to do our work but to do our work with great love and compassion.

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Medium 9781786392985

1 Introduction and Background

Blair, R. CABI PDF

1

Introduction and Background

In recent years there has been a rapid increase in organic livestock production in many countries. This development is a response to an increased consumer demand for food that is perceived to be fresh, wholesome and flavoursome, free of hormones, antibiotics and harmful chemicals, and without the use of genetically modified (GM) crops. Consumer research indicates that ethical concerns related to standards of animal welfare also play a significant role in the decision to purchase organic food. In addition there is evidence that animal welfare is used by consumers as an indicator of other product attributes, such as safety and impact on human health.

European data show that organic eggs represent 10–20% of total egg sales and there is a willingness of consumers to pay a relatively high price premium for these eggs. Another development showing a change in ­consumer behaviour is that many supermarkets in

North America now sell organic products.

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Medium 9781780644394

28 Role of Guidelines and Statistical Milestones for Antimicrobial Stewardship

LaPlante. K.; Cunha, C.; Morrill, H. CABI PDF

28

Role of Guidelines and Statistical

Milestones for Antimicrobial

Stewardship

Damary C. Torres*

Winthrop-University Hospital, State University of New York at Stony Brook,

Mineola, New York, US and College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St.

John’s University

Introduction

Guidelines play an important role in directing practitioners toward appropriate antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). By using guidelines, institutions can broadly implement the initiatives of an ASP with strong corroboration and backing.

Guidelines can be disease specific, such as those from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the

Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia (ATS and IDS, 2005), and for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)

(Mandell et al., 2007). They can also be specifically written for ASPs, such as the IDSA/SHEA (Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America) guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship (Dellit et al.,

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Medium 9780253014856

16 The Evolution of the Hospital in Twentieth-Century China

Bridie Andrews Indiana University Press ePub

IN 2010 CHINESE hospitals consumed 76 percent of national health spending, whereas in the United States 31 percent was spent on hospitals and in Australia, 33 percent. The first port of call for most Chinese patients is a hospital outpatient department staffed by specialists, while for 80 percent of Americans and Australians it is a general practice physician. The hospital is so dominant an institution in the Chinese health care system that 90 percent of all in- and outpatient services in the country occur in one—a remarkable feat for an introduced institution with no indigenous counterpart.

Like a successfully introduced plant species, the hospital found its niche in nineteenth-century China and was well-established by the turn of the century. As dramatic changes in the political, economic, medical, and social environment have played out over the past hundred years, the institution has proved remarkably adaptable. It has both outperformed and crowded out potential competitors.

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