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7. Yearning for Sacred Place: Wiesel's Hasidic Tales and Postwar Hasidism

Edited by Steven T Katz and Alan Rosen Indiana University Press ePub



IN SOULS ON FIRE,1 Elie Wiesel begins his chapter on the School of Pshiskhe with the story of Eizik son of Yekel of Kraków, who dreams of treasure in Prague, but after his journey discovers that the treasure is really to be found in his own home.2 The point of the story is not, as is sometimes suggested, that since the treasure you seek is really already inside of you, you don't need to make the journey, nor even that you need to make the journey in order to discover that the truth is inside you. Recall that, as Wiesel writes, Rabbi Simha-Bunam of Pshiskhe would tell this story each time he accepted a new disciple.3 Rabbi Bunam did accept disciples; he did not send them all back home where they came from. Apparently Rabbi Bunam wanted precisely those disciples who realized that they didn't have to be there, who knew that their spiritual growth was in their own hands, not in those of the master they had sought out. The tale reflects on the School of Pshiskhe, its culture and values, the independence and boldness of spirit it sought to cultivate. In this understanding, the story and the journey, the tale of the rabbi of Pshiskhe and his disciples, each inform the other, reflect the other, interrogate the other, assist in defining the other.

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33. Algebra of the Copula [Version 2]

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF


Algebra of the Copula

[Version 2]

Spring 1891

Houghton Library

The copula of consequence, R, may be defined as follows: a. If b is true, then a R b is true. b. Either a or a R b is true. g. If a R b and a are true, b is true.

The letters a and b may be replaced by propositions, that replacing a proposition which is the antecedent of another being written in parenthesis. Thus, we shall have the forms following:

With 0 copula:


With 1 copula:

A R B.

With 2 copulas: (A R B ) R C

A R B R C.

With 3 copulas: [(A R B ) R C] R D

(A R B R C ) R D

(A R B ) R C R D

A R (B R C ) R D

A R B R C R D.

With 4 copulas, there are 14 forms; with 5, 42; with 6, 132; etc. The last letter of a proposition is called its consequent; all those which are followed by copulas not under parentheses are called antecedents. In like manner, the propositions under parentheses have consequents and antecedents.

The copula may also be considered as defined by the following two propositions.

PROPOSITION I. If from a proposition, P, a proposition, Q, follows, we may write P R Q.

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2 A Mean Street in a Mean City

Ray E. Boomhower Indiana University Press ePub

FOR MORE THAN A DECADE, AS THEY STRODE ALONG THE sidewalks on the Circle, the center of Indianapolis’s original Mile Square plat, people craned their necks to peer over a high wooden fence plastered with posters advertising theater offerings, hoping to catch a glimpse of a structure destined to dominate the city’s skyline for years to come. On May 15, 1902, the city’s citizens, along with visitors from all over the state and nation, crammed downtown streets for the formal dedication of the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. Built of gray oolitic limestone from Owen County, Indiana, at a cost of approximately $600,000 and standing 284 feet tall, the edifice honored “Indiana’s Silent Victors,” the average Hoosier soldiers who had given their lives in the Mexican-American War, the Civil War, and the Spanish-American War. “They are my best beloved,” intoned Civil War veteran Lew Wallace, presiding officer for the dedication ceremonies, “who, in every instance of danger to the nation, discover a glorious chance to serve their fellow-men and dare the chance, though in so doing they suffer and sometimes die.”1

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Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF




P 268a: Boston:

Little, Brown, & Company, 1883: iii-vi

These papers, the work of my students, have been so instructive to me, that I have asked and obtained permission to publish them in one volume.

Two of them, the contributions of Miss Ladd (now Mrs. Fabian

Franklin) and of Dr. Mitchell, present new developments of the logical algebra of Boole. Miss Ladd's article may serve, for those who are unacquainted with Boole's Laws of Thought, as an introduction to the most wonderful and fecund discovery of modern logic. The followers of Boole have altered their master's notation, mainly in three respects.

1st. A series of writers, Jevons in 1864, Peirce in 1867, Grassmann in 1872, Schroder in 1877, and McColl in 1877, successively and independently declared in favor of using the sign of addition to unite different terms into one aggregate, whether they be mutually exclusive or not. Thus, we now write

European + Republican to stand for all Europeans and republicans taken together, without intending to count twice over the European republicans. Boole and

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9 Polygyny, Divorce, Widowhood, and Death of a Woman

Vladimir Nalivkin Indiana University Press ePub

RELIGION ALLOWS a Muslim man to have no more than four wives at the same time. The number of wives he can have over time, according to Sharia, is unlimited. For instance, if he already has four wives but for some reason wants to marry a fifth one, he must first divorce one of his current wives, and then religion does not prevent him from replacing her with a new one. A woman who becomes a widow or divorces her husband can also remarry an unlimited number of times.

The eldest, senior wife is considered the mistress of the house; she is responsible for the overall supervision and management of the household economy and the performance of the work she decides to do; the rest of the work must be performed by the younger wives on her order. The latter call her byovyo (bibi, elder sister, aunt, mistress) and must treat her with the respect they would show an older close relative. (We will see below that in most cases these rules are not followed.) If the first wife dies or is divorced, her position is usually taken not by the next one in line but by the one that the husband loves most.

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