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Iliad of Abject Europe: Airwar, Literature and Compassion

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

Iliad of Abject Europe

A, L  C

And it is different, different – you have understood

Your world at last: you have tasted your own blood.

Randall Jarrell

A year ago, Germany’s ‘conscience’ and grand old man of letters

Günter Grass published his boldest novel in years. Crabwalk tells the story of the sinking, off what is now the Polish port of Gdynia, of the Wilhelm Gustloff, a converted Kraft durch Freude

(Strength-through-Joy) cruise ship, by a Soviet torpedo in January

. Gustloff was a Nazi propagandist and intelligence officer in

Switzerland who had been shot in  by a Jewish student from the Balkans: the party promptly made him a martyr to the cause.

The ship launched with his name in  carried workers on mandatory state-financed holidays to Norway and the

Mediterranean: this was the socialist part of the Nazi programme.

In January , having been transformed into a hospital ship, it was crammed with refugees, some of them soldiers, fleeing the advancing Red Army: about , people, many of them women and children, lost their lives in the Baltic, making it the worst maritime disaster ever. The central female character in the book,

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Medium 9780253008053

5. Wiesel in the Context of Neo-Hasidism

Edited by Steven T Katz and Alan Rosen Indiana University Press ePub

ARTHUR GREEN

IN PLACING ELIE WIESEL'S work in the context of “neo-Hasidism,” I use that term in its very broadest sense.1 Neo-Hasidism here refers to the notion that Hasidism has a message wider than the borders of the traditional hasidic community, that Jews and others who do not live the lives of Hasidim and who have no intention of doing so might still be spiritually nourished by the stories, teachings, music of Hasidism—indeed by the telling of the narrative of hasidic history itself. In addition to the role the living hasidic community has played—and continues to play, far beyond onetime expectations—in the life of the Jewish people, there is a second influence of Hasidism that is relevant to us here. That is the story of the image of Hasidism and the tremendous role it has had in the religious, artistic, and intellectual creativity of non-hasidic Jews throughout the twentieth century, reflected in literature (one need only think of Shmuel Yosef Agnon and Isaac Bashevis Singer, the two most important knowledgeably Jewish authors of the century), but also in religious thought, music, dance, theater, film, and painting. I take all of this as part of neo-Hasidism, that is to say, Hasidism for non-Hasidim.

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Medium 9780253211903

24. What Pragmatism Is (1905)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

P 1078: The Monist 15 (April 1905):161–81. [Published in CP 5.411–37. Initially planned as a part of a review of Herbert Nichols’s A Treatise on Cosmology, this paper was composed in the middle of the summer 1904. When it appeared in The Monist, it was supposed to be followed by two additional papers, “The Consequences of Pragmaticism” and “The Evidences for Pragmaticism,” but this plan metamorphosed over the following two years, and even though two more papers appeared, the series was never concluded.] With this series, Peirce returns to his 1903 project to explain his pragmatism in a way that would distinguish it from popular variants and facilitate the exposition of its proof He renames it “pragmaticism,” a name “ugly enough to be safe from kidnappers,” and explores the underlying presuppositions, summing them up in the cryptic admonition: “Dismiss make-believes.“ A key belief is that learning, or mental development of any kind, has to begin with the “immense mass of cognition already formed.” In an imagined dialog between a pragmaticist and a critic, Peirce addresses concerns about the purpose and consequences of pragmaticism, emphasizing the importance of experimentation and explaining how the meaning of every proposition lies in the future. He concludes by arguing that while the pragmaticist regards Thirdness as an essential ingredient of reality, it can only govern through action, and action cannot arise except in feeling. It is the dependence of Thirdness on action (Secondness) and feeling (Firstness) that distinguishes pragmaticism from the absolute idealism of Hegel.

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Medium 9780253019622

8. Exclusion and Inclusion: Ethnography of War in Kriegsgefangene (1916) and Das ostjüdische Antlitz (1920) / Eva Edelmann-Ohler

Edited by Andreas Kilcher and Gabriella Indiana University Press ePub

Ethnography of War in Kriegsgefangene (1916)
and Das ostjüdische Antlitz (1920)

EVA EDELMANN-OHLER

World War I can be considered “the great seminal catastrophe”1 of the twentieth century in Europe, having unsettled politics, culture, media, and social life.2 These extensive changes in the wake of the war also had consequences for the relationship between “Eastern” and “Western” Jews, consequences that were, in a broader sense, part of the so-called “Rediscovery of the Eastern Jews.”3 As Steven Aschheim has pointed out, there was a long history of contact between “East” and “West” in the period from 1800 to 1923, divisible into several stages.4 The idea of the “Eastern Jew” arose in the first half of the nineteenth century; the concept had diverse manifestations over the course of time and varied at the beginning of the twentieth century across, for instance, Zionism and Liberal Judaism. Furthermore, before World War I, Martin Buber acknowledged Eastern cultural and literary traditions in a positive light, taking them as an example for an ideal Jewish community.5 This rather cultural and philosophical approach was totally different from the questions about “Eastern Jews” that arose after the outbreak of World War I. During the war, “Eastern Jews” became for many soldiers a subject of personal experience—or as Aschheim has described it, a “strange encounter.”6 “Western Jews” found their prejudices confirmed: “the Ostjude was no figment of the overheated anti-Semitic imagination but a stark reality.”7 At that time, cultural differences became visible and had to be faced. The press and other media addressed these cultural differences in numerous articles, using various metaphors for the “brothers” in the East and for related political issues.8 Thus the question of Eastern European Jewry turned from a cultural issue into a political one. In this process, the spaces of one’s own and the alien were interchanged:

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Medium 9780253006257

4 - Hip Hop (Feat. Women Writers): Reimagining Black Women and Agency through Hip Hop Fiction

Edited by Lovalerie King and Shirley Moo Indiana University Press ePub

EVE DUNBAR

“It's bigger than religion / Hip Hop / It's bigger than my niggas / Hip Hop,” chants Erykah Badu on “The Healer” off her 2008 release, New Amerykah, Part One: 4th World War. While Badu is typically considered a neo-soul artist, she is deeply enmeshed in the Hip Hop music world, occupying roles that range from singing hooks on popular rap songs to engaging in highly publicized romantic relationships with male artists. In this range of possibilities, female emcee does not rank highly. Still, “The Healer” speaks not only to Badu's claims on Hip Hop but also to her vision of what the music might be and become. In no uncertain words, Badu simultaneously raises Hip Hop to religious significance, while claiming it away from black men. Either rhetorical shift might be a form of sacrilege to some, but I begin with Badu's mantra in order to provide a historical perspective for understanding black popular cultural production during the first decade of the twenty first century and the role of women within the spheres of Hip Hop and black popular fiction. Sandwiched between the legal and personal troubles that dogged many female rappers1 and the interstellar rise of female rapper Nicki Minaj,2 Badu's chant speaks to the possibilities for the black female imagination in Hip Hop.

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Medium 9780253372048

30. Logic; and the Methods of Science

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

Methods of Science, 1881

241

Logic; and the Methods of Science

MS 396: Fall-Winter 1881

BOOK I. FORMAL LOGIC.

CHAPTER I . T h e

modus ponens.

The relation between truth and falsity, as we must begin by conceiving them, is thus defined. 1st, Nothing is both true and false:

2nd, Every proposition is either true or false. The former clause of the definition is called the principle of contradiction, the latter the principle of excluded middle.

A somewhat different view is familiar to physicists. Dealing as they do with matters of measurement, they hardly conceive it possible that the absolute truth should ever be reached, and therefore instead of asking whether a proposition is true or false, they ask how great its error is. Just as geometry has its descriptive and its metrical portions, the former considering whether points coincide or not, the latter measuring how far distant from one another they are, just as chemical analysis has its qualitative and quantitative divisions, so logic has first to decide whether a proposition or reasoning be true or false, and, secondly in the latter case, to measure the amount of its falsity.

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Medium 9781885635150

The Mountains Overhead

Zach Savich Center for Literary Publishing ePub

for David Bartone

A ladder built into the exterior of a truck,
all anything does is confide, every morning

beginning now, decency its own kind
of constitution, each step onto a balcony or

from a café with little outdoor seating,
not counting the city. “What year

is that from,” the mother says. “First century
AD,” says her son. “But that’s a hundred

years.”

for Jeff Downey

We proceed by pattern and anomaly, had
no money but lived above a bakery

and a florist, just-aged flowers free
in a trough. I liked how you called the street

I always take “the secret way,” two fingers
held to a passing dog.

for Hilary Plum

We go to the cinema merely
for the light, view of alleys

from a balcony, to be in
the world and it is mythic:

zinnia market in the churchyard,
onions in mesh, daylit moon

a watermark on foreign currency.

1.

I sang: Tell me of the heart which exists
in which to continue is not
to confine

2.

Then dreamed I sang so loudly, I woke
myself singing

The cygnets’ feet were lost in snow

The cygnets were lovely because footless

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Medium 9781607321798

7. Narrative Structure and the Drum Major Headdress

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub

NARRATIVE STRUCTURE AND THE DRUM MAJOR HEADDRESS

KAREN BASSIE-SWEET, NICHOLAS A. HOPKINS, AND J. KATHRYN JOSSERAND

Classic period inscriptions refer to the accession of a lord into the office of king in a variety of ways. One accession statement refers to the fastening of a white headband on the new king (k’ahlaj “fasten, enclose, bind, or tie,” sak huun “white head-band”) (Grube, cited in Schele 1992: 39–40; Schele, Mathews, and Lounsbury 1990: 4–5; Stuart 1996: 155). Several scenes, such as the Palenque Temple XIX platform and Bonampak Sculptured Stone 1, show a sak huun headband being handed to the incoming ruler. This crown of kingship is illustrated as a flexible headband of bark cloth tied onto the head with a large knot in the back (Schele 1992: 22–24). Another headdress that appears on four monuments at Palenque has been nicknamed the drum major headdress for its visual similarity to headgear worn by the leader of a marching band. This headdress is composed of a tall base of jades capped with a short crop of feathers and long tail feathers. In some examples, the long feathers are tipped with jade beads. The drum major headdress has also been identified as a crown of kingship (Fields 1991: 167; Freidel 1990: 74; Schele 1978; Taube 1998: 454–460). By examining the narrative structure of these four monuments, we will argue in this chapter that the drum major headdress represented an office or function that was related to, but quite separate from, the office of king. We will also discuss the possibility that one of the duties of the secondary lords of Palenque, who carried the title yajawk’ahk’, may have been to maintain one particular drum major headdress and the buildings that housed it.

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Medium 9780253372086

32. Algebra of the Copula [Version 1]

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

32

Algebra of the Copula

[Version 1]

Spring 1891

Houghton Library

Logical quantity has but two values, t the true and f the false. But one operation is necessary, defined as follows: a. If b is true, a R b is true. b. Either a or a R b is true. g. If a and a R b are true, b is true.

This gives the following: fRtϭt

fRfϭt

tRtϭt

t R f ϭ f.

Any proposition written is supposed to be true. In writing propositions parentheses are employed to enclose compounds to be treated as single letters in combining them with letters or other such compounds. These may be called clauses. Parentheses ending clauses or propositions are omitted, and the clauses they would have included are not commonly regarded as such. The last letter of a proposition or clause is called its consequent. Its other immediate parts, letters or clauses, are called antecedents. Thus in the proposition a R [(b R c ) R d R e] R f the antecedents are a and (b R c ) R d R e, and the antecedents of the latter clause are (b R c ) and d.

ALGEBRAIC RULES

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Medium 9780253356864

8. Distance

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

Despite its reputation as a remote sanctuary, Thoreau’s cabin was only a mile and a half from Emerson’s door, less than a mile and three quarters from his own family’s house, and barely six hundred yards from the Fitchburg railroad’s tracks. To what extent does this proximity to the very civilization disowned by Walden invalidate the book? If Stanley Cavell is right that Thoreau’s “problem is not to learn what to say to his neighbors” but “his right to declare it,” is that right undermined by the surprising lack of distance between him and his neighbors?

For some Walden readers, captivated by the idea of a heroic retreat from society, the discovery that Thoreau walked into town almost daily, often dined at home, and regularly entertained visitors seems a betrayal. Thoreau, of course, anticipates that response, insisting that the distance that matters is the one separating us from our better selves and that bridging this gulf requires the real heroism. “Is not our own interior white on the chart?” he asks in his “Conclusion,” urging his reader to “be a Columbus to whole new continents and worlds within you, opening new channels, not of trade, but of thought” (215). Wittgenstein would propose the same project in the same terms: “If you want to go down deep you do not need to travel far; indeed, you don’t have to leave your most immediate and familiar surroundings.”

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27. The Law of Mind

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

27

The Law of Mind

24 May 1892

Morris Library

In an article published in the Monist for January 1891, I endeavored to show what ideas ought to form the warp of a system of philosophy, and particularly emphasized that of absolute chance. In the number for

April 1892, I argued further in favor of that way of thinking, which it will be convenient to christen tychism (from tuvch, chance). A serious student of philosophy will be in no haste to accept or reject this doctrine; but he will see in it one of the chief attitudes which speculative thought may take, feeling that it is not for an individual, nor for an age, to pronounce upon a fundamental question of philosophy. That is a task for a whole era to work out. I have begun by showing that tychism must give birth to an evolutionary cosmology, in which all the regularities of nature and of mind are regarded as products of growth, and to a Schelling-fashioned idealism which holds matter to be mere specialized and partially deadened mind. I may mention, for the benefit of those who are curious in studying mental biographies, that I was born and reared in the neighborhood of Concord,—I mean in Cambridge,— at the time when Emerson, Hedge, and their friends were disseminating the ideas that they had caught from Schelling, and Schelling from Plotinus, from

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Medium 9780253012463

2 Virginia Woolf and Musical Culture

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Mihály Szegedy-Maszák

ALTHOUGH VIRGINIA WOOLF WAS SKEPTICAL OF THE MERITS of any verbal approach to music, she was fascinated by the ideal of ut musica poesis. As she listened to a concert in 1915, she decided that “all descriptions of music are quite worthless” (D1: 33), yet she constantly drew inspiration from music. There is good reason to believe that as early as 1905 (PA 251) she became familiar with Walter Pater’s celebrated statement “All art constantly aspires towards the condition of music” (86), echoed by Oscar Wilde’s declaration in the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray: “From the point of view of form, the type of all the arts is the art of the musician” (17). “Its odd, for I’m not regularly musical, but I always think of my books as music before I write them,” she remarked toward the end of her life. “I want to investigate the influence of music on literature,” she added a few months before her death (L6: 426, 450).

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Medium 9780253329561

Chapter Thirteen

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

On the hovercraft instrument panel an amber light kept flashing. More data on the seatube rupture, Teeg guessed. But she dared not answer the call, for it might also be Transport Control, demanding to know why the crew still hadn’t left the hangar.

Come on, Phoenix. If he didn’t show up in about two shakes they would have to leave him behind. Could they smuggle him from the city later? That would be risky, might give the colony away. But waiting for another seatube emergency would be even more risky. Since losing their meeting place in the oil tank they had gone over a month without ingathering, and the forcefield of spirit that bound them together was weakening.

The thought of leaving Phoenix behind swung a weight in her heart.

“Any sign?” Marie asked from the cabin.

No, Teeg was going to answer, when she glimpsed Hinta jogging down the ramp from the sanitation port. Behind her loped a clown-painted figure in billowing gown. Tassels and sleeves fluttered about him as he ran, and the green tresses of his wig trailed behind like seaweed. Even through this bizarre get-up, Teeg recognized him by the way he bit down on his tongue and by the shape of his ears.

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2 Cultural Topography and Mythic Space: Australia’s North as Gothic Zone

Jane Stadler Indiana University Press ePub

Franco Moretti states in his Atlas of the European Novel that mapping a fictional space “is not the conclusion of geographical work; it’s the beginning. After which begins in fact the most challenging part of the whole enterprise: one looks at the map, and thinks” (7). This chapter addresses the significant interpretative challenges inherent in “reading” the maps of narratives set in given regions. The chapter looks at the ways in which geocritical theory and the analysis of maps that represent fictional space broker an analysis of mythic space in relation to national narratives. We also discuss the perils of overreliance on data contained within such digital mapping projects in order to explore what can sometimes be revealed by way of omission. In terms of specific regional examples, we examine patterns occurring in the Australian North, particularly in theater but also with reference to literature and film, examining how the landscape is staged and performed as a national myth. The rise of a uniquely categorized Gothic North in theater of the twenty-first century will operate here as a t(r)opical test case as we investigate how patterns of representation shift over time and across mediums and consider why the fictional space of the continent’s far north is densely populated with texts when the overwhelming majority of Australians live in the metropolitan centers of the south and southeast. The focus of this chapter is to study the significance of geographic location in post-1950 plays and related narratives set above the Tropic of Capricorn in order to look at recurring themes, settings, and concepts in these plays to see how this space functions and what it represents. We argue that the far north of Australia functions as a frontier with Asia across the national border and as a space of encounter with the Indigenous “internal other” within Australia. Moreover, we discover that the theater emerging from this region in the past ten years is theming this depiction of frontier schematics through a particular generic lens: that of the Gothic. Comparisons with narratives set in other parts of Australia and other regions of the world serve to substantiate these claims about the North as (increasingly Gothic) frontier space. We demonstrate how geographic information technologies, theories, and concepts help understand such spatial influence on cultural development.

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Medium 9780856832468

11 DIFFERENCES WITHIN UNIVERSALITY

Kenneth Verity Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

THE POETRY of any civilization inevitably employs the chief and obvious characteristics of the language from which it has arisen and reflects the discernments, faiths, and arts of the civilization it serves. In any culture we are likely to find:

Rather than an introductory essay at this point, drawing out distinctive features of language, sociology, and psychology in the Orient, examples of poetry will show that past and present people in the East have more in common with us than difference. The universality of mankind is revealed as cogently in poetry as in any other art form.

The art and poetry of India stem from a majestic civilization extending with but few intervals from 3000 BC to the present day. Much Indian poetry reflects the fundamental harmony that exists between human beings and nature, a resonance which people everywhere are now seeking to re-establish with a new sense of spiritual urgency.

The oldest evidence of Indian literature is an extensive Vedic text anthology – one of four – called the Rigveda (‘the knowledge [veda] laid down in verse [rig]’). The work is thought to have been compiled some time between 1200 BC and 800 BC. It contains some 1,028 hymns (a total of 10,580 verses) which are arranged in ten ‘song cycles’ (mandalas). Most of the hymns are addressed to personifications of natural forces, glorified as divinities, for example, Agni (Fire). The overall conception is magnificent; the Universe produces itself by itself and the divine is in all. Here, as an example, is The Hymn of Creation based on a prose rendering from the ancient Sanskrit by V. Raghavan:

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