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2 THE GREEKS

Kenneth Verity Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

AN EXAMINATION of the Graeco/Roman periods in greater detail is helpful since they formed the context within which some important poets were at work. The next figure expands the outline of events in the Prehistoric Period:

Bronze Age
c1184


Mycenaean Period.
Fall of Troy.

3000 BC-

Dark Age
1100


Collapse of Mycenaean Empire.

       -1000 BC

Iron Age, also called Heroic Age

 

1000 BC-

1000

Development of Iron Age culture at Athens.

 

900-700

Greeks begin colonizing in East and Italy.

 

776

First Olympic Games.

           700 BC

Notes:

1 Mycenae lies in the north-east corner of the Argive plain, nine miles from the sea; the name Mykene is not Greek but Carian. The city was first inhabited at the beginning of the Bronze Age (3000 to 2800 BC), but the culmination of its power and prominence occurred between 1400 and 1150 BC.

2 Between the years 900 and 700 BC the Homeric epics Iliad and Odyssey were being compiled.

3 During the 8th century BC Hesiod’s Works and Days and the Theogony were composed.

Throughout the first era (Prehistoric or Heroic periods) the most outstanding literary achievements were the works of Homer and Hesiod.

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Medium 9780253006813

Chapter 3: Coplas Written by Bouena Sarfatty Garfinkle about Life in Salonika

Melammed, Renée Levine ePub

20. Las komplas a Salonique es parte de la vida.

Ningounos alevantan el vazo sin dezir eviva,

Souetan a los amigos de boueno korason: parnasa, saloud i amor.

Bevamos a la saloud de los Sassons.

108. Saver ether komplas eze
oun dono del dio.

Los selaniklis las saven dezir kon savor.

Las mejores son de loz djornalistas,

Besantsi o Abravanel,1 ke tienen la penina fatsile kada dia.

Bevamos a la saloud de Albert Attias.

374. Saver ethar komplas eze art.

Mouthos las saven kopiar.

Se kiere hen para laz dezir,

Eze oun plazer de souhaitar boueno a loz haverim.

Bevamos a la saloud de Avraam Eshkenazi.

142. Los livros de estoria non moutha djente loz meldan.

Ma! Los selaniklis ethan komplas, para ke todos sepan eze plazer

De las sentir i souhatamos boueno a amigos i a los ermanos de Salonique.

Bevamos a la saloud de Salomon Shaki.

13. A Salonique las komplas es la vida de kada dia.

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Medium 9780253372048

9. Rood's Chromatics

Peirce, Charles S. PDF

Rood's Chromatics, 1879

47

Rood's Chromatics1

P 149: Nation 29 (16 October 1879): 260

The utility and significance of visual perceptions distract attention from the mere sensuous delight of color and light; yet few elementary pleasures are so insatiable. The spectrum, however often it may be seen, never ceases to afford the same sense of joy. The prices paid for luminous and colored stones, though exaggerated by fashion, could only be maintained on the solid foundation of a universal pleasure in color and light, together with a sense of similitude between this feeling and those which the contemplation of beauty, youth, and vigor produces. This pleasure makes one of the fascinations of the scientific study of color. Besides this, the curious three-fold character of color which assimilates it to tri-dimensional space, invites the mathematician to the exercise of his powers. And then there is the psychological phenomenon of a multitude of sensations as unaltered by the operation of the intellect, and as near to the first impression of sense, as any perception which it is in our power to extricate from the complexus of consciousness—these sensations given, too, in endless variety, and yet their whole diversity resulting only from a triple variation of quantity of such a sort that all of them are brought into intelligible relationship with each other, although it is perfectly certain that quantity and relation cannot be objects of sensation, but are conceptions of the understanding. So that the question presses, What is there, then, in color which is not relative, what difference which is indescribable, and in what way does the pure sense-element enter into its composition?

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Medium 9780253006257

8 - Bad Brother Man: Black Folk Figure Narratives in Comics

Lovalerie King Indiana University Press ePub

JAMES BRAXTON PETERSON

Recent scholarship in Africana Studies has revisited the “badman” folk figure in African American culture. Much of this scholarship (Perry 2004, Cobb 2006, and Ogbar 2007) has reengaged this classic black folk figure in order to explicate similar characters emerging in the lyrics and music videos of Hip Hop culture. In this essay I will extend these new theoretical analyses to interpret the figure of the “badman” in comics and graphic novels. Mat Johnson and Warren Pleece's Incognegro: A Graphic Mystery, Derek McCulloch and Shepherd Hendrix's Stagger Lee, and Kyle Baker's Nat Turner all depict either fictional or historical outlaw figures derived directly from the rich reservoir of African American oral and folk culture. Incognegro, Stagger Lee, and Nat Turner each have intriguing and integral relationships with history, mythology, and the legendary narratives of black “badmen,” but also of interest here is the interstitial relationship between these comic (anti)heroes and the American justice system. Each of them is either an outlaw, a fugitive, or a vigilante at specific points in their narratives and each in turn emerges from a narratological set of experiences that embolden them as culturally aspirational outlaws.1 These Bad-Brother-Men narratives depict a complex twenty-first-century portrait of the black heroic outlaw; visually dense and verbally articulated as historic essays, each of these narratives suggest the untapped potential for comics to engage American history and the politics of identity.

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Medium 9780253203175

Engineer Menni: A Novel of Fantasy

Alexander Bogdanov Indiana University Press ePub

After the events which I described in the book Red Star, I am once again living among my Martian friends and working for the cherished cause of bringing our two worlds closer together. The Martians have decided for the immediate future to refrain from all direct or active interference in the affairs of Earth. For the time being they will restrict themselves to studying our humanity and gradually acquainting us with the more ancient civilization of Mars. I wholly agree with them that caution is of the essence, for if their discoveries on the structure of matter were at the present time to become known on Earth, the militaristic rulers of our mutually hostile nations would gain control over weapons of unprecedented might, and the entire planet would be devastated in a matter of months.

The Martians have established a special unit for the dissemination of the New Culture on Earth, affiliated with the Colonial Group. I have taken a position there as translator, that being the work for which I am best qualified; we hope in the near future to enlist other Earthlings of various nationalities for the same purpose. This is not at all as simple as it may appear at first glance. Translation from the single Martian language into those of Earth is much more difficult than translation from one Earthly language to another, and it is often even impossible to give a full and exact rendering of the content of the original.

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Medium 9781607321798

17. To Speak the Words of Colonial Tzotzil

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub

TO SPEAK THE WORDS OF COLONIAL TZOTZIL

ROBERT M. LAUGHLIN

In this chapter I present a variety of expressions found in The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of Santo Domingo Zinacantán, which I will give in literal translations of the Tzotzil, followed by their meaning in English. I begin with Tzotzil kinds of speech and words that focus on k’op, “word,” and its verbal forms, then I travel from the positive to the intermediate to the negative aspects of the culture of Colonial Zinacantan, transforming monologue to dialogue so the reader will become a part of it.

Following this neat set of expressions, frequently with just one meaning per literal expression, I conclude by presenting the greatly reduced twentieth-century material found in The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán. Because the recent expressions are the result of deep ethnographic coverage, there can be many meanings, even contradictory ones depending on the context, for example, “to have words”—to have an argument, have a curing ceremony.

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Medium 9780253209306

The Plot-Line of Myth in Dante’s Inferno

Dante Alighieri Indiana University Press ePub

The Plot-Line of Myth in Dante’s Inferno

RICARDO J. QUINONES

We are gradually learning to focus critical attention not only on the story of the Commedia—that single line of spiritual development—but also, and now more valuably, on the stories within the Commedia. One of the more remarkable unfolding stories within the poem occurs exclusively in the Inferno. This drama—and it may accurately be so called—is made up of the series of encounters between the two travelers, Dante and Virgil, and a host of demonic challengers: Charon, Minòs, Cerberus, Pluto, Phlegyas, the demons at the gate of Dis and the Furies who emerge on the ramparts, the Minotaurs, and later the Malebranche.

These encounters are distinctive because through them—and only through them—are revealed in Hell the great patterns of Christian eschatology in which the individual soul knowingly or unknowingly participates—the contest in Heaven, the fall of the rebellious angels (with their resultant roles as devils in Hell), the death of Christ and the Harrowing of Hell. Furthermore, confined to the guards of Hell, all of these encounters exist outside and apart from the exchanges between Dante and the sinners. These encounters set up a separate line of development, and a crucial one it is. Only here in these “extra-curricular” meetings are the larger patterns of Dante’s journey established. Only here is his journey taken outside of history and placed in universal myth. It is as if to be in Hell is to be unaware of the larger justifying patterns in which one participates, and as if Dante’s own spiritual growth must lie in coming to recognize and understand these patterns. When Dante is brought later to confess that “present things” occupied his attention—and that this was the basis of his straying—we can begin to understand what he meant by that phrase, and why the journey to Hell—in its larger mythic patterning—is the beginning of his restoration.

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Medium 9780874216349

An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams: David Kupfer, The Progressive, 2005

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

The sun was setting on a late October afternoon when I met with author Terry Tempest Williams in a hotel conference room built over a saltwater marsh near San Pablo Bay in San Rafael, California. She was in my hometown that day to deliver a Sunday morning keynote lecture about her latest book, The Open Space of Democracy, to 4,000 people attending the 15th annual Bioneers Conference. Following her morning plenary lecture, she hosted a press conference with several dozen journalists, spoke as part a workshop on her book, and signed copies for a long line of fans.

Despite her rather intense schedule that day, she was bright, evocative, introspective, and quite poignant. Like Edward Abbey, she is very much aware of her place in the world and her community in the American West. A fifth-generation Mormon and native of Utah, she takes inspiration from her church and from nature.

Among her books are Desert Quartet, Leap, Unspoken Hunger, and Red: Passion and Patience in the Desert. Her sixth, Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place, tells the story of how the Great Salt Lake once rose to historic levels and flooded the wetlands that serve the migratory birds in northern Utah. She also weaves in her own family’s struggle with cancer as a result of living downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Test Site near Las Vegas. A recipient of both a Guggenheim and a Lannan literary fellowship, Williams lives with her husband, Brooke, far from the concrete jungle in Castle Valley, Utah. She has been passionately active in social and environmental issues for decades. She is currently the Annie Clark Tanner fellow at the Environmental Humanities Program at the University of Utah.

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Lighting the Match: An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams Susie Caldwell, Whole Terrain, 2001

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

In many ways, the idea for this issue of Whole Terrain was born the day I heard Terry Tempest Williams read from her most recent book Leap. She ascribed the inspiration for her book’s title to W. H. Auden’s poem, “Leap Before You Look.” “I love the way this poem embraces the idea of risk,” she explained, “particularly his last line, ‘Our dreams of safety must disappear. To leap before we look, to follow our intuitions, this is the pathway to change.’”

The author of eight books, including Refuge and An Unspoken Hunger, Terry Tempest Williams is a woman of tireless passion. She has testified twice before the United States Congress regarding issues of women’s health and the environmental links associated with cancer. She has also been a committed advocate for the protection of wild lands, including the redrock canyons of southern Utah.

Ms. Williams is a strong believer in the importance of play and creativity in advocacy, and writes about both in Leap, an exploration of Hieronymus Bosch’s 15th century masterpiece El jardín de las delicias. Her book takes readers into the world of Bosch’s triptych, through “Paradise,” “Hell,” and “The Garden of Earthly Delights,” as the author discovers the connections between each panel of the painting, and her life. At one point, she finds herself staring at the painting through binoculars, counting the species of birds depicted. “Hieronymus Bosch was an extraordinary observer of nature,” she says, “His renderings of birds, plants, and animals express a joy of the natural world that is more than merely symbolic. Bosch’s sense of scale places human beings alongside animals as equal partners.”

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Medium 9780253001795

3. Postcolonial Pre-Columbian Cosmologies of Night in Contemporary U.S.-Based Central American Texts

DeGuzmán, María ePub

Then, the four hundred boys whom Zipacná had killed,
also ascended, and so they again became the companions of [the boys]
and were changed into stars in the sky.

Popol Vuh

The Invisibility of U.S.-Based Central American Cultural Production

Central America is the invisible sleeping giant or the eclipsed celestial body in the study of U.S. Latina/o culture, Latin American culture, and American (United States) culture. I deploy the phrase “sleeping giant” to remind U.S.-based critics and readers of the ideological framework of a particular “Latin Americanism” (to borrow Román de la Campa’s phrase)1 that afflicts consideration of Central America, especially in the United States. An American Cold War against land redistribution and liberation movements in Central America and the proliferation of government-sponsored counterinsurgency operatives in many Central American countries (including Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras) have over-determined U.S. consideration of Central America. This framework has played a significant part in creating an occlusion of U.S. vision with regard to both the living presence of Central Americans here in the United States itself (for example, over one million Central Americans live in Southern California around the Los Angeles area) and to the socioeconomic, cultural, and political complexity of each country and of the countries in relation to one another (the significant presence, for instance, of Salvadorans living in Honduras). Diaspora in relation to Central America is varied. It involves Central Americans in one Central American country moving to another Central American country as well as to other countries such as Mexico, the United States, and Spain.

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Medium 9780253356864

11. Fashion

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

“Economy”’s review of life’s necessities—food, clothing, shelter—quickly becomes Thoreau’s occasion for dismissing fashion: “As for Clothing …, we are led oftener by the love of novelty, and a regard for the opinions of men, in procuring it, than by a true utility” (18). Although this proto-Marxist critique of exchange-value initially appears as simply part of Thoreau’s recipe for improving our condition by reducing our needs, his later declaration that “our whole life is startlingly moral” (148) confirms Walden’s insistence on erasing the practical/moral distinction so eagerly maintained by Concord’s Sunday churchgoing businessmen. Hence the constant slippage between economic and spiritual terms, whose overlap appears in one of Thoreau’s favorite words: value. Hence, too, the immediate mobilization of fashion’s ethical dimension: “I am sure that there is greater anxiety, commonly, to have fashionable, or at least clean and unpatched clothes, than to have a sound conscience” (18).

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Medium 9781857547658

Politics and Aesthetics: Harry Graf Kessler, Eugene Jolas, Wolfgang Koeppen

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

Politics and Aesthetics

I consider politics, political action, all forms of politics, as inferior values and inferior activities of the mind.

Paul Valéry

T R C: H G K

It is  December , just over a month since German capitulation and the end of fighting in the Great War. Kaiser Wilhelm II has abdicated and fled to the Netherlands, bringing to an end five hundred years of Prussian domination by the Hohenzollern dynasty. In Kiel the German navy mutinies, and the black, red and gold flag of the republic flutters over the Reichstag. Karl

Liebknecht calls for a socialist revolution. The Berlin Dada Club invents the dada two-step, as a preamble to world revolution.

Western values are collapsing. On the way to lunch, Count Harry

Kessler pays a visit to the Kaiser’s private apartments; there, in the

Imperial Palace, among the shattered glass, looted furniture and broken swagger-sticks, the whole tawdriness of the atmosphere out of which war had come weighs on him. ‘In this rubbishy, trivial, unreal microcosm, furnished with nothing but false values which deceived him and others, he made his judgements, plans, and decisions. Morbid taste and a pathologically excitable character in charge of an all too well-oiled machine of state. Now the symbols of his futile animating spirit lie strewn around here in the shape of doltish odds and ends. I feel no sympathy, only aversion and complicity when I reflect that this world was not done away with long ago…’

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Iconographic Parody in Inferno XXI

Dante Alighieri Indiana University Press ePub

Iconographie Parody in Inferno XXI

CHRISTOPHER KLEINHENZ

Although critical opinion is generally divided regarding the definition of comic elements and comicità in the Divina Commedia, the grotesque and farcical activities of the Malebranche in Inferno XXI–XXII should certainly give us some indication of Dante’s sense of the parodic and ludicrous.1 More general consensus has been reached on the similarity of the scene in the fifth bolgia with those presented on the stage in contemporary religious dramas, particularly in the transalpine regions, and the interaction here between “performers” (devils, sinners) and “observers” (Dante, Virgil) most probably derives from those interludes in medieval plays when the “devils” would run about among the audience, inspiring both laughter and fear.2 In the Inferno, of course, there is no such “interlude”, no “intermission” in the performance, nor are the dramatis personae wearing masks and costumes. Indeed, the everpresent, diabolical undercurrent attacks the superficially “festive” atmosphere and gradually subverts it.

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11. Poetics in the Popol Wuj

Kerry M. Hull University Press of Colorado ePub

POETICS IN THE POPOL WUJ

LUIS ENRIQUE SAM COLOP

In this chapter I will show how poetry and prose are interwoven in a text to provide fluency to verbal art.1 I will also discuss specific characteristics of parallelism as found in the Popol Wuj (or Popol Vuh), arguing that parallelism is not only the contiguity of two lines but that it extends further into constructions of three and four lines, in which the last line of the paradigm is broken to link verse with prose. I will also provide evidence that poetics and function take precedence over word formation in parallelisms, despite the fact that some couplets appear to be fixed. Furthermore, I discuss the use and meaning of grammatical, lexical, morphological, syntactic, semantic, paradigmantic, and syntagmatic parallelisms in an effort to unpack their functional importance in discourse. Finally, I show the use of figures of speech in the Popol Wuj such as metaphor, metonymy, and paronomasia as means of imbuing the text with a deeper “poetic-ness.”

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Medium 9780253017529

5 Modern Love: Poetry, Companionate Marriage, and Recrafting the Self

Zuzanna Olszewska Indiana University Press ePub

Poetry, Companionate Marriage, and Recrafting the Self

I hadn’t spent any time with Zarifeh and Sorayya away from the office until my visit to Zarifeh’s house. Her room was actually a small, one-room concrete structure built in the corner of her family’s courtyard (I later learned that many people build these to rent out for the extra income). Zarifeh’s mother wanted to rent it out, but for now it was her personal haven in which to read, study, and entertain her friends: a room of her own, whose vital importance for women’s ability to write Virginia Woolf once emphasized. We sat on the carpet while Zarifeh served us tea, homemade cakes, ājil (dried fruit and nuts), and candy. I flipped through the photo album she showed me—mostly pictures of various trips and outings to places outside Mashhad with the Dorr-e Dari kids, both young men and women—waterfalls, villages, woods, picnics, badminton games. Quite a few pictures were of fully clothed people standing knee-deep in water flowing by them.

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