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28. Question

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

After a still winter night I awoke with the impression that some question had been put to me, which I had been endeavoring in vain to answer in my sleep, as what—how—when—where? But there was dawning Nature, in whom all creatures live, looking in at my broad windows with serene and satisfied face, and no question on her lips. I awoke to an answered question, to Nature and daylight. The snow lying deep on the earth dotted with young pines, and the very slope of the hill on which my house is placed, seem to say, Forward! Nature puts no question and answers none which we mortals ask. (189)

This lovely, mysterious passage, both as hushed and as brazen as a cold-bright winter day, suggests an alternative to the standard image of Thoreau the spiritual explorer who, after the Elysian Fields of Walden Pond, would watch his own imaginative powers steadily diminish. Sherman Paul, who most eloquently diagnoses this melancholy position, observes that “after Walden … his Journals became increasingly a repository of scientific facts.… Where once he had told how the summer felt to him, he now merely recorded the temperature.” For Paul, “the considerable barrenness of these Journals” attests to Thoreau’s inability to recapture the “extended ecstasy” of the woods, those “rare intervals” he had described in A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, when “we rise above the necessity of virtue into an unchangeable morning light, in which we have only to live right on and breathe the ambrosial air” (Week, 369).

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Medium 9780253211903

11. On Phenomenology (Lecture II)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MSS 305, 306. [Published in CP 5.41–56, 59–65 (in part) and in HL 150–65. These two manuscripts together form the version of the text that Perice most likely used to deliver his second Harvard lecture on 2 April 1903.] Peirce remarks near the beginning of this lecture that “my purpose this evening is to call your attention to certain questions of phenomenology upon the answers to which, whatever they may be, our final conclusion concerning pragmatism must repose at last.” He goes on to clarify the nature of phenomenology (later called phaneroscopy), whose goal is to isolate the universal categories of experience. Peirce has found these to be, first, the quality of feeling, second, the element of struggle or reaction in experience or consciousness, and third, an intellectual element that seems much like representation or a sense of learning. He believes that this third element is necessary to explain a mode of influence on external facts that cannot be explained by mechanical action alone and he thinks that the idea of evolution requires this element. Near the end of this lecture Peirce remarks that “what the true definition of Pragmatism may be, I find it very hard to say; but in my nature it is a sort of instinctive attraction for living facts.”

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Medium 9780253372086

16. Promptuarium of Analytical Geometry

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

16

Promptuarium of Analytical

Geometry c. 1890

Houghton Library

Let P1 and P2 be any two points.

P1

P2

Now consider this expression l P1 ϩ (1 Ϫ l ) P2 where l is a number. P1 and P2 are not numbers, and therefore the binomial cannot be understood exactly as in ordinary algebra; but we are to seek some meaning for it which shall be somewhat analogous to that of algebra. If l ϭ 0, it becomes

0 P1 ϩ 1 P 2 and this we may take as equal to P2, making 0 P1 ϭ 0 and 1 P2 ϭ P2.

Then if l ϭ 1, the expression will become equal to P1. When l has any other value, we may assume that the expression denotes some other point, and as l varies continuously we may assume that this point moves continuously. As l passes through the whole series of real values, the point will describe a line; and the simplest assumption to make is that this line is straight. That we will assume; but at present we make no further assumption as to the position of the point on the line when l has values other than 0 and 1. We may write l P1 ϩ (1 Ϫ l ) P2 ϭ P3.

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Medium 9780253012463

10 “Shivering Fragments”: Music, Art, and Dance in Virginia Woolf’s Writing

Adriana L. Varga Indiana University Press ePub

Evelyn Haller

From her vantage of a later century Angela Frattarola rightly cites “the often-overlooked aurality of the twentieth-century novel” and examines Woolf as a major exemplar (133n2). “Music” in relation to Woolf, is of particular importance. To take a congeries of instances: the rhythmic sound of “the sea” she intended to be heard “all through” The Waves (1931) (D3: 34); the sound of the skywriting aeroplane in her war-haunted novel, with its implied cacophony of the battlefield in Septimus’s memory in Mrs. Dalloway (1925); and the harsh, unmelodic singing of the caretaker’s children in The Years (1937). In her posthumously published novel, Between the Acts (1941), the flamboyant and uninhibited Mrs. Manresa “was afloat on the stream of the melody,” that of a “pompous popular tune” that “brayed and blared” (96–97). Machines, not unlike people, can disappoint: “Chuff, chuff, chuff [ . . . ] It was the noise a machine makes when something has gone wrong” (93). Three and a half decades earlier the young Virginia had written, “Music perhaps because it is not human is the only thing made by men that can never be mean or ugly” (E1: 31). She was to hear many kinds of sounds, but not all were to be understood as music without the intervention of a Stravinsky. Still, sounds – stated and implied – of various kinds as well as music would be major tools of her craft. Her multifaceted evocation of Kew Gardens, for example, alludes in its conclusion to the metronomic rhythm of machinery outside its walls: “But there was no silence; all the time the motor omnibuses were turning their wheels and shifting their gears.” Moreover, London itself is recognized as an enormous machine: “like a vast nest of Chinese boxes all of wrought steel turning ceaselessly one within another the city murmured” (CSF 95).

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Medium 9780253010575

3 Crime-Page Fiction: Moroccan True Crime and the New Independent Press

Jonathan Smolin Indiana University Press ePub

Moroccan True Crime and the New Independent Press

The mid- to late 1990s was a particularly charged time in Morocco as the country continued moving away from the repressive authoritarianism of the Years of Lead. Not only did the media open up to new audiences and forms of representation but the state also initiated political, social, and legal reforms. Recognizing the need for more inclusive government, in 1993 King Hassan II launched the process of al-Tanawwub, known in French as Alternance, with the stated aim of bringing the political opposition into the government. Although they refused to enter the government that year, the political opposition, under the leadership of the Socialist Union, eventually accepted the king’s offer after the 1997 parliamentary elections. Abderrahman Youssoufi, head of the USFP and former political prisoner, was named prime minister in February 1998. After over four years of public discussion, the inclusion of the opposition and nomination of Youssoufi marked a significant transformation in the political sphere and launched a period of widespread optimism about the pace of reform. The concept of Alternance was based on the idea that the country was entering a new era of power sharing and democratic transition, including respect for the rule of law, freedom of expression, and human rights.

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Medium 9780253329561

Chapter Seven

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Is it the wilds he’s hungry for—or is it only me? Teeg could not decide. His eyes would glaze over whenever she told him about the wilderness. But then, his eyes glazed over and his breathing quickened whenever she leaned close to tell him anything. He was so ensnarled in the mating rigmarole that she would probably be disentangling him for months before they could actually make love. In the meantime, whether or not he was hungering for the wilds, he was certainly hungering for her, and that appetite would have to do, until she could deliver him into the wilderness. Once he was outside, the sea and forest could work on him. If she had to be the bait that lured him out there, then bait she would be.

She had already reported to the other seekers, after her two weeks of prospecting, that Whale’s Mouth Bay would make an ideal location for the settlement. Tonight, when the crew met for an ingathering, she must speak with them about Phoenix, before his passion cooled or his wilderdread returned.

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Medium 9780253006257

5 - Street Literature and the Mode of Spectacular Writing: Popular Fiction between Sensationalism, Education, Politics, and Entertainment

Edited by Lovalerie King and Shirley Moo Indiana University Press ePub

KRISTINA GRAAFF

During the past decade a new form of black popular fiction emerged in the nation's inner-urban areas—spaces that the publishing industry and book distribution networks never imagined would be commercially viable. Known as Street Literature or Urban Fiction, the novels are often written by first-time authors—some of them former or current prisoners—and deal with street violence, prison experiences, and the drug business, especially the crack trade since the 1980s. Mainly circulated through the practices of self-publishing and street vending, these books reach a broad audience, particularly in black working-class communities, and have forced major publishers and book outlets to take notice. Since the genre's commercialization, large presses also aim to attract nonurban and nonblack audiences.1 Although exact sales numbers are difficult to determine, bestseller lists of the African American Literature Book Club (AALBC), Essence Magazine and the African American book announcement website, Books of Soul, indicate that Street Literature is currently one of the most widely read subgenres of African American fiction.2

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Medium 9780253017581

3 Close Reading “You”: Ralph Ellison

Lesley Larkin Indiana University Press ePub

Ralph Ellison

THE FIVE HUNDRED PAGES THAT INTERVENE BETWEEN THE prologue and epilogue of Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man (1952) are explicitly concerned with the self-definition of a speaking (and writing) “I,” a visible and legible self who brings himself into being by narrating his story. However, this extended project of self-assertion is framed by explicit address to a second person; that is, the novel begins and ends by addressing its reader. The narrator’s famous final lines proceed in the second person, and his final word is “you”: “Who knows,” the Invisible Man asks, “but that, on the lower frequencies, I speak for you?” (581).

Like the controversial elements of Hurston’s oeuvre discussed in the previous chapter, the ultimate passages of Invisible Man, and this last line in particular, have performed more than their share of mischief in six decades of Ellison criticism. Until recently, most professional readers (and doubtless many students) have agreed with Ellison’s earliest, “new liberal” critics that the novel asserts a universal humanist vision that, grounded on transracial and individual identifications (between the “I” and the “you”), exceeds the novel’s particular critique of racial exclusion.1 This common interpretation holds that Ellison asserts an individual selfhood that transcends racial particularity and eschews collective political action. As Barbara Foley writes, “A nonblack (especially a white) reader, uncertain about the degree of his or her identification with the novel’s protagonist but certain about dangers posed by Communists and Communism, can . . . request entry into the text’s charmed circle of initiates and reply affirmatively to the narrator’s closing invitation” (346).2

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Medium 9780253211903

16. Pragmatism as the Logic of Abduction (Lecture VII)

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 315. [Published in CP 5.180–212 (in part) and in HL 241–56). Untitled by Peirce, this is the last of the seven Harvard lectures, delivered on 14 May 1903.] This lecture was added so that Peirce could extend his remarks about the relation of pragmatism to abduction. He elaborates in particular on three key points raised in the sixth lecture: (1) that nothing is in the intellect that is not first in the senses, (2) that perceptual judgments contain general elements, and (3) that abductive inference shades into perceptual judgment without any sharp line of demarcation between them. Pragmatism follows from these propositions. Peirce reiterates that the function of pragmatism is to help us identify unclear ideas and comprehend difficult ones. It is in this lecture that Peirce delivers his famous dictum: “The elements of every concept enter into logical thought at the gate of perception and make their exit at the gate of purposive action; and whatever cannot show its passports at both those two gates is to be arrested as unauthorized by reason.” In developing these ideas, Peirce emphasizes that in making every conception equivalent to a conception of “conceivable practical effects,” the maxim of pragmatism reaches far beyond the merely practical and allows for any “flight of imagination,” provided only that this imagination “ultimately alights upon a possible practical effect.”

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5. Books

Robert B. Ray Indiana University Press ePub

There are probably words addressed to our condition exactly, which, if we could really hear and understand, would be more salutary than the morning or spring to our lives, and possibly put a new aspect on the face of things for us. How many a man has dated a new era in his life from the reading of a book. (76)

For Thoreau, the book that marked “a new era in his life” was Emerson’s Nature, published in the fall of 1836 and checked out of the Harvard library by Thoreau the following spring. He was ready for it: having been examined by Emerson on rhetoric in 1835, he had by 1837 won the older man’s support for some of Harvard’s prize money. More importantly, Emerson’s “manifesto of transcendentalism” suited Thoreau’s interest in reconciling his own avidity for nature with an emerging intellectual ambition. In Walden’s terms, Thoreau was “a prepared field.”

Although he writes dismissively of his own college education, Walden’s enormous number of allusions suggests just how bookish Thoreau was. In fact, as Richardson details, he read omnivorously, working fluently in the major European languages, as well as Latin and Greek. But his choice of reading seems strange, perhaps offering a clue to this mysterious man and his mysterious book. Thoreau, of course, was steeped in the classics, having a special fondness for Homer, but as he grew older, his taste became less and less literary: Goethe and Carlyle, yes, but mostly things like books on Eastern religions, tracts on Canadian history and Indian life, Cato’s treatise on farming, natural history (especially botany), travel books (a guilty pleasure), William Gilpin on landscape painting, the Jesuit Relations (forty-one accounts of the Jesuit missions to Canada’s Indians), Darwin. Thoreau showed no interest in fiction: although he knew Robinson Crusoe, he apparently never read any of his friend Hawthorne’s novels. When we remember that Thoreau was born in 1817, four years after Pride and Prejudice, the following list of books he appears never to have looked at seems suggestive:

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Medium 9780253372048

28. [Jevons's Studies in Deductive Logic]

Peirce, Charles S. Indiana University Press PDF

238

W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1879-1884

[Jevons Js Studies in Deductive Logic7

P 198: Nation 32 (31 March 1881): 227

Studies in Deductive Logic. By W. Stanley Jevons, LL.D. (London and New York: Macmillan & Co. 1880.)

Some forty years ago the two mathematicians, De Morgan and

Boole, commenced a reform of formal logic. Their researches were continued by a number of other excellent thinkers (Mr. Jevons among them) in different countries, and the work is now so far advanced that the new logic is beginning to take its place in the curriculum of the universities, while many persons have imagined that some almost magical power of drawing conclusions from premises was to be looked for, and that logic would prove as fertile in new discoveries as mathematics. Concerning such hopes Professor Sylvester says: "It seems to me absurd to suppose that there exists in the science of pure logic anything which bears a resemblance to the infinitely developable and interminable heuristic processes of mathematical science."

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Medium 9780253020659

6 Heading Home: Post-Mortem Road Narratives

Hakim Abderrezak Indiana University Press ePub

It is perhaps at the occasion of the death of the migrant that one can grasp his real place with regard to the migratory space that he took up more than a generation ago. Standing on his feet or lying in a coffin, he will return to his place of origin where something stronger than him snatched him one day.

—Yassin Chaïb, “Le Lieu d’enterrement comme repère migratoire”

Born, or arrived in France at a very young age, schooled and brought up in France, they will have to work there all their lives, and they will die in France (and maybe unlike their elders, they will have tombs in France; because the conditions and reasons of a post-mortem repatriation, which is almost the norm nowadays, will have ceased).

—Alain Gillette and Abdelmalek Sayad, L’Immigration algérienne en France

The choice of burial place for French citizens of North African ancestry is a pressing issue not only because death is inevitable, but more importantly because for Maghrebis and their children, burial cannot always follow rules of tradition, which are essentially practical. Indeed, it is customary to bury loved ones in local cemeteries. It is logical that one should want to keep close to home that which is close to heart. But this is not an inevitability for Maghrebis and Beurs. From the moment of their arrival in France and even more so when they realized France was to become their “home,” Maghrebis have had to ponder the question of what was to be the final “home” for them and their children. Available scholarship in the humanities, and in the realm of cultural studies in particular, has treated the notion of home, uprootedness, exile, and biculturalism. But the notion of final “home” has understandably not yet concerned scholars, for the generation of immigrants who arrived in France in the middle of the past century has just started to pass away en masse. Questions related to their burial have been tackled in various disciplines, such as sociology and (clinical) psychology, which deal with the practical and economic aspects of this phenomenon. One can only hope that the humanities will catch up soon. This will become more likely when a higher number of fictional accounts and biographies are produced, thus provoking humanistic studies. Indeed, as of today only a few of these have appeared. A dead individual cannot by definition write the account of his own passing away, just as with illiterature the experience of the death of the other is often told by external “witnesses,” humanists, writers, relatives, etc. But what the available literature and cinematography teaches us is that a reflection on the issue is taking place a priori. It is characterized by investigative journeys, the unknown, and rituals of initiation. According to writers and filmmakers, these narratives imposed themselves as an inevitable source of creative productions through personal confrontation with death. Put differently, these writers and filmmakers’ experiences of the death of a loved one have led them to ponder the sensitive subject. Consequently, retirement, death, and burial sites have taken center stage in their fictional works. This emergence in migrant literature and cinema often concerned with questions of identity in the here and now is a significant move that is bound to raise a few important questions for experts. This is no new matter for the North African community based in France; indeed, the epigraph from French journalist Gillette’s and Algerian sociologist Sayad’s L’Immigration algérienne en France dates back to 1976. It highlights the essential and continual concern: will Beurs be buried back home like their ancestors? The quote starts with the expression of an objective vision: French citizens of Maghrebi heritage will pass away in France. It includes a statement introduced by “maybe” and framed by parentheses. The embedded hypothesis indicates that one is to expect the ending of a trend, which consists of taking the corpse of a family member to Algeria to bury it there.1 Why do the authors assume that this practice is likely to come to a close?

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Medium 9780253372024

[THE JOURNAL OF SPECULATIVE PHILOSOPHY SERIES]

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

162

W R I T I N G S OF C H A R L E S S. P E I R C E , 1867-1871

Questions on Reality

MS 148: Winter-Spring 1868

Qu. 1. Whether by the simple contemplation of a cognition, we are enabled in any case to declare with considerable certainty that it is an ultimate premise or cognition not determined by any previous cognition, or whether this is only a hypothesis to be resorted to when the facts cannot be explained by the action of known causes? Ans.

The latter alternative is the true one.

Qu. 2. Whether self-consciousness or our knowledge of ourselves can be accounted for as an inference or whether it is necessary to suppose a peculiar power of immediate self-consciousness? Answer.

It can be accounted for by the action of known causes. Error and ignorance being discovered require the supposition of a self. In short, we can discover ourselves by those limitations which distinguish us from the absolute ego.

Qu. 3. Whether we have the power of accurately distinguishing by simple contemplation without reasoning or combining many circumstances, between what is seen and what is imagined, what is imagined and what is conceived, what is conceived and what is believed, and, in general, between what is known in one mode and what in another? No.

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Medium 9780253356413

Appendix 2: Codicological Description of New Haven, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library MssG +St11 no. 1

Rosemarie McGerr Indiana University Press ePub

STRUCTURE

This manuscript has 392 vellum leaves, approximately 180 mm by 250 mm in size. Small holes appear in a few leaves (e.g., fols. 100 and 116). Truncated decoration in the outer and top margins of several leaves resulted from trimming during preparation for binding (plates 1 and 2). One paper pastedown appears at the front of the codex (plate 22). One paper flyleaf and a paper pastedown appear at the end of the codex. Modern pencil leaf numbers appear in the upper-right corners on 389 of the leaves, with 3 leaves missing numbers (between leaves 37 and 38, 64 and 65, and 282 and 283). The leaves of the manuscript are organized into 50 quires with the following structure: 1(1+8), 2(8) –42(8), 43(4-1), 44(8)–49(8), 50(6+2). In the final quire, fols. 383 and 389 are tipped in.

PREPARATION OF THE PAGE

Pricking for ruling remains visible in the bottom of fols. 2–9 (plates 7 and 8), the top of fol. 343 (plate 14), and the top and side margins of fols. 382–89 (plates 16–18). Most leaves during the statutes text show light brown ink ruling for a single column of text, with additional ruling for running heads in the top margin and ruling for regnal year notations in the outer margins (plates 10–13). Pencil ruling for the same layout appears on fols. 222r–224v and 246r– 253v. The rulings appear slightly closer together on fols. 230–237. Similar light ink ruling appears during the treatises and subject index that precede the statutes proper (plates 7–9). During the subject index to the statutes, there are also vertical rulings for the subject headings. Up through fol. 381v, the text block is ruled for 38 lines; thereafter, the ruling is darker and less regular, with the number of lines of text varying from 34 to 38 (plates 16–18).

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Medium 9780253016140

8 LBJ and Adlai

Ray E. Boomhower Indiana University Press ePub

DURING HIS SERVICE AS U.S. AMBASSADOR TO THE DOMINICAN Republic, John Bartlow Martin had shunned the usual trappings of power that came with his high diplomatic post and had concentrated instead on his work. Martin had some trouble, however, transitioning from public office to private life and admitted that he missed “some of the perquisites of power.” Instead of being driven to his office in a chauffeured limousine, he had to endure Chicago-area winters with other commuters, and there were no U.S. Marine Corps guards on duty to snap to attention when he arrived every day at his office. Martin now faced the ultimate question: What would he do with the rest of his life? Martin could write – it was, as he said, “all I knew how to do” – but he could not return to his old freelance trade, producing heavy-fact stories for magazines, as the industry had fallen on hard times as television began to draw away its advertisers. His interests had also shifted away from writing about crime and its effect on society to such issues as national politics and foreign policy. “One doesn’t go back,” he noted.1

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