667 Chapters
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Medium 9780253356796

Conclusion: Being African in the World

Akinwumi Adesokan Indiana University Press ePub

“… that impulse toward a more advanced stage of existence which sees material obstacles in terms of how to overcome them.”

—C. L. R. James, “The Artist in the Caribbean”

 

 

In his foreword to No Fist Is Big Enough to Hide the Sky, Basil Davidson’s account of the liberation struggle in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde, Amílcar Cabral, the leader and theoretician of the movement, touches on the contradictions of cultural liberation in this memorable passage:

You loved the splendor of our forests which shelter our partisan bases, which protect our populations and protected you as well from those criminal bombings. These forests are now a real strength for our people, for our struggle. Before, they were a weakness, because we were afraid of our forests, sacred bastions of iraões and every kind of spirit. Now we are afraid no longer: we have conquered and mobilized the spirits of the forests, turned this weakness into a strength. That is what struggle means: turning weakness into strength. (Davidson 1981, 4)

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Medium 9780874216349

An Interview with Terry Tempest Williams: David Kupfer, The Progressive, 2005

Michael Austin Utah State University Press ePub

The sun was setting on a late October afternoon when I met with author Terry Tempest Williams in a hotel conference room built over a saltwater marsh near San Pablo Bay in San Rafael, California. She was in my hometown that day to deliver a Sunday morning keynote lecture about her latest book, The Open Space of Democracy, to 4,000 people attending the 15th annual Bioneers Conference. Following her morning plenary lecture, she hosted a press conference with several dozen journalists, spoke as part a workshop on her book, and signed copies for a long line of fans.

Despite her rather intense schedule that day, she was bright, evocative, introspective, and quite poignant. Like Edward Abbey, she is very much aware of her place in the world and her community in the American West. A fifth-generation Mormon and native of Utah, she takes inspiration from her church and from nature.

Among her books are Desert Quartet, Leap, Unspoken Hunger, and Red: Passion and Patience in the Desert. Her sixth, Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place, tells the story of how the Great Salt Lake once rose to historic levels and flooded the wetlands that serve the migratory birds in northern Utah. She also weaves in her own family’s struggle with cancer as a result of living downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Test Site near Las Vegas. A recipient of both a Guggenheim and a Lannan literary fellowship, Williams lives with her husband, Brooke, far from the concrete jungle in Castle Valley, Utah. She has been passionately active in social and environmental issues for decades. She is currently the Annie Clark Tanner fellow at the Environmental Humanities Program at the University of Utah.

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Medium 9780253015976

7 Reading “Beur” Film Production Otherwise: The Poetics of the Human and the Transcultural

Edited by Frieda Ekotto and Kenneth W H Indiana University Press ePub

Safoi Babana-Hampton

IN HIS ANALYSIS of the cinema verité of the 1960s both in Europe and Quebec, especially as practiced by French filmmaker and ethnologist Jean Rouch, Italian filmmaker Paolo Pasolini, and Quebecois filmmaker Pierre Perrault, Gilles Deleuze proposes a new viewpoint from which to understand the distinction of fiction versus truth or subjective versus objective: “Objective and subjective images lose their distinction, but also their identification, in favor of a new circuit where they are wholly replaced, or contaminate each other, or are decomposed and recomposed” (149). As a consequence, Deleuze continues, “the cinema can call itself cinéma-vérité, all the more so because it will have destroyed every model of the true so as to become creator and producer of truth: this will not be a cinema of truth but the truth of cinema” (151, my emphasis). As Deleuze’s lines suggest, the conventional boundaries governing our understanding of the two notions of “truth” and “fiction” collapse and disappear in favor of a new notion of “truth” as being primarily a construct, or a situated act of formalizing human experience. This act characterizes the very essence and raison d’être of the cinematic enterprise, whose field of application Deleuze extends even to works traditionally defined as documentary reportages or ethnographic investigations, such as those produced by Rouch and Perrault (149). Deleuze thus develops a view of the cinematic work as a visual field within which the poetic, the lyrical, and the aesthetic as well as the documentary and ethnographic elements are intertwined and interdependent and cross-fertilize each other in order to depict a multilayered reality or lived experience. All these considerations of the cinematic work are deeply inscribed in his conception of the artist, of whom he offers the following definition: “What the artist is, is creator of truth, because truth is not to be achieved, formed, or reproduced; it has to be created. There is no other truth than the creation of the New” (146–47).

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Medium 9780253008633

Part 3. Nations of Shame

Edited by Erica L Johnson and Patricia Indiana University Press ePub

PART 3

NATIONS OF SHAME

Peiling Zhao

SHAME OCCURS WHEN there is a discrepancy between how we are seen by others and how we want others to see us (Kilborne, “Fields of Shame,” 231). As this discrepancy presents as a “global attack on the self” (M. Lewis, Shame, 75) and typically evokes feelings of disgrace, failure, and weakness about our body, we tend to hide or reshape our body to dissolve the feelings associated with the embodied shame. A nation, treated as a living soul (Abdel-Nour, 698), also feels shame—disgrace, dishonor, and humiliation—when there is a discrepancy between its imposed international image and its national pride, and consequently it changes the bodies of its subjects to dissolve the national shame, typically through, in a Foucauldian sense, historical and cultural forces, discourse, and disciplinary practices.

Although shame is considered as the “master emotion” (Scheff, Bloody Revenge, 54), whose powerful functions have been studied by Silvan Tomkins, Helen Block Lewis, and others, few have acknowledged the shame-pride axis as “a yardstick along which we measure our every activity” (Nathanson, Shame and Pride, 86) and recognized pride as the basic, constant, universal, and primary emotion that drives our every activity: a bond that binds individuals with others, a high-power emotional energy that motivates people to action. In the words of William Blake, “shame is pride's cloak”: this is a clear argument that pride is both the origin of our shame and the emotional energy we use to cope with shame—to shake off the cloak of shame. Although “pride, like shame, involves more than an evaluation of the self, and is reflected in a manner of interacting with others” (Britt and Heise, 255), pride is more public and moves people to interact with others, as prideful behaviors, unlike the shameful behaviors of hiding, withdrawing, and feeling shrunken, typically demonstrate a “tendency to broadcast one's success to the object world” (Nathanson, “Shame/Pride Axis,” 184) and make us feel in our bodies “taller, stronger, bigger, and expansive” (Davitz, 77). Therefore, it is important for us, on the one hand, to further investigate the fundamental role of pride as a universal emotion, as Jessica Tracy has done, and on the other hand not to treat shame and pride as binaries.

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Medium 9780253372086

34. Examination of the Copula of Inclusion

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

218

(3Ј)

W r i t i n g s o f C . S. P e i rc e 1 8 9 0 – 1 8 9 2

X R (Y R Z ) ϭ Y R (X R Z ).

Form II gives no necessary formula.

General forms with three copulas

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

X R [Y R (Z R W )]

(X R Y ) R (Z R W )

[(X R Y ) R Z] R W

X R [(Y R Z ) R W]

[X R (Y R Z )] R W

Form I gives the necessary formulae

X R [Y R (Z R Z )]

X R [Y R (Z R Y )]

X R [Y R (Z R X )]

by (3Ј) by (3Ј)

mere cases under (2) and (3).

Form II gives the necessary formulae

(X R Y ) R (X R Y )

(X R Y ) R (Z R Z )

case of (1) case of (2)

Form III gives the necessary formulae

(4)

[(X R X ) R Y] R Y

Proof. Assume (X R X ) R Y is true. Then we are bound to admit Y is true. For by (1) X R X must be assumed true and thus by B, we have to admit that Y is true. So by A the formula holds.

(5)

[(X R Y ) R X] R X

Proof. For assume (X R Y ) R X. Then if we are forced to admit X is true, the formula holds by A. But by B if we assume X R Y we are bound to admit X is true. And if we assume X is not true by AЈ we are to take X R Y.

Form IV gives two necessary formulae, of which one,

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Medium 9780253372086

27. The Law of Mind

Charles S. Peirce Indiana University Press PDF

27

The Law of Mind

24 May 1892

Morris Library

In an article published in the Monist for January 1891, I endeavored to show what ideas ought to form the warp of a system of philosophy, and particularly emphasized that of absolute chance. In the number for

April 1892, I argued further in favor of that way of thinking, which it will be convenient to christen tychism (from tuvch, chance). A serious student of philosophy will be in no haste to accept or reject this doctrine; but he will see in it one of the chief attitudes which speculative thought may take, feeling that it is not for an individual, nor for an age, to pronounce upon a fundamental question of philosophy. That is a task for a whole era to work out. I have begun by showing that tychism must give birth to an evolutionary cosmology, in which all the regularities of nature and of mind are regarded as products of growth, and to a Schelling-fashioned idealism which holds matter to be mere specialized and partially deadened mind. I may mention, for the benefit of those who are curious in studying mental biographies, that I was born and reared in the neighborhood of Concord,—I mean in Cambridge,— at the time when Emerson, Hedge, and their friends were disseminating the ideas that they had caught from Schelling, and Schelling from Plotinus, from

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Medium 9780253015723

7 Reading Amadís in Constantinople: Spanish Fiction in the Key of Diaspora

David A. Wacks Indiana University Press ePub

In exile, facing the painful reality of being Jews and no longer being Spaniards, the Sepharadim chose to continue to be Jews and Spaniards at the same time.

Samuel Armistead and Joseph Silverman, En torno al Romancero sefardí

Sephardic authors in the generation following the expulsion gave voice to a new layer of diasporic consciousness, of being in diaspora from Spain. Ibn Verga’s work couches this consciousness in a Sephardic humanist voice, building on and reacting to the humanist historiography of Spain and Italy, creating a diasporic counterhistory to that of the official chronicler of the Spanish royalty. Joseph Karo’s project, while patently spiritual and not concerned with temporal history, still demonstrates a familiarity with the current belief that human agency was now a factor one must take into account when discussing the sweep of human history, even when the parameters of that history are determined by God. Both adapted the intellectual practices of the dominant culture into specifically Jewish intellectual traditions. Ibn Verga, more than Karo, deliberately repackages Spanish culture as Sephardic culture, writing as he does from outside the Spanish imperium and in a literary language that had a rapidly shrinking audience on the Iberian Peninsula itself.

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Medium 9781857547658

Paris, France: An Afternoon with Mavis Gallant

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

Paris, France

A A  M G

At her suggestion we met up on the terrace of Le Dôme. In several years of living in Paris, I’d never been there. Too much the mythic sanctuary perhaps, too obviously smart-set these days to attract a novice. And climbing up the stairs at métro Vavin just outside the café, it occurred to me that there couldn’t be too many writers left in Paris bold enough to be so obviously literary. It was clearly a refuge for Mavis Gallant; one of her press photographs shows her sitting with a demi-tasse in front of her. The lettering on the cup says it for Le Dôme. And once inside, I could see it was a strategic choice

– a neutral zone just round the corner from her apartment in the sixième with a view down the boulevard Montparnasse, an area of

Paris which serves as setting for several of her stories. Choose a coffee-house and you announce to the world what you think of it:

Le Dôme’s fame started back in the s, when the patron of the nearby La Rotonde refused to serve a young American woman who had the culot to sit hatless and smoke on his terrace. Before the First World War it had been one of Apollinaire’s haunts; the early dômiers were principally German painters, Französlinge, and as he noted in his Paris-Journal, the café’s name to ‘tedescan’ ears has the sonorous boom – der Dom – of an actual cathedral. And wasn’t this the café that had made poor young V.S. Pritchett feel ‘cast down’, having sat there while the Twenties span dizzily about him?

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Medium 9780253211903

20. Sundry Logical Conceptions

Edited by the Peirce Edition Project Indiana University Press ePub

 

MS 478 [The third and longest section of the 1903 Syllabus, this text was not printed in the pamphlet for the audience. The subsection entitled “Speculative Grammar” was published in large part in CP 2.274–77, 283–84, 292–94, and 309–31.] Peirce begins here an important extension of his semiotic theory. He presents his doctrine of signs in the context of his more general theory of categories, making use of three kinds of “separation in thought”: dissociation, prescission, and discrimination. He remarks that logic, in fulfilling its historical mission to distinguish good from bad reasonings, develops into a general theory of signs, and he reviews the place of logic within his classification of sciences. Peirce then takes up the first department of logic (semiotics), speculative grammar, and, on the basis of his categories, divides signs into two trichotomies: (1) icons, indices, and symbols, and (2) sumisigns (later called rhemes), dicisigns, and arguments. The second trichotomy is here given for the first time. This is followed by a sustained discussion of propositions as signs, and of how they are related to dicisigns and other semiotic constituents. Peirce concludes with a discussion of the class of signs we call “arguments“ and surveys how its three types—deduction, induction, and abduction—work together to perform the operation of reasoning.

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Medium 9781857547658

All the Glory of His Father’s House

Iain Bamforth Carcanet Press Ltd. PDF

All the Glory of his Father’s House

B S’ D  W

Bruno Schulz was born in  in the Galician town of Drohobycz, a station of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father Jacob ran a haberdashery; the family was decently well-off, and although

Bruno regularly attended the synagogue with his elder brother and sister the family was not religiously conservative. In , Schulz’s father died, and Drohobycz’s marketplace, including his father’s shop, was flattened by the Russian army. This was the great divide in Schulz’s life. Unlike Kafka, to whom he bears some resemblance, he doted on his father. One of the fetish images he carried through his life was ‘of a child carried by its father through the spaces of an overwhelming night, conducting a conversation with the darkness’. It is, as he recognised, the story of the father who tries to shelter his sick son from harm as they ride through the night, wind and wood in Goethe’s poem of frightened eroticism

‘Der Erlkönig’. With one difference: the roles are reversed. All his writings were to become a mythological consecration of his father’s cabalistic speculations in the backroom to his shop, literary returns on what the Book of Isaiah calls ‘all the glory of his father’s house’. Double-entry bookkeeping has rarely been described so enticingly: ‘The Book lay in all its glory on my father’s desk, and he, quietly engrossed in it, patiently rubbed with a wet fingertip the top of decals, until the blank page grew opaque and ghostly with a delightful foreboding and, suddenly, flaking off in bits of tissue, disclosed a peacock-eyed fragment.’ The obvious is a most terrible enigma.

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Medium 9780253329561

Chapter Fourteen

Scott Russell Sanders Indiana University Press ePub

Terra’s occasional rampages put the newscasters in a quandary. Reports of earthquakes and volcanoes and pestilence in the wilds made life within the Enclosure seem all the more desirable. But if the wilds actually broke through the skin of the human system? And if Terra, on one of these violent sprees, actually killed a few people, swallowed an Arctic research team down a sudden throat of ice, or drowned a repair crew in the ocean outside Oregon City? That sort of news would be disquieting. The trick was to remind people of Terra’s brutality without making them brood too much about the Enclosure’s fragility.

So the first half meter of newsfax unscrolling on Zuni’s desk brought her word of the typhoon, without mentioning damage or casualties, FREAK STORM LASHES OREGON CITY, the headline proclaimed, DOME UNHARMED. At least my architecture is sound, she reflected wryly. How had the travel-tubes fared? No mention of that in the lead story. Curious, she skimmed over the week’s fashion news, skimmed rhetoric tournament results and summaries of World Council debates, skimmed the daily geometries and mating announcements, until she found, eight meters from the beginning of the scroll, a brief notice of damage to the Oregon-Alaska seatube. Typhoon generates high waves, the article stated. Seatube cracks—vacuum partially destroyed—commuter traffic disrupted—protective systems activated—wildergoers quickly repair damage.

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Medium 9780253008053

22. Toward a Methodology of Wonder

Edited by Steven T Katz and Alan Rosen Indiana University Press ePub

ARIEL BURGER

RABBI HANOCH HENICH of Alexander told the story of a man who was so forgetful that, when he awoke in the morning, he didn't know what to do with the strange things he found in his room. Every morning saw him painstakingly trying to determine what each item of clothing was for, looking them up in research books, and finally putting them on correctly. One day he decided to label everything in his house. The next morning, he woke up and looked around. Following the labels’ instructions, he dressed. He recognized a chair from its note and sat on it. As he was leaving, his eye fell on the mirror by the door. He looked in the mirror, and, bewildered, whispered, “But who am I?”1

The topic of Elie Wiesel's approach to education is marked by urgency, and the question of how precisely he inspires, educates, and awakens students is not merely academic. For his self-described task as a teacher for over three decades has been nothing less than to quicken minds, and to fight for memory, the searing memory that transforms and that may serve as guardian and barrier against the darkness within men.

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Medium 9780253007278

7 Literature and Reality

Gerald Sorin Indiana University Press ePub

A prisoner of his own ambition and of his unwavering loyalty to Communist orthodoxy, Fast on June 7, 1950, became a prisoner of the state. The U.S. Supreme Court, on May 29 had dashed Fast’s last chance at reprieve by denying for a second time in two years a review of his appeal lost at lower levels. Fast and the other convicted members of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee had known for many months that their chances were exceedingly slim, and this last attempt at a review by the highest court was little more than a formality on their part.1

But in the months preceding what Fast now saw as his inevitable imprisonment, he continued to speak, write, and correspond with supporters. In October 1949, in a letter to his Welsh friend, novelist Gwyn Thomas, Fast said he was convinced that the Truman government had “gone truly berserk,” and that “gibbering idiots” were running the nation. He went on in a bizarre non sequitur to say that the atom bomb “which the Russians so innocently exploded has shown up the utter insanity and bankruptcy” of Washington, “a city sick with terror and paralyzed with fear.” Fast, who hadn’t been in D.C. since October 1947, told Thomas that “there are spies, informers, and various kinds of touts at every street corner” of the capital. And although he had never been to Germany, Fast told Thomas that he agreed with a Czech associate who had recently remarked that “Berlin at its worst was not quite as bad” as Washington. Fascism, Fast concluded, has come to America as anti-Communism “in the name of democracy.”2

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Medium 9781885635150

Thin Horse

Zach Savich Center for Literary Publishing ePub

for David Bartone

A ladder built into the exterior of a truck,
all anything does is confide, every morning

beginning now, decency its own kind
of constitution, each step onto a balcony or

from a café with little outdoor seating,
not counting the city. “What year

is that from,” the mother says. “First century
AD,” says her son. “But that’s a hundred

years.”

for Jeff Downey

We proceed by pattern and anomaly, had
no money but lived above a bakery

and a florist, just-aged flowers free
in a trough. I liked how you called the street

I always take “the secret way,” two fingers
held to a passing dog.

for Hilary Plum

We go to the cinema merely
for the light, view of alleys

from a balcony, to be in
the world and it is mythic:

zinnia market in the churchyard,
onions in mesh, daylit moon

a watermark on foreign currency.

1.

I sang: Tell me of the heart which exists
in which to continue is not
to confine

2.

Then dreamed I sang so loudly, I woke
myself singing

The cygnets’ feet were lost in snow

The cygnets were lovely because footless

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Medium 9780253006615

2 Anne Frank from Page to Stage

Edited by Barbara KirshenblattGimblett Indiana University Press ePub

Edna Nahshon

Scene: Apartment kitchen, Upper West Side, New York City.

Time: Shortly before Passover, spring 1997.

Characters: the Author of this essay; her Son, a high-school senior, helping in the kitchen.

Author (focused on chopping vegetables, chatting casually): So, what are your friends doing for the holiday?

Son: Well, David is having a seder at home, Avi is going to relatives on Long Island.

Author: And Ruth?

Son: Ruth’s family has an invitation for the second seder, but her mom doesn’t know how to prepare a seder and she wanted to do “something Jewish,” so she bought theater tickets for Anne Frank.

Although this conversation—which took place when The Diary of Anne Frank enjoyed its first Broadway revival in forty-two years—may seem trivial, it raises key issues about the play. First is the use of theater as a “sacred space” to affirm an ethno-religious identity and moral code. Attending a performance of this play in lieu of a Passover seder may not be a common practice, but the notion that seeing The Diary of Anne Frank is an exceptional, morally galvanizing experience has a considerable history, dating back to the play’s first production. As literary scholars Peter Brooks and John G. Cawelti have argued, the dramatic and literary form of melodrama, of which The Diary of Anne Frank is an example, developed in post-sacred cultures in order to satisfy their need for a secular system of ethics. When replacing the church or synagogue as the forum for contemplating the nature of good and evil, the theater has the power of endowing everyday life with a moral order.1

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