202 Chapters
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1. Overview and Theoretical Foundations of Corrections

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF

CHAPTER 1

Overview and Theoretical

Foundations of Corrections

THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Criminal justice in the United States involves three interdependent agencies—law enforcement, courts, and corrections—operating at the federal, state, and local levels. Together, these agencies represent the criminal justice system. Although with distinct lines of funding, rules, standards, procedures, and organizational structures, these agencies must work together in the processing of criminal cases. This process is traditionally characterized by a model developed by the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice (LEAA)

(President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of

Justice, 1967). The model portrays a rational, systematic assembly linelike processing of criminal cases through the three agencies. Law enforcement agencies are formally charged with the prevention and control of crime. To this end, they respond to reports of criminal activity, investigate these reports, and make arrests when appropriate. Then, courts determine criminal charges, decide guilt of the accused, and impose criminal sanctions. Finally, correctional agencies administer these penalties through control, custody, and supervision.

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5 Intercommunal Violence and the Sharī‘a

Wagner, Mark S. Indiana University Press PDF

Intercommunal Violence and the

Sharī‘a

Violence: Theory versus Practice

In theory, Muslims and Jews in Yemen could not behave violently toward one another. In practice, violence across the hierarchical boundaries between Muslim and Jew seems to have been relatively common. Jewish sources provide contradictory answers to the question of whether Yemen under the imāms was a particularly violent place. Some credit Imām Yahyā with the virtual elimination

˙ of crime through his focus on law and order. Others (some of the same people) describe numerous violent robberies, particularly attacks by tribesmen on traveling Jewish salesmen in unsettled areas.¹ Such merchants, who were often unarmed, seem to have made easy prey. Jews in the process of emigrating were likely to carry all of their worldly belongings with them. Sālim Mansūrah tells

˙ the story of two Jewish men who, having packed all of their things upon a pair of donkeys and setting off on the journey for Israel, were assaulted and robbed by the shaykh of their small village and some of his male relatives, who were armed with hatchets. The two wounded men headed straight to Imām Ah mad’s

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Appendix 1. Significant Court Cases concerning Texas Water Rights

Porter, Charles R. Texas A&M University Press ePub

APPENDIX 1

SIGNIFICANT COURT CASES CONCERNING TEXAS WATER RIGHTS

The following sample of significant cases concerning water rights in Texas is not intended to represent all the court rulings that impacted our current water rights policies or to provide the reader with a legal opinion at all. However, the cases are not only interesting themselves but also indicative, when taken as a whole, of the efforts the courts have made to find the fairness and justice built into our system of government. Texas’ adoption of English common law in 1840, which in essence allows laws to be modified by judicial action and interpretation, keeps our law young and alive to meet the challenges of each generation. The history of some of the key cases puts the issue of water rights into context.

TEXAS COMPANY V. BURKETT

The Texas Company became the international oil company Texaco. This landmark case was decided in 1927. These were the key rulings:

• Absence of evidence to the contrary, underground water is presumed to be percolating groundwater, therefore owned by the surface owner.

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2 Ottoman Legal Practice and Non-Judicial Actors in Seventeenth-Century Istanbul

Schull, Kent F. Indiana University Press ePub

Hadi Hosainy

ON 31 AUGUST 1666, the Istanbul Court exonerated the imam of the Bucakbağı neighborhood of the homicide of a woman named Ayşe, daughter of Abdullah. The homicide took place a day earlier at the house of the imam, Mustafa Efendi. A grand vizieral order (buyruldu) was already issued for the investigation and registration (keşif ve tahrir) of the case. Accordingly, the court sent a group of investigators to the location of the homicide, i.e., the house of the mentioned imam. At the head of the investigating team were a high-ranking judge from the court and the chief police officers of Istanbul. They examined (mu’âyene) the dead body of Ayşe and arrived at several findings. İsmail Beşe, the elder son of the imam, had loaded a gun and put it at a window sill. In the meantime, Ayşe went to the imam’s house for some business. When the minor son of the imam tried to put a copy of the Quran on the same sill where the gun had been placed, he unintentionally touched the trigger. The gun went off and the bullet hit the right side of Ayşe’s neck and came out the other side. The investigating team concluded that this was the cause of Aşye’s death.2

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7 The Multiple Self: Implications for Law and Social Justice

john a. powell Indiana University Press ePub

SEVEN

The Multiple Self

IMPLICATIONS FOR LAW AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

I am linked, therefore I am.

Kenneth J. Gergen, The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life

I frequently have difficulty sorting out how to think about a number of issues in my life. The problem is not so much that I do not know what I think and feel. Instead, it is that I think and feel many different and conflicting things.1 Sometimes I let the different voices engage one another in dialogue and find intrasubjective solutions. At other times I simply allow the discord to exist. Often I engaged my friend Trina Grillo in the discussion. Trina was, and is, not just a good friend; she is a part of the multiple aspects of which I am constituted. Trina did more than help me to identify existing voices. She often helped me create new voices that somehow made deep claims upon me, upon us. She helped create the spaces where the silence laced between and within the voices could be heard.

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