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7.9 Format for the quality cost model

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


A system for quantifying construction quality costs

7.1 Introduction

There are three components that make up quality costs: Prevention, Appraisal and Failure costs. The ISO 9000 standard introduces a quality management system that has been widely claimed would reduce the costs of business. One of the ways it does this is through a reduction in quality costs. The ISO 9000 quality management system establishes work procedures that reduce defects. Proper design and implementation of these work procedures lead to reduced wastage as more work would be done right the first time. Ultimately, the costs of operation would decrease. However, no study has been done based on the above premise. Although it has been widely claimed that ISO 9000 would reduce the costs of doing business, no studies have been undertaken within the context of ISO 9000 certified construction firms. Due to this vacuum, this chapter proposes a cost system to capture site quality costs. The aims of this chapter are to:

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Medium 9781574414325

Chapter 14 – Craft Shop

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


craft shop

There are perhaps only three ways an inmate may legally make money while he is in TDCJ. One is to write and then market his fiction, essays and poetry to free-world magazines. Another is to paint or draw and sell his artwork to interested buyers outside the walls. Both of these moneymaking ideas are subject to not just individual talent but to the mails, and to the hit-and-miss assistance of outside parties.

TDCJ offers one way for inmates who keep clear disciplinary records to make money while inside the walls, with all work and most sales being done by the inmates. It’s called the craft shop, or the “piddling” shop, and it is a privilege not to be dismissed lightly. The craft shop is just that: an area where inmates work on leather goods, jewelry, wood projects, paintings, fanciful stick creations—any of a number of personal expressions that can be done at a minimum of cost and then sold to officers or visitors or marketed to the free-world.

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4.2 Authority to deal with non-conformities

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


Legal implications for the construction industry

4.1 Introduction

Traditionally, a client’s expectations with regard to quality in construction works are ensured and upheld by building contracts. With the recent emergence of ISO 9000 quality management systems, however, the definition and assurance of quality have taken on a new dimension. Many contractors have since applied quality management systems in their organisations without understanding its intricate relationship with the building contract used. This chapter examines the likely conflicts and compatibility between Standard Forms of Building Contract and quality management systems. An understanding of the possible legal obligations that may arise from adopting a quality management system contractually will help contractors and clients protect their interests when defects arise. In addition, many contractors are in the process of establishing their quality management systems to increase their competitive and bidding edge.

This trend has raised questions as to the application of quality systems to Standard Forms of Building Contracts in the construction industry. There is a tendency for both the Quality Manager and Construction Manager to consider quality systems and their associated legal obligations separately from building contracts. This may be acceptable when the quality system is still in its infancy stage. As the quality system matures, however, there would be unavoidable interaction between quality systems and contractual/legal obligations at different levels, especially when there is evidence of reliance by the purchaser on certification such as ISO 9000.

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3. Intensive Supervision Programs

Gail Caputo University of North Texas Press PDF


Intensive Supervision Programs


Intensive Supervision Programs, the most popular intermediate sanctions in the United States, provide for closer monitoring and surveillance of offenders than is possible with regular probation and parole. An intensive supervision program (ISP) is a more enhanced and restrictive form of probation or parole intended to protect the public.

Probation departments experimented with intensive forms of probation as early as the 1950s. These early programs emphasized low caseloads to afford probation officers better control of offenders under supervision. In the late 1970s there were as many as 46 ISPs. These programs were used for offenders on probation and provided for smaller caseloads and increased officer-offender contacts (Byrne, Lurigio, &

Baird, 1989).

It was not until the mid-1980s, however, that intensive supervision programs emerged in their present forms. Like other intermediate sanctions, intensive supervision programs were created to reduce reliance on prisons and to fill the gap between traditional probation and incarceration by serving as tougher punishments with stricter controls over offenders than traditional probation could provide. The impetus behind this new generation of programs was to alleviate crowding in prisons, to more effectively supervise higher-risk offenders on probation, to save money, and to control crime (See Petersilia, 1999; Haas & Latessa,

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3 Influence District and the Courts: A Concept in Need of Clarity

Edited by Daniel McCool Indiana University Press ePub

The concept of “influence district” is referenced frequently in discussions of minority voting rights and representational districting. An influence district is said to be a district in which voters constituting a cohesive quantitative minority of voters cannot elect a representative of their choice if their choice is a member of their own group, but can still be expected, given their level of presence in the district, to influence the legislative behavior of the person who is elected to represent the district. Theoretically the presence of any group satisfying these criteria could be the basis for calling a district an influence district for that group, but in application the concept has been applied almost exclusively to districts in which the group is a minority group protected by the Voting Rights Act (VRA), in particular African Americans and Latinos.1

Influence districts are one of three types of districts recognized by the United States Supreme Court in which minority voters do not constitute a majority of the voting age population. The others are “coalition districts” and “crossover districts.” In these types of districts, minority voters do have a reasonable opportunity to elect representatives from within their group based on predictable levels of support for those candidates from other voters. In the case of coalition districts, the other voters are members of other protected minorities; in the case of crossover districts they are typically white or Anglos voters.2 Influence districts, however, are districts “in which minority candidates do not win, but minority voters can play a significant role in electing candidates who will be sympathetic to their interests.”3

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