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8 Criminal Codes, Crime, and the Transformation of Punishment in the Late Ottoman Empire

Schull, Kent F. Indiana University Press ePub

Kent F. Schull

BY THE END of World War I, the Ottoman Empire had significantly transformed its criminal justice system to include modern centralized penal codes, policing organizations, criminal courts, modern law schools, and a centralized prison system wherein the vast majority of convicted criminals received incarceration as punishment. These transformations did not happen overnight, but often came about in fits and starts as imperial and local officials attempted to deal with the challenges and crises experienced during this period. This “modern” criminal justice system was not borrowed wholesale from Western Europe. Instead, it possessed deep roots and antecedents in Ottoman “classical” criminal justice practices and Islamic law. Themes such as prisoner rehabilitation, prison labor, the Circle of Justice, and legitimizing imperial practice through Islamic law still functioned and took precedence in the late Ottoman legal system.1 The assumptions and world view associated with Ottoman modernity governed this transformation. Ottoman officials implemented these reforms in order to centralize power over criminal justice through the rationalization and standardization of legal procedure, criminal codes, court practices and jurisdictions, policing, and criminal punishment.2 These transformations, however, should not be viewed as simple impositions of state authority detached from societal norms or mores.3 Instead, they should be seen as an imperfect outcome of negotiated, collaborative, and contentious exchanges between and among central and local state actors and societal forces, with the central state holding a distinct power advantage.

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Medium 9781457109737

Chapter 3 Indian Land and Property: Title and Use

General, Conference of Western Attorneys University Press of Colorado ePub

P.84, n.37.      Add the following to the end of the footnote:

Other parts of the Act complete ANCSA’s land allocations, id. at 549, and otherwise implement as well as “cleanup” ANCSA. Stratman v. Leisnoi, Inc., 545 F.3d 1161, 1165 (9th Cir. 2008), cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 2861 (2009).

P.84, n.38.      Add the following to the third-to-last line before the semi-colon:

, appeal dismissed on mootness grounds, Stratman v. Leisnoi, Inc., 545 F.3d 1161 (9th Cir. 2008), cert. denied, 129 S. Ct. 2861 (2009);

P.86, n.52.      Add the following to line 8 of the footnote after “ see generally ”:

Ezra Rosser, Protecting Non-Indians from Harm? The Property Consequences of Indians, 87 Or. L. Rev. 175, 218–19 (2008) (arguing that Sherrill as predicated in part on “the Court’s assumptions regarding border towns and checkerboard areas” and their harmful effect on neighboring property owners, and criticizing these assumptions as predicated on “empirics” not susceptible to ready determination and, in any event, does not constitute “an adequate rationale for negating Indian sovereignty over reacquired land” given the “ ‘fundamental questions of historical justice and responsibility’ ” land claims);

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Medium 9781902375014

6.1 Introduction

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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6.4 Implications of survey findings

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub

CHAPTER 6

ISO 9000 for small construction firms

6.1 Introduction

The application of ISO 9000 Quality Management Systems (QMS) seems to be confined presently to the larger construction firms and not their smaller counterparts. However, many of the smaller firms are employed by large construction firms as their subcontractors. It therefore appears that QMS should also be extended to the smaller construction firms if the long-term objective of developing a construction industry which is capable of producing consistently good quality work is to be achieved (Low, 1995). This chapter presents the findings of a survey which examined the reasons why small construction firms are not receptive to ISO 9000. It also suggests measures to overcome some of the hurdles currently faced by small construction firms when developing and implementing quality management systems within their organisations. Total Quality Management within the construction industry can be achieved only when both large and small contractors have implemented quality management systems in their operations.

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7 “Take that . . . ”

Gary M. Lavergne University of North Texas Press PDF

chapter seven

“Take that . . . ”

“The movies don’t even come close.”

—Norman* piano player for the Mike Harris Quartet

I

T

he Mike Harris Quartet had been playing soft music since

9 P.M., and by the time midnight came along, they were getting no requests or tips. “Hey, it was a Thursday night,” said Norman, the piano player. They played Duke Ellington’s C Jam Blues before taking a break just after midnight. Sherlyn, the featured singer, turned on taped music and went to the end of the bar where Mary and Dick were talking and laughing.

From the time Belachheb arrived to just after midnight, he had three or four Johnny Walker and 7Up. He roamed around the entire barroom and spoke to nearly all of the women. He even danced with a few, but he always came back to Marcell.

“Marcell was the kind of person if she was annoyed with somebody you could tell quite immediately,” Dick observed. He noticed, as did almost everyone else, that Marcell wanted less and less to do with Belachheb as the night wore on. Some of the other regulars, less than enchanted by her brusque ways, recall that she could, at times, be cruel. “I had seen her before come on to a man sitting next to her and then belittle him in front of people,” remembered a Ianni’s bartender.

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