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5 Work

Jorge Antonio Renaud University of North Texas Press PDF

Chapter five



t comes as a shock to the mostly lazy, unskilled criminals who come into the Texas prison system that, unlike the federal system or most other state prisons, Texas inmates must work. And they do not get paid. Anything. (More on the financial situation in Chapter nine: Money.) Inside and outside, in snow and rain, day and night, whenever TDCJ needs something done, chances are that an inmate is assigned to do it.

Most inmates who are physically fit are first assigned to work in the fields, in what are called work squads, hoe squads, or sometimes just the

Line. The Line is not actually considered a job. It is a way of indoctrinating inmates—especially younger, first-time inmates—to the system, and it is punishment for inmates losing other jobs through disciplinary infractions. Sometimes, it is just punishment for angering the wrong officer.

On most units, the Line does field work. Inmates in the fields plant, weed, thin, and harvest fruits and vegetables. Texas prison crops range from watermelons, peanuts, eggplants, and beets to the more traditional vegetables and, of course, King Cotton.

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7.10 Implementation of the proposed quality cost system on site

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


A system for quantifying construction quality costs

7.1 Introduction

There are three components that make up quality costs: Prevention, Appraisal and Failure costs. The ISO 9000 standard introduces a quality management system that has been widely claimed would reduce the costs of business. One of the ways it does this is through a reduction in quality costs. The ISO 9000 quality management system establishes work procedures that reduce defects. Proper design and implementation of these work procedures lead to reduced wastage as more work would be done right the first time. Ultimately, the costs of operation would decrease. However, no study has been done based on the above premise. Although it has been widely claimed that ISO 9000 would reduce the costs of doing business, no studies have been undertaken within the context of ISO 9000 certified construction firms. Due to this vacuum, this chapter proposes a cost system to capture site quality costs. The aims of this chapter are to:

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5.3 Quality control department

Low Sui Pheng Chartridge Books Oxford ePub


A case study of ISO 9000 in large scale projects

5.1 Introduction

Although quality management systems were introduced more than a decade ago in the construction industries of the developed countries (in the United Kingdom, for example), the implementation of quality management systems in some less developed countries is still a relatively new phenomenon.

While quality management systems are now slowly making their presence felt in the less developed countries, there has been a lack of study of the problems faced by practitioners in implementing quality management systems for building projects during their infancy stage in the industry. This vacuum was, likewise, felt in the more developed countries like the United Kingdom when quality management systems were first introduced to their construction industries. This lacuna at the infancy stage means that the lessons and experiences learnt from implementing quality management systems in one particular building project are not necessarily transferred to benefit other projects. Apart from filling this vacuum, the aims of this chapter are to:

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Chapter 11 – Visits and Phone Calls

Jorge Antonio Renaud The University of North Texas Press ePub


visits and calls

There are prisons in some states that allow conjugal visits between inmates and their spouses. There are prisons where visitors are encouraged to have picnics with their loved ones, who are allowed to bring in food, and the prisons provide barbecue facilities. Visits in those states are almost unsupervised, with inmates and their families left alone until they abuse the privilege. Texas is not one of those states. In Texas, it is assumed that all inmates will, if given the opportunity, smuggle in contraband or will otherwise abuse the visiting process. In order to prevent this, Texas limits the contact between visitors and convicts severely.

Visits in Texas prisons fall into two categories: general and special. General visits are further divided into two categories: contact and non-contact, or regular visits. Every convict in Texas prison is allowed some type of visit, unless he is in a locked-down status or in punitive segregation.

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Friend and Foe? U.S. Espionage against Other Countries

David P Fidler Indiana University Press ePub

Friend and Foe?
U.S. Espionage against Other Countries

The documents released by Snowden included many disclosures about U.S. intelligence activities directed against other countries. These NSA briefing slides, for example, provide evidence of U.S. government surveillance and espionage directed at Brazil’s political leadership and national oil company, Petrobas. Snowden also leaked information about U.S. intelligence efforts targeting Afghanistan, Argentina, the Bahamas, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Germany, Honduras, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, North Korea, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Turkey, the Vatican, and Venezuela. Snowden-provided documents also indicated that the U.S. government spied on international institutions and their meetings, including the European Union, International Atomic Energy Agency, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Summit of the Americas, UN, UN Climate Change Conference, and the World Bank. These disclosures increased the displeasure of foreign governments, which were already upset about U.S. surveillance of foreign communications. Fellow democracies, such as Brazil, responded with particular pique to being targets of U.S. spying. These slides on Brazil also highlight (see bottom of each slide) the special relationship of the so-called “Five Eyes”—Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States—among whom these slides (and other documents Snowden disclosed) circulated. These disclosures did not connect to Snowden’s allegations that the NSA was violating the U.S. Constitution; instead they brought international law more directly into the debate about U.S. surveillance and espionage.

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