235 Chapters
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Medium 9781936764976

PART I Prewriting and Introductionto Writing

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub


Prewriting and Introduction to Writing

At the outset, teachers need to consider ways that instruction can foster a learning environment that will support, nurture, and develop writers. This can mean everything from how we teach specific strategies for building background, brainstorming, and organizing to creating and fostering a community of writers. This requires teachers and students to have frequent discussions about how they can support and offer each other feedback during the writing process in order to develop and grow as writers.

When students learn specific strategies to help them brainstorm, plan, and organize their writing, the quality of their writing improves (Graham & Perin, 2007c). Prewriting, for example, helps students create effective plans for their writing. Brainstorming activities, such as free writes and graphic organizers, help students in the initial stages of writing. An evidenced-based approach for introducing students to a new task—such as the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)—can be particularly important during the prewriting stage. Teachers should begin by articulating the purpose of an activity and explaining the ways the strategy will assist students. It is not enough to simply give directions; rather, teachers must model the prewriting strategy. During modeling, teachers should explain their thinking as they move through the stages of the strategy. Students must then have opportunities to work collaboratively and independently.

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Then the Walls Closed In

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781622500291

Study the Issues 2

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


A. This lesson presents words you are

likely to hear as people take sides on current issues. Match each term with its meaning by writing a letter on the line. Use a dictionary if you need help.

1. _____ conservative

a. in favor of something; a positive reason

2. _____ liberal

b. the position that things should remain as they are; against major changes or reform

3. _____ pro

c. group of citizens who share a belief about an issue and work together to promote it

4. _____ con

5. _____ partisan

d. to try to influence lawmakers to vote for or against a certain law; also, the group of people who work to pass laws for a special interest group

6. _____ nonpartisan

7. _____ bipartisan

8. _____ special interest

h. not supporting or controlled by a political party

9. _____ status quo

i. the way things are at a particular time


10. _____ lobby

e. in favor of reform; open to change f. strong supporter of one political party g. against something; a negative reason

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PART IV Awareness of Audience and Purpose

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub


Awareness of Audience and Purpose

Purpose, context, and audience are intricately related. In order for writing to be meaningful and relevant, students need to know why they are writing and who is the intended audience for their work. Too often, however, students view writing as an assignment for the teacher to read and determine a grade. When this happens, students are likely to become detached from their writing and view it as less than authentic.

Flower (1979) distinguishes between writer-based and reader-based prose. In writer-based prose, a student does not conceptualize someone reading his or her work but writes as if he or she will be the reader. Flower (1981) explains that “writer-based prose reflects the interior monologue of a writer thinking and talking to himself” (p. 63). Novice writers trying to articulate their thoughts often write from this stance. As teachers, however, we strive for our students to write with their audience and purpose in mind, or reader-based prose (Flower, 1979). When students write from a reader-based stance, they must consider their readers when composing, which can be difficult and challenging for student writers. Yet, researchers have linked this concept to writing achievement (Graham et al., 2012; Graham, Harris, & Mason, 2005; Graham & Perin, 2007c). When students can identify the purpose for writing (that is, establishing an argument) and recognize who might be the reader, they can write with specific goals in mind, which has a positive effect on students’ writing quality (Graham & Perin, 2007c).

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12. Being Approachable

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


The impression you make when you speak is based on evaluations of:

• What you say

• How you say it

• How you look when you say it

We are primarily aware of the “what” component: the actual words, the stuff you can quote, and write, and forward, the stuff you can see and edit. Word usage has come into the repertoire of humanity relatively lately compared to the sound of voice (the “how”) and the nonverbal communication (the “how you look”). Language usage is, of course, a wonderful evolutionary triumph. At the same time, it has blinded us to the powerful components of voice and appearance in our impact on others.

We have already spent some time on the features of your appearance that reflect conscious choices on your part (in Chapter 8). I want to spend a bit more time in nonverbal land and follow Dr. Sapolsky into his research on reading silent information and its importance in our social lives.

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The Favor: Los Angeles Times / By Christopher Goffard

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press PDF

The Favor

Los Angeles Times

A Two-Part Series, December 21, 23, 2014

By Christopher Goffard

Would Power Trump Justice?

* A stabbing on a college campus leaves a student dead. One of the accused is the son of a former

Assembly speaker. The victim’s family hopes that won't matter.

First of two parts

A young man’s grave sits on a cemetery hill. To reach it, his parents drive through serene, graciously shaded neighborhoods where they see him still. As a toddler, throwing bread to the ducks. As a sixth-grader, on a razor scooter. As a lanky teenager with a cocky sideways smile.

Fred Santos, the father, steers his Toyota Prius into Oakmont Memorial

Park in the Bay Area suburb of Lafayette and follows the road to the


Best American Newspaper Narratives, Vol. 3

summit. He parks amid the pines and oaks. He carries sunflowers as he and his wife, Kathy, walk to the spot.


June 27, 1986—October 4, 2008

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Medium 9781622500291

Styles of the Century 1

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


Read about some clothing styles that were popular during the first half of the

20th century. Then circle words to complete the sentences that follow the chart.








• corset

•top hat

• hobble skirt

• boater

• cloche hat

• raccoon coat

• evening gown

•high heels

• Skokies

• turban

• zoot suit


•tight-fitting undergarment meant to slim a woman’s figure

•gentleman’s formal hat with high crown

•high-fashion gown tied near the hem by a straight band

•man’s straw hat for summer wear

•close-fitting woman’s hat; like a cloth bathing cap

•big fur coat popular with young men

•long, graceful formal dress

•women’s shoes with high, slender heels

•lightweight, rubber-soled men’s shoes

•cloth head wrap for women

•men’s suit coats with wide, padded shoulders,


  the pants ballooned at the knee and were tight

  at the ankles

1. For a popular “hourglass figure,” women of the early 1900s cinched their waists with stiff, uncomfortable ( corsets / blazers ).

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18. What Are You Saying About You?

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


In prehistoric times, your social impact was pretty much conveyed by the look of your nonverbal features and sound of your voice. It’s as true now as it was then. When talking, you are probably completely engrossed in putting your thoughts into words, with little attention paid to what your voice is saying about you. You are much more aware of other people’s voices, which tells you how important a signal voices are and how fast you use it to make conclusions about them.

If you want to get to know someone, you absolutely must get them to talk to you face-to-face. As James Fallows, a former Microsoft employee, observed, the necessary complement to the Internet is the 747. Major industries, professional associations, and trade groups have national conferences just for the opportunities to meet face-to-face. From biolinguist John Locke:

If we are to express ourselves personally—to show that we are honest or loving or trustworthy—talking is the least that we must do, but for many intents and purposes it will be all that is needed. For as soon as we begin, our words unleash a rich flow of “nonverbal” behavior, and it is in this flow that personal cues reside. Nonverbal behaviors do not merely accompany speech like so much spare baggage, they are our species’ preferred mode for the transmission of personal information. While it is true that vocalization enables us to talk, the display of ourselves through the voice may be the primary reason for conversing, a motive likely to be unknown even to the participants themselves.

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Facts About Fabrics 2

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


A. Review the meanings of natural and

synthetic in the last lesson’s puzzle clues.

Then classify each fabric listed in the box under the proper heading below. Use a dictionary if you need help.

cotton  nylon  wool  rayon  polyester  silk  leather  plastic











B. Read each sentence. Describe an article of clothing appropriate for each situation. Explain the properties—or features—of this garment that would suit the situation. Use some of the words from this lesson and the last one.

1. It is raining hard but is not very cold.


2. It is warm outside, and you are going to be exercising.

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Fred Nelligan: The Oregonian / By Molly Harbarger

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press PDF

Fred Nelligan

The Oregonian

Nov. 12, 2014

By Molly Harbarger

In the grip of ALS, Fred Nelligan struggled with when to use Oregon's Death with Dignity law

As the man on the television screen charged up Mount St. Helens, the room fell silent. Off screen, Fred Nelligan sat in his maroon armchair, silently sobbing, his body atrophied and thin.

The September 2013 climb was possibly the last time Nelligan stood truly in his element—surrounded by friends, enjoying the physical accomplishment, soaking up nature.

Despite his robust presence in a video Nelligan shared with friends at his Milwaukie-area home last month, the longtime outdoorsman had struggled to keep up that day. Climbing the slope with his GoPro camera, he could see the backs of his friends grow smaller as they neared the summit.


Best American Newspaper Narratives, Vol. 3

Maybe, he thought at the time, it was age. At 60, Nelligan was at least

10 years older than most of his climbing partners. Maybe it was his 40pound pack. As a volunteer in the backcountry and a search and rescue veteran, Nelligan always climbed with a full load of emergency supplies.

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19. How to Raise Fluent, Comfortable, and Charming Kids

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I was at a Christmas dinner recently, and since it was somebody else’s family I could observe the interactions quite deliberately. It was a rich, multigenerational affair with people talking, drinking, eating—repeated over and over again. They were catching up with each other. There is something so sweet about this ritual of renewing relationships and filling in on recent events, all done with interest and goodwill.

A young man caught my attention when he leaned over the kindergarten set and said, “Hey, guys! How are you doing? Having any luck with that puzzle?” Followed by “Hi, Grandpa! Glad you are here. You’re looking pretty sharp today!” And then to me, “Hello! My name is Richard Brody. What’s your name?”

This young man was just twelve years old. I don’t know his other traits and talents, but what I saw of his graceful sociability made a huge impression on me, and based on that alone, I predict he will have an easy and successful life. And, no, I don’t have a clue as to how he became so socially fluent, except for the amiable context of the family party.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Reasons for Opposing or Supporting Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



the White House and to both chambers of Congress in 2000 also became an important element in the repeal of federal bilingual education. From the beginning of his administration, President George W. Bush, elected to office in 2000, expressed his support for eliminating the federal preference for bilingual education and for supporting English-only methods for teaching LEP children. President Bush and the Republican Party also supported placing a three-year limit on bilingual education, setting performance objectives to ensure that ELLs achieve English fluency within these three years, and converting bilingual education from discretionary to block grants. President Bush’s education plan likewise called for states to be held accountable for making annual increases in English proficiency from the previous year and for them to ensure that these students met standards in core content areas that were at least as rigorous as those in classes taught in English.32

These sets of circumstances eventually led to the formulation and enactment of S. 1, the comprehensive education reform bill proposed by the Bush administration and to the repeal of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994.33

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Dangerous Minds/Insane System

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781622500291

Party Time

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


The words in the box name different types of social gatherings. In the box below each invitation, write the type of gathering it announces. reunion   brunch   banquet   luncheon   dinner party   ball   potluck

1. Dear Lincoln High classmate,

The class of 2000 will gather at the school gymnasium on August 12 at 2:00 p.m. Bring snapshots and yearbooks to share.


Mark and Lisa invite you to join them for dinner.

time: 6:30 p.m.  date:  Sept. 21 place: 421 W. Black Oak Dr.

RSVP 221-7070

4. Neighborhood Block Party


Dance under the stars on July 24!

Dance to the music of Wendell Watley

from 8:00 until midnight in the

Grand Ballroom of the Lancaster Hotel.

Formal attire suggested.

Bring a salad, main dish, or dessert. Games for children and adults. Join the fun! It all begins at 5:00 p.m. on July 31 at the corner of 14th Avenue and Fig Street.

CHALLENGE!  The word party can be used as a noun, a verb, and an

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Computer Abbreviations

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


A. Write a letter to match each abbreviation on the left with the computer term it stands for.

1. _____ PC

a. World Wide Web

2. _____ CPU

b. central processing unit

3. _____ CD-ROM

c. Universal Resource Locator

4. _____ URL d. compact disc–read-only memory

5. _____ WWW

e. personal computer

B. Write an abbreviation from Part A that matches each definition.

1. the part of the Internet that allows users to view graphic images: _______________

2. a flat metallic disk containing a large amount of permanently stored information that can be read on the computer screen: __________

3. an address on the Internet: __________

4. the heart of the computer where instructions are carried out, overall activity is controlled, and information and instructions are stored: _____________

5. small computer used in schools, homes, and businesses; also called a microcomputer: ______________

CHALLENGE!  Many people feel that computers have changed our world for

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