364 Chapters
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Medium 9781936764976

PART III The Process Approach

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub


The Process Approach

The process approach to writing instruction is a broad concept. Most educators define it as a means of providing students with extended opportunities to plan, write, edit, and revise their work. Student ownership, inquiry, and conferences with teachers and classmates are also critical elements of process writing.

The process approach is based on the work of Linda Flower and John Hayes (1980), who find writing to be a recursive practice rather than a linear event. Writers do not simply move linearly through stages of prewriting, writing, and rewriting, but rather they are engaged in a complex and continuous process. Research supports the process approach to writing instruction as an effective pedagogical practice (Graham & Perin, 2007c). Outstanding researchers and practitioners, including Janet Emig (1971), Peter Elbow (1973), Donald Graves (Graves & Sunstein, 1992), Donald Murray (1999), and Nancie Atwell (1998), have been proponents of this approach to writing instruction. The National Writing Project also cited the process approach as foundational (Graham & Perin, 2007c; Pritchard & Honeycutt, 2006).

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Medium 9781855755079

9. Four Sensing Feeling Approaches to Writing

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub


The four types of writers described in this chapter all share common preferences for Sensing (S) and Feeling (F). These individuals find out about the real world through directly observing it with the use of their five senses (S). They tend to make decisions based on what they care about, which invariably includes what others around them need and how those people feel about the outcome (F). As a result, Isabel Myers called these people the “sympathetic and friendly types.”

SF writers see their writing as a means of connecting with other people and helping them feel better about their circumstances. They present the information they have about a situation that is most important to the people involved. In so doing, they may neglect to present a conceptual overview of their topic, that is, the big picture, or a logical analysis of the possible conclusions. But at their best, SF writers are good at determining what their reader wants to read about and at providing a story that explains what they have to say. They are naturally drawn toward caregiving activities, leading them into the health professions, teaching, religious and community service, and office work where people are involved.

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Medium 9780874216592

Epilogue: Ten Years Later

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

I sweated through the work of this research project alone. But I always knew I must go back to Carla, Tim’s freshman writing teacher, for two reasons: Her read of the manuscript would be another means to triangulate the data, and I owed her the right to comment on my analyses and interpretations of her courses. So I sent her the manuscript when it was a solid second draft. What resulted was a five-hour conversation that we agreed to tape and use as the basis for this epilogue. Here, you may read the edited version of the transcript, which we collaborated on. The italicized portions represent those sections I felt were most germane to the arguments of this book.

Anne: What were some of your thoughts when you read the manuscript?

Carla: Tim was atypical in some important ways. He was really good at expressive writing. That was where his talent was. Each student has his own particular strengths and weaknesses as a writer and usually you need their strengths to find their weaknesses as well. So, yeah, he was not uniquely talented as an expressive writer, but talented, and really enjoyed it. So it doesn’t surprise me that he ran into some conflicts as he got further into his majors.

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Medium 9781442277229

Paradoxes of Belonging in Peru’s National Museums

Decker, Juilee Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub
Blenda FemeníasUniversity of Maryland University College, Department of Social Sciences, Adelphi, Maryland, blenda.femenias@umuc.eduAbstract This article examines the establishment of Peru’s national museums in the first half of the 20th century. I address the ways that art, archaeology, and anthropology intertwined in the collection of objects and the creation of buildings in which to house them. In addressing commemorative events, especially the Centennial of Independence, I argue that the performative practices of memory building depended on the creation of an idea of unity that, paradoxically, emphasized differences attributed largely to race and origin. Thus, the state’s efforts to hegemonize the past by appropriating Inca and earlier pre-Columbian cultures as Peruvian were both supported and challenged by elite vanguard artists and intellectuals who shaped the new national museums along with the concept of patrimony. In particular, I focus on the National Museum of Popular Culture, addressing the seminal role of artist José Sabogal and his circle, within the broader contexts of Peruvian and Latin American indigenismo. See All Chapters
Medium 9781574411713

4: The Repeal of Bilingual Education 2001

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



spending for the 2002 fiscal year that began October 1, a roughly $7 billion increase over 2001. It set up a comprehensive testing system to identity failing schools and needy students. It also stipulated that failing schools would receive resources to get them back on track, and that students could be offered the option of transferring to another public school or could get tutoring or other supplemental services.36

On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind

Act of 2001 (H.R. 1) into law.37 This legislation amended and reauthorized the ESEA for the next six years. It also reauthorized the BEA of

1994. The former bilingual education act, known as Title VII of the

ESEA, is now Title III of the No Child Left Behind Act. Its official title is

“Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant



Title III represents a major overhaul of federal programs for the education of English Language Learners, or as the Bush administration calls them, limited English proficient and recent immigrant students. More particularly, it officially repeals bilingual education and replaces it with an English-only piece of legislation.

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Medium 9781538106235

Museums and Innovations

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub


Museums and Innovations

Edited by Zvjezdana Antos, Annette B. Fromm, and Viv Golding. New Castle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017. 249 pages. ISBN: 9781443812689.

Reviewed by Kirsten Belisle, Collections Manager, Dubois Museum & Wind River Historical Center, 909 W. Rams Horn St., Dubois, WY; kirsten.belisle.a@gmail.com

An aptly titled book, Museums and Innovations brings together 16 essays that unite theories with practical applications for exhibition construction as related to increasing meaning making in a globalized world. These essays discuss how demands placed on the museum field by ever-evolving societies have created the need for a new museology focused on moral activism and deeper community engagement. Each essay stresses the idea that museums must address each group of people in their communities—be they part of the majority, minority, resident, or migrant populations—through exhibitions. In addition, the constant theme of innovation and the critical approach to current museology make up for the occasional paragraph in this book overburdened by colloquial terms and jargon. Still, this book’s strength lies in the extremely detailed case studies included in each essay that provide extensive overviews of problems faced by these institutions and the ultimate solutions they created in their quest to serve their communities.

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Medium 9780253357137

Part 2. Endangered Species and Emergent Identities

Edited by Genese Marie Sodikoff Indiana University Press ePub

Jill Constantino

When we swat flies, eat dolphin-safe tuna, use bug spray, or give money to protect pandas we are deciding which nonhuman beings belong in particular places and which do not. When we fill our universities, issue travel visas, consider the land rights of indigenous people, or prohibit the passage of immigration laws, we are making decisions about human belonging. What are the factors that influence “belonging”? How long must a being exist in one place in order to belong? Do creatures belong after a quantifiable period of time, or is their belonging more dependent on qualitative factors like being the first to a place, being among the last in a place, being unique to a place, or claiming an origin myth involving that place? What characteristics must a being exhibit in order to be protected or eradicated? Clearly, belonging is subject to various cultural factors and scientific findings.

The variables and characteristics that form categories of value differ from species to species and emerge from different time frames. For nonhuman beings, evolutionary time provides a context through which to determine endemism or native status. For humans, historical time provides a ground for the construction of indigenous identities, often connoting special value and special rights. But what happens when the contexts of human and nonhuman creatures merge? In nature reserves, national parks, coastlands, farms, logging sites, and even in our cities, how might we decide which beings have the right to the resources and the privileges of the places they inhabit? When people craft their own identities of value in the arbitrary constructions of belonging, how do they negotiate between and among the frames of evolutionary time and historical time?

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Medium 9781936765171

1 Learning About English Learners

Douglas Fisher Solution Tree Press ePub

Juan Rodriguez has just moved into your area and wants to enroll his son Antonio in your middle school. Of course, you’re excited to meet this new student, and you recognize the trust this family has placed in your hands. You know it is an honor to provide educational services for students and to watch them grow into contributing members of society. You thank the parents for their confidence in your school and remind them of dismissal times and the after-school programs offered on your campus. Understanding that every new student is a bit uncomfortable with a new school, you walk Antonio to his classroom and introduce him to a gregarious peer, Eric.

English learners are a diverse group with individual needs that can be addressed by understanding proficiency levels and holding reasonable expectations.

• What tools are used to determine if a student is an English learner?

• What are the different types or classifications of English learners?

• How does English proficiency change?

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Medium 9781442276147


Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

AfterwordExploring the Smithsonian Institution Transcription CenterMeghan FerriterChristine RosenfeldWe hope that the articles in this focus issue of the journal Collections: A Journal for Museum & Archives Professionals have given readers firsthand perspectives on a range of strategies employed, experiences fulfilled, and opportunities seized by all authors and their collaborators at the Smithsonian Institution and beyond in creating the robust crowdsourcing project known as the Transcription Center (TC). It is clear that planning and experimenting have prepared units, representatives, and volunteers alike to benefit from serendipitous moments of discovery. In case it was minimized, we would also like to emphasize the gratitude that unit representatives, the project coordinator, and the development team have for the seemingly endless enthusiasm, curiosity, and generosity of volunteers.The Smithsonian Institution mission, “the increase and diffusion of knowledge,” binds together a cluster of goals, strategies, objectives, and everyday tactics. The Smithsonian’s mission can guide the work of staff, supported with the values of discovery, excellence, diversity, integrity, and service. However, what else is necessary to carry out that mission in the 21st century? Creativity. Collaboration. Breaking out and improving workflows. Learning from one another in the process. With the work to create and sustain the TC and the activity of volunteers in the TC, this crowdsourcing project is actively carrying out the vision of the Smithsonian Institution in “shaping the future by preserving our heritage, discovering new knowledge, and sharing our resources with the world” (http://www.si.edu/About/Mission).

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Medium 9781442276147

More Than Merely Transcription

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

More Than Merely TranscriptionAn Analysis of Metatasks and Twitter ChatChristine RosenfeldPh.D. candidate in Cultural Studies at George Mason University, crosenfe@gmu.eduAbstract This article seeks to understand the practices that digital volunteers of the Smithsonian’s Transcription Center (TC) engage in aside from transcribing. A thematic analysis of the Twitter feed @TranscribeSI demonstrates that volunteers are doing much more than just transcribing; they are additionally engaging in critical archival practices regarding reflexivity and filling in gaps in the historical record. Museums that hope to foster deep engagement among volunteers and to create a sustained community of virtual museumgoers may wish to model their digital initiatives on those of the TC. Doing so will ensure that museums move beyond mere data extraction toward building complex relationships with audiences through online initiatives. As a result of Web 2.0 technologies, museums in the 21st century are undergoing a transformation in the way that they produce and disseminate knowledge. Mancini and Carreras (2010) write that “new [museum] users do not only consume, they also want to be involved and to model their environment, creating social and cultural values for themselves and rejecting hierarchical structures” (60), which requires museums to decide whether to integrate user-generated knowledge into their archive, mission, structure, and workflow. For the purposes of this article, Web 2.0 refers to “the practice of getting users to add value to a website by having them build its content, thus accelerating the cycle of media production so that sites become dynamic, constantly updated sources of new material” (Gehl 2014, 47). Web 2.0 has exerted pressure on museums of the 21st century to switch from being institutions of memory to dynamic social spaces (Kelly 2010; Mancini and Carreras 2010). The Smithsonian Institution (SI) is beginning to embody the dynamic social space that characterizes contemporary museums (Kalfatovic et al. 2008). This movement is demonstrated by the Transcription Center (TC), an online digital space where volunteers transcribe and review other volunteers’ transcriptions of historical materials.

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Medium 9781855755079

8. Four Sensing Thinking Approaches to Writing

John K. DiTiberio Karnac Books ePub


The four types of writers described in this chapter all share common preferences for Sensing (S) and Thinking (T). These writers tend to take a no-nonsense approach to life. They find out about the world through the verifiable processes of direct observation and the five senses (S), and they arrive at a carefully constructed conclusion that can be explained with logic and evidence (T). Isabel Myers, in her classic book on psychological type, Gifts Differing, described these individuals as “practical and matter-of-fact types.”

ST writers often view their writing as a process of information dissemination. When they write, they first present the facts—what they have seen, heard, touched, counted, measured, or weighed—and they bring an impersonal analysis to bear on their concluding arguments. At their best, they can be succinct and to the point, ready with further information if needed. At their worst, they may neglect the subtle complexities of human communication, including ways to get their readers interested in what they have written. STs often exercise their preferences in fields such as business, management, accounting, production, the law, and engineering.

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Medium 9781442265790

Note from the Field

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Sophie White

Associate Professor of American Studies, Concurrent Associate Professor, Dept. of Africana Studies and Dept. of History, University of Notre Dame, 1042 Flanner Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556; swhite1@nd.edu

I write as the digitization project for the Louisiana Colonial Documents Database (LCDD) nears completion. And as I do so, I recall the huge wave of relief that swept over me when I first heard that these extraordinary documents were scanned, and were now safe, permanently. For an archive housed in New Orleans, that is no small thing—as Hurricane Katrina so rudely reminded us. As I saw for myself the exceptional quality of the digitization, and how technology can magnify documents to facilitate deciphering, my thoughts meandered to the significance of this achievement for historians like me: unfettered access to a signal collection of national and international importance.

This astoundingly rich archive is quite simply a historian’s dream, because of the range of information contained within the collection, about economic, political, religious, and social events for example, found within documents ranging from business records, to marriage contracts, and criminal investigations. But it is in the evidence pertaining to the lives of the non-literate that this archive stands out, allowing us—and indeed nudging us—to re-interpret the experience of non-elites and of women, not least through the courtroom testimony of enslaved individuals (the scope of which is unique in any North American archive).

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER FIFTEEN. Ethnogenesis at the Interface of the Andes and the Amazon: Re-examining Ethnicity in the Piedmont Region of Apolobamba, Bolivia

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Meredith Dudley

On June 1, 2007, a group of Andean colonists and peasants (campesinos) blockaded the road between the highland city of La Paz and the small provincial capital of Apolo, located in the piedmont region of Apolobamba, Bolivia. Throughout the summer of 2007, the normally bucolic town was engulfed in chaos as protesters razed the local headquarters of Madidi National Park and the military police responded to protests with rounds of tear gas. Conditions in Apolo, which had been simmering unnoticed for years, were suddenly thrust into the national spotlight (ABI 2007a, 2007b; APB 2007).

The dispute arose in response to the legal recognition of an indigenous land claim, or Tierra Comunitaria de Origen (TCO, Communal Land of Origin) by the Lecos of Apolo, who had been organizing to reclaim their ethnic identity and territory for more than a decade (MACPIO 2001). What was being contested by both the campesino sector and the white provincial elite (vecinos) was not just the designation of the land itself but the very legitimacy of the people who were claiming it—the Lecos of Apolo. Although portrayed in the ethnographic literature and census data as on the verge of extinction (e.g., Varese 1983; Ibarra Grasso 1985; Martínez and Carvajal 1985; Montaño Aragón 1989; Lema 1998), Lecos ethnic identity was targeted for revitalization by the indigenous organization CIPLA (Indigenous Center of the Lecos People of Apolo), which formed in 1997 (MACPIO 2001).

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Medium 9781936765171

2 Developing a Quality Program for English Learners

Douglas Fisher Solution Tree Press ePub

The students who arrive at our schools bring with them a host of experiences, learning profiles, and family supports. English learners aren’t uniformly the same, even when they share a heritage language, any more than monolingual English students are. Some students enter the kindergarten classroom with years of preschool education. For others, this may be their first contact with a school, regardless of chronological age. Students with extensive development in their first language are likely to use it to leverage learning a second, while those who have limited vocabulary will take longer to reach proficiency in English. In all cases, English learners have unique family and life experiences that influence their learning. This presents a host of challenges for schools as they attempt to tailor curricular, instructional, and programmatic approaches to better serve individual students.

English learners are doubly chalenged, as they must learn English while learning in English. They benefit from quality instructional programs that emphasize student talk in order to give them lots of experiences using academic language.

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Medium 9781622500277

To the Student

Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



Reasons for Writing

Every piece of writing—from a short note to a long novel—is written for a reason.

Perhaps the writer’s goal is to tell a story or to describe a person or a place. Or it may be to explain why an event happened, or to urge the reader to take action.

A. Use words from the box to complete the sentences about four kinds of writing

with different goals. If any words are unfamiliar, look them up in the dictionary. expository          narrative          persuasive          descriptive

1. ________________________ writing attempts to convince the reader that a particular idea has merit.

2. ________________________ writing tells a story, usually relating events in chronological order.

3. ________________________ writing creates a picture in the reader’s mind of an object, event, or person.

4. ________________________ writing explains an opinion, process, or idea, often by using a definition or a cause and effect.

B. Write an example sentence to demonstrate each of the four “reasons for writing.”

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