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Medium 9781574411713

3: Increasing Attacks Against Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

56

CONTESTED POLICY

INCREASING ATTACKS AGAINST BILINGUAL EDUCATION

The first major strategy raised questions about the goals, effectiveness, and consequences of federal bilingual education. Its emphasis was on challenging the need for sustained native language instruction. The primary attack against bilingual education from the beginning was aimed at questioning its effectiveness. During the late 1970s, opponents began to argue that bilingual education was not effective in teaching limitedEnglish-proficient (LEP) children English or in improving their academic achievement. Opponents also called for the enactment of a new policy that would consider alternatives to primary language instruction, especially English Immersion and English as a Second Language (ESL) approaches.4 This emerging opposition was limited to a few individuals; it was not yet fully organized.

Serious opposition to bilingual education originated in 1981 with the appearance of several reports issued by the Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation (OPBE). This office, in response to a request by the

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Medium 9781622500291

Playing Sports

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

PLAYING SPORTS

A. Each sport has its own vocabulary. The words in this activity, however, apply to most sports. Write a letter by the number to match each word with its meaning.

1. _____ athlete

2. _____ equipment

3. _____ practice

4. _____ underdog

a. outside the official boundaries of play b. an act that breaks the rules of the game c. team or player expected to lose d. person in charge of a sports team’s play e. special gear needed for play, such as a ball,

rackets, bat, etc. f. one who skillfully performs an activity that takes speed, strength, and coordination

6. _____ coach g. a disadvantage or punishment given for

7. _____ foul breaking a rule h. official who makes sure the game’s rules are

8. _____ time out followed

9. _____ out-of-bounds i. rest period between parts of a game

10. _____ penalty j. repeated effort to become skilled

5. _____ referee

B. Read each sentence. Circle the letter of the best meaning for the boldfaced phrase.

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Medium 9781609947439

Chapter 5: Unifying Your Verbal and Nonverbal Messages

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

“I told you I love you,” he says, his face buried in the newspaper and his voice absolutely flat. This is what is known as a mixed message, and you don’t know what to believe. You probably want to believe the words—the content of the message—but somehow it is just not ringing true.

People read each other in rather complex ways, and we use more than just words to figure out meaning. As it happens, what somebody says—the actual words—carries only a small component of the emotional information, while tone of voice accounts for much more of the impact. But the nonverbal parts, the physical part of facial expression and body language, are registered even more powerfully and can take command of the message. This is how we work our way through sarcasm, noting the difference between tone of voice and the words. And if we’re still not sure, we look at the speaker for more information.

If you are among the savvy, you’ve been paying attention to the subtleties of vocal intonation and to the fleeting microgestures (expressions) on faces. But many of us have had intense and exclusive concern with verbal language and have dismissed the sound and the look of speaking as being peripheral rather than central to communication. In my experience, this is more true of men than women. If you are simply exchanging pure information, words work just fine: how to run the office copy machine, monthly cash flow statements, etc.—information that can just as well be written. But it does not work in human relations when you’re actually talking with people like your sweetheart, your employee (or boss), or the clerk at the bank.

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Medium 9781523094073

15. The Mystery of Good Manners

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

WARMTH, RESPECT, AND SMALL TALK

The details and formalities of good manners vary wildly around the world. Knowledge of cultural practices is becoming increasingly important as we travel more and as America becomes more diverse through immigration. There is some form of small talk in all cultures, ranging from a little to a lot. We’ll look at some examples in this chapter.

The range of good manners is a book in itself and I’m not the one to write it, but there is something important to recognize beyond specific cultural practices and that is the concept of politeness. I find it useful to consider politeness as being on a gradient between warmth and respect, friendliness and formality. Warmth obviously includes smiling, leaning in, informal language, contact, and proximity. Respect, on the other hand, is more serious, characterized by distance, and warrants the use of formal forms of address. Most cultures have a point on this gradient that typifies their most comfortable stance in new relationships. A deviation from what they understand as polite will probably be interpreted as rude and will mark you as a Them, so you will need to pay attention to their habits.

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Medium 9781626560475

THREE OOPS!

Hough, Karen Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

There’s a great concept in improvisation. It’s called “Oops to Eureka!” On the improv stage — heck, on any stage — things go wrong sometimes. Or they change, not in a worrisome way, but an unexpected way. “Oops” is the response when we realize something unexpected has happened. The key is to make those instances become “Eurekas” rather than disasters. This might require quite a change in mindset for many people. It’s hard not to minimize or walk away from our Oops moments. In improv, we’re not allowed to ignore the unexpected. We’re obligated to acknowledge it and keep it in the show. In reality, the unexpected is improv’s stock in trade. Even within our own troupes, we’re constantly trying to surprise each other with unexpected suggestions and scenes.

Scientists do the same thing: they never assume to know the outcome; they embrace “mistakes” or the unexpected as fully as they do the predictable. The questions become “What wonderful thing will happen now that the agenda has flown out the window?” “What discovery will be made?”

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Medium 9781626567856

10 To Blog or Not to Blog

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

It’s none of their business that you have to learn to write. Let them think you were born that way.
Ernest Hemingway

Developing a personal brand online is crucial to your success as an author, and blogging is a critical element of that plan. I know it’s not always easy to find the time, and sometimes it seems so irrelevant compared to your other priorities. Almost every one of my clients moans when I mention blogging. Usually they have just finished writing the book and the last thing they want to do is to write more. Some of my clients are CEOs of large companies, and others are masters of the universe in their fields, and I am almost embarrassed to ask them to take time out of their busy days to blog. One of my favorite responses came from a client who is a neurosurgeon. When we started talking about blogging, he started to laugh and then asked if he should save someone’s life or write a blog. It’s all relative, isn’t it? Thankfully, our doctor loved to write and found it relaxing.

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Medium 9781523094073

8. Being More Attractive

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

YOU KNOW WHAT GRANDMA SAID ABOUT FLIES AND HONEY!

People have many other people they can choose to talk to. Looking good increases the odds that they will choose you. Like flies to honey. When you look sharp:

• You feel great (confident).

• Other people sense your respect for the event and for yourself.

• You are credited with more positive attributes than you can imagine.

This chapter makes the case for looking good in social situations. It is about how and why to make the effort to spruce up, to dress appropriately for the occasion, and to use your appearance to encourage conversation. This chapter is not about dressing up, dressing to impress other people, spending a lot of money, or being uncomfortable.

People size each other up lickety-split, by which I mean milliseconds. We are very, very good at interpreting what we see, and the better you look (remember, it’s relative!) the more credit people give you. I would take advantage of that if I were you.

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Medium 9781626560475

TWO YOU ARE THE PRESENTATION

Hough, Karen Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

We all refer to presentations in the third person, as though they were objects: “Send the presentation to Marketing” or “Post the presentation to the intranet.”

This assumes that the presentation is the PowerPoint file, the technology, the content. But guess what? The real presentation is you. You are the one who can make all of those mere props — PowerPoint slides, flip charts, pictures — come to life and have meaning. A slide deck without a person isn’t a presentation. It’s a document. So, if Marketing really wants the presentation sent over to them, you should just mail yourself in a manila envelope.

Do you think actors wait until the set, costumes, and props are in place before they rehearse or decide how their characters feel? Heavens, no. The acting and directing ensemble figures out what they want to accomplish — and the accouterments of the show support those decisions. The key here for presenters is to achieve real impact and get away from useless props.

So here are some ideas to unlock the baddest you.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Reasons for Opposing or Supporting Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

CONCLUSION

107

the White House and to both chambers of Congress in 2000 also became an important element in the repeal of federal bilingual education. From the beginning of his administration, President George W. Bush, elected to office in 2000, expressed his support for eliminating the federal preference for bilingual education and for supporting English-only methods for teaching LEP children. President Bush and the Republican Party also supported placing a three-year limit on bilingual education, setting performance objectives to ensure that ELLs achieve English fluency within these three years, and converting bilingual education from discretionary to block grants. President Bush’s education plan likewise called for states to be held accountable for making annual increases in English proficiency from the previous year and for them to ensure that these students met standards in core content areas that were at least as rigorous as those in classes taught in English.32

These sets of circumstances eventually led to the formulation and enactment of S. 1, the comprehensive education reform bill proposed by the Bush administration and to the repeal of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994.33

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Medium 9781622500291

It's a Girl! It's a Boy!

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

IT’S A GIRL! IT’S A BOY!

The arrival of a new baby is an exciting occasion. The words in this lesson will help you build a vocabulary for greeting a new baby and celebrating a birth or adoption.

A. Find and circle the hidden words.

Words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Check off each word as you find it.

___ cradle

___ labor

___ layette

___ birth

___ gestation

___ lullaby

___ adopt

___ maternity

___ diapers

___ infant

___ formula

___ parent

___ nursery

___ siblings

___ expectant

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B. Notice the italicized words as you read the sentences. Then write the word from the puzzle described in each sentence. Check a dictionary if you need help.

1. A gentle, soft song can lull a baby to sleep. __________________________

2. A very young baby is not yet a toddler. ______________________________

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Medium 9780253019417

5 Discursive Discriminations in the Representation of Western Mono and Yokuts Stories: Confronting Narrative Inequality and Listening to Indigenous Voices in Central California

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Paul V. Kroskrity

AT THE HEART of folklore’s interest in oral traditions, traditional narratives provide critical resources for the mutually dependent projects of constructing selves and creating communities. But even though all human groups seem to display a penchant for stories, most also live in a world in which it is abundantly clear that not all stories are equally valued, supported, or permitted. This “narrative inequality,” to use a concept created and championed by Dell Hymes (1996), calls attention to disparities of treatment and to disparate evaluations of stories. Oral versus literate, schooled versus unschooled, standard language versus minority language, and elaborated versus restricted code provide a sample of the dichotomies used not only in the ranking of narratives, but in the stratification of their speakers. As noted by Jan Blommaert (2009, 258), Hymes’s “democratic” and ethnographically based “political” theory of language called for students of language and discourse to use their skills not to hierarchize language users but to offer resources to communities in what Hymes (1996, 60) termed a “mediative” manner that would enable them to better understand and use their linguistic and narrative diversity:

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Medium 9781622500291

Furnishing a Home 2

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

FURNISHING A HOME II

A. No doubt you recognize the words chair, table, and lamp. Some

of the furniture named in the column on the left may be less familiar. Write a letter by each number to match each item with its description.

a. a chest of drawers for holding clothes

1. _____ armoire

b. a case, usually in the dining room, for holding and displaying fine dishes and

2. _____ bureau glassware

c. narrow bed, sometimes stacked one on

3. _____ china cabinet top of another

4. _____ bunk

d. small sofa that seats two people

e. a free-standing closet

5. _____ entertainment

f. large case designed to hold a television center set, VCR, and/or stereo

6. _____ loveseat

B. Read the passage below. Write a word from the first column of

Part A in each blank. Use the first letters as clues.

Max looked down at his brother, Marvin, who was sleeping in the lower

b___________________.

He wanted Marvin to wake up and find the snake hidden among the socks in the

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Medium 9781626567856

Introduction

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

In my twenty years of promoting books online, I have worked with bestselling authors, celebrity authors, longtime authors, first-time authors, and some self-published authors. While the challenges may differ from book to book, all authors have a similar concern: how to spend their time effectively promoting their book and expanding their brands online while writing the best book possible. Whether you’re writing your first book or you write three books a year, you are probably very busy and you must make every minute count.Together, we will figure out the best use of your time and the best way to engage with your specific readers. I hope to make the marketing process meaningful and fun for you. I am not going to tell you that if you follow my advice, your book will be #1 on Amazon (that would be a great sales pitch, though), but what I can tell you is that if you follow my advice, you will create meaningful interactions with your readers and build a long-term, successful personal brand online. Having visibility online is not just about selling a book, it’s about building a career.

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Medium 9781622500291

Camping

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

CAMPING

A. Some useful words to know on a camping trip are listed on the left. Find and circle each word hidden in the puzzle. The words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Cross off each word as you find it.

___ campground

___ gear

___ backpack

___ trailer

___ campfire

___ camper

___ canteen

___ van

___ repellent

___ site

___ sleeping bag

___ tent

___ off-road

___ hike

___ compass

C A M P G R O U N D S

R O C A N T E E N P L

A E L G E A R P U O E

C O P M M H I K E E E

O F R E I V A R R M P

M F V P L P E I W O I

P R A D T L F X R K N

A O N Z I P E E T D G

S A Y A M G P N Q A B

S D R A R M E A T P A

Y T C F A T S I T E G

J B A C K P A C K O Z

B. Use context clues to decide which word from Part A best completes each verse. Write the word on the line. Hint: Choose a word that rhymes.

1. The insects are buzzing outside of our tent.

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Medium 9781622500291

Borrowing Money 1

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

BORROWING MONEY I

Notice the boldfaced words as you read the passages.

Complete each sentence by writing your word choice on the line. Context clues from the passage can help you select the best word. The first item has been done for you as a model.

Those who borrow money must pay back the principal amount of the loan. They can also expect to pay interest on the money they borrow. Before lenders grant a loan, they will usually ask for collateral as a guarantee of payment. If borrowers default on a loan guaranteed by a property, the lender can claim that property. In some cases of nonpayment, a bank might claim, or repossess, a car or a home.

1. Banks, finance companies, and credit unions are typical lenders

______________________

( lenders / principal / interest ).

2. These businesses profit from the ________________________

( principal / interest / collateral ) they charge on loans.

3. To avoid losing money, a lender often will ask a borrower to “back” the loan with ___________________________ ( interest / principal / collateral ).

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