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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Reasons for Opposing or Supporting Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



the White House and to both chambers of Congress in 2000 also became an important element in the repeal of federal bilingual education. From the beginning of his administration, President George W. Bush, elected to office in 2000, expressed his support for eliminating the federal preference for bilingual education and for supporting English-only methods for teaching LEP children. President Bush and the Republican Party also supported placing a three-year limit on bilingual education, setting performance objectives to ensure that ELLs achieve English fluency within these three years, and converting bilingual education from discretionary to block grants. President Bush’s education plan likewise called for states to be held accountable for making annual increases in English proficiency from the previous year and for them to ensure that these students met standards in core content areas that were at least as rigorous as those in classes taught in English.32

These sets of circumstances eventually led to the formulation and enactment of S. 1, the comprehensive education reform bill proposed by the Bush administration and to the repeal of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994.33

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Medium 9781538101391

Engaging the Materiality of the Archive in the Digital Age

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Engaging the Materiality of the Archive in the Digital Age

Mark Tebeau

Associate Professor, School of History, Philosophy, & Religious Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, Mark.Tebeau@asu.edu

AbstractThis article asks how public audiences are negotiating the material world of archives and artifacts in the digital age. The digital age would seem to have diminished the physical experience of the archive and artifact, creating a world of pure information. However, the binary of virtual and physical obscures more than it explains. In recent years, digital tools have begun to reconnect public audiences to the physical world in sometimes surprising ways. This article draws examples from interpretive projects using mobile devices, crowdsourcing in museum environments, and explorations of digital audio to show how physical experiences of cities, museums, and sound have taken on greater interpretive weight and salience as a result of digital interventions. Finally, it considers the implications of such digital interventions for curatorial practice, asking how digital tools can accentuate the ways that history is both contained in and expressed through material archives and artifacts.

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Medium 9781935249801

Chapter 1: Releasing Responsibility: A Framework for Teaching and Learning

Nancy Frey Solution Tree Press ePub

Moving from a 20th century goal of student compliance to a 21st century goal of student competence requires an instructional model designed to accomplish this. The thinking behind the gradual release of responsibility model is that teachers must plan to move from providing students extensive support to having them rely on peer support to expecting them to function with no support. Or as Duke and Pearson (2002) suggested, teachers have to move from assuming “all the responsibility for performing a task . . . to a situation in which the students assume all of the responsibility” (p. 211). Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, releasing responsibility is unplanned, it happens too suddenly, and it results in misunderstandings and failure. Consider the classroom in which students hear a lecture and are then expected to pass a test. Or the classroom in which students are told to read texts at home and come to class prepared to discuss them. Or the classroom in which students are assigned a problem set twenty minutes after the teacher has explained how to do the problems. In each of these cases, students are expected to perform independently but are not well prepared for the task.

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Medium 9780870819018

1. Phonology

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

Arapaho has twelve consonants, four vowels (with contrastive length), and three diphthongs (also showing contrastive length). Arapaho also has a complex pitch accent system, with a related system of vowel syncope. The pitch accent system involves underlying accent on morphemes, intermorphemic shift in pitch accent at the word level, and grammatical shifts in pitch accent related to inflectional and derivational forms such as plurals, locatives, iteratives, and participles. Finally, Arapaho has two forms of vowel harmony, with non-parallel effects and distribution.The twelve consonants, with their standard Arapaho orthographic correspondents (which will be used in this book), are:The phoneme /b/ has a voiceless allophone /p/ preconsonantally and finally. The phonemes /c/, /k/, and /t/ are normally unaspirated but are aspirated preconsonantally and finally. Aspiration of syllable-initial consonants occurs prior to syllable-final /h/ when the intervening vowel is short, as in the grammatical prefixes cih- and tih-. In this same environment, /b/ is not only aspirated but also sometimes devoiced virtually to /p/, as in héétbih’ínkúútiinoo ‘I will turn out the lights’. (Salzmann 1956a provides more detailed phonetic analyses of the behavior of the consonant phonemes.)

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Medium 9781622500253

The Writing Process: Paraphrasing and Summarizing/ Final Project: Essay

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

The Writing Process:

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Paraphrasing and summarizing—what’s the difference between the two?

Read these definitions:

Paraphrasing is the act of restating an author’s idea in different words.

The purpose of paraphrasing is to clarify the author’s meaning for the reader.

Summarizing is the act of briefly stating the main ideas and supporting details presented in a longer piece of writing.

Here is an example of an author’s original words followed by a paraphrase:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters.” (Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose) paraphrase: She saw the stage coming from below, possibly carrying mail.

Here is the entire original paragraph and a summary of it:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters. If she started in five minutes, she would arrive at the

Cornish Camp post office at about the same time as the stage. But the post office was in the company store, where there were always loiterers—teamsters, drifters, men hunting work—whom Oliver did not want her to encounter alone. And Ewing, the manager of the store, was a man she thought insolent. She must wait another two hours, till Oliver came home, to know whether there was mail. If the truth were known, these days she always looked at his hands, for the gleam of paper, before she looked at his face.” summary: She saw the stage coming, possibly with mail. She could go to the Cornish

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Medium 9781442265790

“The Books of the Office of My Charge”

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat and Laura Louise Porteous spent decades of their lives feeding the quill and ink symbols scratched onto eighteenth century Spanish and French colonial judicial records to their typewriters. Cruzat worked for the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) from 1917 to 1931 as a translator of French colonial records, and Porteous worked from 1920 to 1948 on the Spanish records. Translation was a central part of the process that transformed the colonial notarial and judicial records into historical documents. In this case study, one Spanish judicial record is compared to Porteous’s corresponding English “Index” entry. Examining such work closely allows us to spotlight what Porteous chose to omit; moreover, her “Index” entry becomes a tool for reading between the lines of one Spanish colonial judicial record.

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Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 6 - Sound, Word and Meaning What is meaning?

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

This chapter is an exploration of the relationship between sound, word and meaning, and in particular of how to understand meaning. Meaning appears to be the most important aspect of language. After all, unless what is said conveys meaning, there is no point in saying it. It does not count as language. Is there such a thing as true meaning? In the search for truth are we not searching for meaning? Yet meaning is a most elusive thing to pin down. For a start, meaning (noun) and mean (verb) can be understood in a variety of ways.

Consider the following sentences:

He means to visit Edinburgh. (intends)

When he lifts his hand it means Yes. (indicates)

He means what he says. (conveys seriousness)

What is the meaning of life? (purpose, point)

What is the meaning of the word charity? (definition)

What does Rousseau mean when he says All men are born free? (conveys significance)

Not all of these uses are directly relevant to language as a conveyor of meaning, but certainly the last four are, as they are all concerned with words and sentences. The usual place to look for meaning is a dictionary, but even a small dictionary (Collins), gives nine entries for mean as a verb and five for meaning as a noun. Descriptions such as the sense or significance of a word or sentence, the purpose behind speech, action etc, the inner, symbolic or true interpretation, value or message are most relevant to language, but like most dictionary definitions, they are little more than alternative words or phrases for the word under consideration.

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Medium 9781538106228

The Louisiana State Museum Music Collection Oral Histories

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

The Louisiana State Museum Music Collection Oral Histories

Digitization, Preservation, and Use

David Kunian

Music Curator, Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, dkunian@crt.la.gov

Abstract The Louisiana State Museum, a statewide network of National Historic Landmarks, architecturally significant structures, and half a million artifacts, has a robust collection of oral histories with New Orleans jazz originators, revival figures, and other New Orleans and Louisiana musicians. This collection of oral histories consists of more than 300 interviews in the following formats: reel-to-reel and cassette tapes, digital audiotape, videotape, CD and DVD, and assorted digital file formats, such as WAV, MP3, and MP4. This article examines the range of the Music Collection, explains its value, and makes the case for digitization and preservation. Finally, the article provides examples of use in on-site exhibitions as well as online dissemination through the New Orleans Jazz Museum.

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Medium 9781538104118

Journal Welcomes New Board Members!

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Journal Welcomes New Editorial Board Members!

If you enjoy the journal, thank an Editorial Board member. You see, members of the Editorial Board fulfill key roles in the success of Collections. Working closely with the Editor, the Editorial Board helps to achieve the journal’s mission and, moreover, contributes to the journal in a variety of ways.

Key roles of the Editorial Board include:

•reviewing or arranging for peer review of a reasonable number of manuscripts per year and

•serving as guest editor(s), when appropriate, based on specialized expertise.

In addition, the Editorial Board:

•encourages appropriate submissions from a range of museum and archive professionals;

•provides contributor contacts for the Editor to solicit manuscripts;

•identifies books, symposia, conferences, and projects for review;

•locates reviewers for books, symposia, events, and the like;

•assists the Editor in keeping abreast of trends and issues in the field;

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Medium 9781622500291


Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF



date ____________________________


An anniversary is the date on which something important happened in an earlier year. People celebrate the anniversaries of all sorts of things.

A birthday party is an anniversary celebration of the date someone was born. Many people celebrate the anniversaries of business openings, engagements, and first dates.

A. Can you think of an anniversary that you or someone you

know celebrates each year? Tell about it on the lines below.



The word anniversary is most often associated with celebrating the date two people were married. It has become customary to give a certain type of gift on each anniversary. The chart below shows the type of gift that traditionally marks certain anniversaries. first ................................................ paper tenth ............................................... tin fifteenth ......................................... crystal twenty-fifth .................................... silver fiftieth ............................................ gold sixtieth, seventieth, or seventy-fifth ............................. diamond

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 1 – Monkey spirals

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub
Medium 9781523094073

11. Won’t You Have Some of My Spiced Nuts?

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I was invited to a party by Tom, a publisher who lives up on Telegraph Hill. I had a hunch that I wouldn’t know anybody except the host in this case. Now, when I go to the home of a friend I usually try to bring something if it seems appropriate. It was Christmas, so I showed up at Tom’s place with a basket of my spiced nuts in hand.

The place was packed, stuff all over every surface I could see, tables covered with plates and glasses and food galore, and no place to even put down my spiced nuts. While I was standing there, looking around for a place to put the nuts, someone came up to me and helped himself to some. He figured that I was serving them to the guests and as it turned out, that’s exactly what I ended up doing. People loved the nuts!

Hey, these are great!

Where do you get these?

Those are yummy!

To which I’d reply, “Oh, I’m so glad you like them. Yes, I made them, my name is Carol Fleming.” And they of course would respond with their name and away we’d go chatting—about my spiced nuts at first but always ending up on some altogether different topic. I would walk up to a group and they would turn their bodies to include me. I’d offer the nuts and they’d munch and enjoy and we’d chat and end up knowing more people. Now I didn’t put those nuts down until they were all gone. I had a wonderful time in that room full of strangers, and I left that night with a big lesson learned.

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Medium 9781442267930

“Our Museum—Another Handsome Contribution”

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

A Comparative Case Study of the Charleston Museum during its First Formative 150 Years

Barry L. Stiefel

Assistant Professor, Historic Preservation and Community Planning Program, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC; stiefelb@cofc.edu

Abstract    Founded in 1773 in the South Carolina colony, three years prior to American independence, the Charleston Museum was established as the first museum in what would become the United States. Originally, when first instituted by the Charleston Library Society (as a subscription library in 1748), the intent was to model the Charleston Museum on the British Museum. This paper examines the Charleston Museum’s trajectory as a collecting institution from its origins in cabinets of curiosities held at library and philosophical societies and small colleges of higher education to its independence as an institution and multiple structures (both historic and modern). In addition to examining the aforementioned connection with the British Museum, this paper compares the Charleston Museum with two other early American institutions—the Library Com pany and the Peale Museum—in order to draw out an understanding of the evolution of collections and exhibitions.

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Medium 9781574411713

Conclusion: Contestation and Federal Bilingual Education Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



This brief history focused on one of the most contentious and misunderstood policies in the country: federal bilingual education. It traced and explained, in bold sketches, the rise and fall of federal bilingual education policy during the years from 1960 to 2001 and the role played by the contending groups of supporters and opponents in its development.

Three major findings were presented in this book. First, this study showed that contestation, conflict, and accommodation were integral aspects of federal bilingual education policy development. From its origins in the 1960s to the present, different groups with competing notions of ethnicity, assimilation, pedagogy, and power have contended, clashed, struggled, and negotiated with each other for hegemony in the development and implementation of bilingual education. Second, contextual forces over time, especially electoral politics and a changing political climate at the national, state, and local level, significantly shaped the contours and content of this policy. Finally, those supportive of or opposed to federal bilingual education displayed a wide array of political, educational, and social reasons for their actions.

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Medium 9781538101391

Preservation First? Re-Viewing Film Digitization

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Preservation First?

Re-Viewing Film Digitization
Lauren TiltonVisiting Assistant Professor of Digital Humanities, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, LTilton@richmond.eduAbstractThis article addresses the politics of film digitization by arguing that we should reconsider archival and preservation “best practices” that require film restoration. Instead, it advocates for digitizing films “as is,” which, in turn, captures the film’s current materiality (i.e., fading, scratches, and other facets that reveal age, wear, and use). Using the work of Luis Vale, one of the youth filmmakers from New York City’s Lower East Side’s Young Filmmaker Foundation’s Film Club, as a case study, the article points to the importance of archiving and saving these youth films as part of a growing movement to look beyond Hollywood cultural production and preserving national moving image heritage. More broadly, this article highlights how archiving practices determine which histories are remembered and how.

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