283 Chapters
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Medium 9780874216424

4. Taking an Approach

Joseph Harris Utah State University Press ePub

Taking an Approach

… nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea-change
Into something rich and strange.

—William Shakespeare, The Tempest

It’s the same old song
But with a different meaning
Since you’ve been gone.

—Holland/Dozier/Holland, “It’s the Same Old Song”

The various moves I’ve talked about so far in this book-coming to terms, forwarding, and countering—are ways of marking out your words and ideas from those of the texts you are working with. The very typography of academic writing speaks to this concern, with its use of quotation marks, text blocks, separate fonts, and notes to distinguish the separate voices that make up an essay. By noting what others have had to say on a subject, defining where their thinking ends and yours begins, you can make your own stance as a writer all the more clear. Indeed, a useful move in revising a critical essay is to go back through a draft and highlight where you quote or represent the work of others and where you develop your own line of argument. (See the Projects box “Tracking Influences” at the end of this chapter.) In doing so, you will often see the shape of a dialogue begin to appear in your writing, as you alternate between restating the views of others and responding to and making use of their work. In this chapter, however, I want to turn to a use of other texts that is harder to mark with precision but is nonetheless a key move in much intellectual writing—and that is working in the mode of another writer, or what I will call taking an approach.

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Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 3 - Basic elements of language as evident in Sanskrit

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

Over the next few chapters attention is concentrated on how languages are constituted, with particular reference to the Sanskrit language, and how this may relate to Advaita. The constituents range from alphabets, through grammatically recognised parts of words, words themselves and different types of words, relationships between words, to sentences and finally to meaning.

Modern linguistics, the study of language, addresses all these matters, grouped into three subjects, which themselves each divide into two. It may help to identify what these subjects are called. The three subjects concern sound, structure and meaning, which relate to pronunciation, grammar and semantics respectively. The study of pronunciation divides into phonetics and phonology. Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, especially of their production, transmission and reception, while phonology addresses how sounds are organised to convey words and meaning. The study of grammar divides into morphology and syntax. Morphology relates to word formation and is the study of the smallest meaningful unit of grammar, a morpheme, while syntax relates to word combination and the formation and structure of sentences. The study of semantics divides into lexicology, which addresses vocabulary, and into the analysis of text or discourse.

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Medium 9781936757114

Appendix 3: Additional Metadata Elements

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9781574411713

4: Introduction

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF




Opposition to bilingual education decreased in the early 1990s, at least within the executive and legislative branch of the federal government.

The constant need for Latino votes by the Republican Party as well as the election of a Democratic president blunted attacks against this policy in the first half of the 1990s. By mid-decade, however, organized opposition to bilingual education significantly increased throughout the country.

The resurgence in opposition was due to several factors, including the reauthorization of the Bilingual Education Act of 1994, the Republican control of both houses of Congress during the 1994 elections, the state initiatives against bilingual education in California and Arizona, and public opinion polls indicating that most Americans, including apparently Latinos, opposed bilingual education.

Opponents became more diverse in this decade. In addition to conservative special interest groups such as the Republican Party, Anglo parent groups, administrators, assimilationists and U.S. English groups, they also included the following groups:

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Medium 9781538119983

From the Shore to the Sublittoral

Decker, Juilee Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

From the Shore to the Sublittoral

Liverpool’s Algal Women

Geraldine Reid

Ph.D., Botany, World Museum, National Museums Liverpool, Liverpool, England, geraldine.reid@liverpoolmuseums.org.uk

Abstract The period between the two world wars (1918–1939) and postwar Britain (1945–1960s) was a pivotal time for phycology (the study of algae), with a surge in research activity dominated by a band of formidable women whose inspiration and research has shaped the world of phycology. The University of Liverpool was at the forefront of this research, inspiring a generation of phycologists from the 1920s to the turn of the century. The researchers discussed in this article include Elsie May Burrows, Elsie Conway, Sheila M. Lodge, Mary Winifred Parke, Joanna Jones, and Margret Constance Helen Blackler. This article reviews the lasting legacy of these women researchers by examining their herbarium collections of algae and reflecting on their pioneering work.

The algal world is one that throughout history has been notable for women playing an active part within it. Early Victorian collectors, such as Margret Gatty (1809–1873), Amelia Grithith (1768–1858), and Mary Wyatt (1789–1871), popularized the pastime of seaweed collecting as it was deemed a suitable pursuit for a woman to occupy her time. Indeed, Queen Victoria (1837–1901) as a young lady had her own seaweed collection. Mary Wyatt made her living selling seashells and seaweed cards to purchase as souvenirs and curios; these collections are scattered through most herbaria in the United Kingdom (e.g., National Museums Liverpool [LIV]; the Natural History Museum, London; and the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens). A herbarium is a collection of preserved plants, large collections are spread throughout the world in museums and botanic gardens, and standard abbreviations are used to indicate which one is being referred to (Holmgren et al. 1990).

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Medium 9781622500253

Sentences: Adding Detail

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Sentences: Adding Details

Details make your writing clearer and more interesting. Descriptive adjectives and adverbs are useful details. You can also use phrases and clauses that give more information about your topic. Compare the example sentences to get an idea of the difference a few details can make.


• Maria has a dog.

• My friend Maria has a golden retriever whose fur is the same beautiful color as her own hair.

A. Try your hand at adding details to make these boring sentences more interesting.

1. Dan got a haircut today.


2. Maureen ordered a sandwich for lunch.


3. Jack’s grandfather gave him a car.


4. Barbara wore an interesting outfit to the club.


5. Roger inherited a desk from his aunt.

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Medium 9781523094073

20. Small Talk and Cell Phones, Like Oil and Water

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


Sometimes you encounter a passing stranger in a certain place at a certain time, when conditions conspire to make it right for you to have a deeply personal talk unlike anything you could have with friends or family or even therapists. This is a person who gives you generous attention and whom you’ll never see again. You are the proverbial ships passing in the night, and this anonymity creates the freedom to just let your tongue and mind become unfettered. You find yourself experiencing unexpected feelings. You discover truths about yourself that you never even considered. You say things you’ve never said to anyone else before because you have the freedom to “language out” the subterranean fragments of your mind, to put thoughts and emotions into words for the first time, to come to know yourself in a whole new way.

What is more, you hear something from this stranger that no one else has ever told you, freed as you both are from the past and the future of this relationship. And you leave this conversation changed—clearer and calmer. “Where did that come from?” you wonder.

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Medium 9781523094073

2. How Do We Go About Changing?

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


If you needed to learn a new speech sound to improve your clarity, I would direct your tongue to the right place and posture in your mouth to produce it correctly. Then I’d provide appropriate practice and carry-over activities to keep the sound securely in your articulation repertoire.

If you needed to learn how to give a concise, fluent oral report, I would direct your mind to identify the point of your remarks and the logical structure to introduce and support this idea.

If you needed to develop comfortable and engaging small talk, I would direct your feet to the sunny side of the street. I would get you out of your head and into the spaces where you find other people. For many of you, those other people are on the other side of a wall called social anxiety.

Social anxiety is the fear and stress of being negatively judged and evaluated. It is the brick wall that has kept you from reaching out to others, and it will not fall down on its own. Only direct cognitive-behavioral efforts on your part can break down this wall by changing the brain and its habit patterns. For our purposes, the most effective therapy tool is small talk.

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Medium 9781523094073

11. Won’t You Have Some of My Spiced Nuts?

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub


I was invited to a party by Tom, a publisher who lives up on Telegraph Hill. I had a hunch that I wouldn’t know anybody except the host in this case. Now, when I go to the home of a friend I usually try to bring something if it seems appropriate. It was Christmas, so I showed up at Tom’s place with a basket of my spiced nuts in hand.

The place was packed, stuff all over every surface I could see, tables covered with plates and glasses and food galore, and no place to even put down my spiced nuts. While I was standing there, looking around for a place to put the nuts, someone came up to me and helped himself to some. He figured that I was serving them to the guests and as it turned out, that’s exactly what I ended up doing. People loved the nuts!

Hey, these are great!

Where do you get these?

Those are yummy!

To which I’d reply, “Oh, I’m so glad you like them. Yes, I made them, my name is Carol Fleming.” And they of course would respond with their name and away we’d go chatting—about my spiced nuts at first but always ending up on some altogether different topic. I would walk up to a group and they would turn their bodies to include me. I’d offer the nuts and they’d munch and enjoy and we’d chat and end up knowing more people. Now I didn’t put those nuts down until they were all gone. I had a wonderful time in that room full of strangers, and I left that night with a big lesson learned.

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Medium 9780253019417

10 Contested Mobilities: On the Politics and Ethnopoetics of Circulation

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Charles L. Briggs

LIKE FRANZ BOAS and Edward Sapir, Dell Hymes connected linguistic anthropology with social/cultural anthropology. The terms he coined and the perspectives he advanced drew on wider anthropological perspectives, thus bringing linguistic anthropologists into larger conversations and enabling work in linguistic anthropology to gain greater visibility among colleagues with different subdisciplinary allegiances. I would argue that this is precisely the move that has long fostered new spurts of creativity within the subdiscipline and greater visibility for linguistic anthropologists. Work on performance inaugurated in the 1970s by Hymes (1981) and Richard Bauman (1977) energized not only anthropology but also linguistics, communication, and literary studies; the cross-fertilization between linguistic anthropology and folkloristics at this juncture was crucial, as has been true at other points as well. Ideologies of language (Kroskrity 2000; Schieffelin et al. 1998) suddenly transported linguistic anthropology from the relative doldrums of the 1980s to a period when new positions opened up and anthropologists came to see that linguistic anthropologists had a great deal to offer to studies on such topics as colonialism (Hanks 2010; Irvine 2001; Keane 2007), media anthropology (Spitulnik 2002), and more. A crucial feature of these points of intersection is that they did not simply “borrow” from adjacent fields but critically revised concepts in social/cultural anthropology as well as assumptions underpinning linguistic anthropology.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER SEVEN. Amazonian Ritual Communication in Relation to Multilingual Social Networks

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Ellen B. Basso

In this chapter I describe several approaches to how we might enhance our understanding of Amazonian ritual communication, offering suggestions for incorporating aspects of language use in the region into the new orientation to regional ethnogenesis (Hornborg 2005). As we have learned from studies of Amazonian welcoming rituals and other ceremonial dialogues, ritual practice probes the sources of community, helping participants to understand how latent hostility and tension among participants are transformed into some concrete, positive social relationships. Writers exploring this subject have adopted processual, affective, and ultimately evolutionary models involving the “sensory preconditions of meaning” (Urban 1986, 1988, 1989, 2002; Erikson 2000; Surrallés 2003). Along the same lines, a look at the more private “little” rituals of everyday life (Haviland 2009) demonstrates their considerable overlap with public discursive contexts (Basso 2007, 2009a, 2009b). Joking and avoidance relations, greetings, leave-takings, protests, and the languages of trade and marketing seem to have important resonances within the far-better-known public ceremonial practices of Amazonia. Furthermore, linguistic anthropology oriented to psychological questions about experience and personal meaning is also one of the rare sites of interest in the specific details of non-communitarian “chaotic” discourse and of “language ordeals” (Basso 2009a), communicative phenomena that have quickly led us away from assuming the presence of social “community” and “solidarity,” the idea of inherently unified communities. This suggests that people can belong to many communities or cultures at once, an idea that may be combined with the fact that “many traditional communities have had elaborate internal differentiation from time immemorial” (Gumperz 1996b:362). What these data suggest are the benefits of (1) an orientation to social networks rather than to sodalities; (2) a recognition of multilingual discursive areas rather than an assumption of monolingualism; and (3) the value of looking at stance alignments between participants in ritual practice, particularly the epistemic and evidential aspects of ritual communication and how these are manifested in what has been called the “I” of discourse (Urban 1989; Rumsey 2000).

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 7 – Preparation, structure & practice

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

Now weve taken a look at helpful mindsets, lets cover some tips and techniques for structuring your content and preparing and practicing for your presentation or talk. Lets face it most people have never learnt to do any of these things, so having a technique that you know works for each step will be more than helpful! There are many ways in which you can approach these things and I want to share some of the best and simplest ways Ive come across so far.

First lets look at the preparation side of the presentation an aspect thats often totally missed by some! Preparation is important and, no matter how time-pressured you are, a little preparation goes a long way. In here youll find some helpful tips on how to prepare thoroughly and also how to create a structure for your talk even if it is at the last-minute!

Consider your audience

One of the first things I ask my mentoring clients before they tell me all about their presentation is Whos in the audience? or Whos your ideal audience?. So many times I see people just open up their laptops and start to write a presentation before theyve considered the audience or the structure they need to follow. Many new clients I work with have forgotten that the audience is a key ingredient they used to be so worried about what their monkeys would say that they forgot to think about what the audience wants and needs.

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Medium 9781622500277

Verbs: Agreement with Subject

Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

Verbs: Agreement with Subject

No doubt you already know that singular subjects take singular verbs and plural subjects take plural verbs. singular:

Lance is a Democrat. plural: The Hongs are Republicans.

A fly buzzes.

The flies buzz.

But some cases of subject-verb agreement can cause problems. Here are two examples: collective nouns:

• Does a collective noun indicate a group acting together as a single unit?

Use a singular verb.

The jury has brought in a verdict.

• Does the collective noun indicate members of a group acting individually?

Use a plural verb.

The jury were arguing among themselves.

nouns of measurement:

• Does the noun name an amount of money • Does the measurement or amount refer or a measurement that refers to a sum or to a number of individual units? Use a a whole amount? Use a singular verb. plural verb.

Fifty dollars is the amount that he still owes.

Fifty dollars have been identified as counterfeit.

A. Circle the verb that correctly completes each sentence.

1. Our football team ( compete / competes ) against 10 opponents this year.

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Medium 9781936757114

Appendix 1: Core Metadata Elements

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9780253019417

8 Translating Oral Literature in Indigenous Societies: Ethnic Aesthetic Performances in Multicultural and Multilingual Settings

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Sean Patrick O’Neill

IN MANY WAYS, the process of translation is one of the most fundamental concerns within the field of anthropology (Becker 1995; Rubel and Rosman 2003). Even at the outset, one must question the extent to which translation is possible when passing—as anthropologists so often do—between distant and often unrelated languages and cultures. What happens to words and other elements of discourse as they are lifted from one social context and placed in another language, far from the living subjects who once animated these utterances? When it comes to writing up these encounters, every anthropologist is faced with the daunting task of representing these remote worlds of experience in “plain English” or some kind of academic jargon as we attempt to recreate field interactions in new contexts, for audiences who may not share the same cultural background or even speak the same language as the original consultants. Thus, in a deep and abiding way, one wonders how much is lost in the process of translation once the anthropologist departs from the original language and the context of shared life experiences.

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