235 Chapters
  Title Author Publisher Format Buy Remix
Medium 9781935249801

Chapter 1: Releasing Responsibility: A Framework for Teaching and Learning

Nancy Frey Solution Tree Press ePub

Moving from a 20th century goal of student compliance to a 21st century goal of student competence requires an instructional model designed to accomplish this. The thinking behind the gradual release of responsibility model is that teachers must plan to move from providing students extensive support to having them rely on peer support to expecting them to function with no support. Or as Duke and Pearson (2002) suggested, teachers have to move from assuming “all the responsibility for performing a task . . . to a situation in which the students assume all of the responsibility” (p. 211). Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, releasing responsibility is unplanned, it happens too suddenly, and it results in misunderstandings and failure. Consider the classroom in which students hear a lecture and are then expected to pass a test. Or the classroom in which students are told to read texts at home and come to class prepared to discuss them. Or the classroom in which students are assigned a problem set twenty minutes after the teacher has explained how to do the problems. In each of these cases, students are expected to perform independently but are not well prepared for the task.

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Medium 9781574411713

4: Changes in Policy

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

THE FINAL PUSH, 1990S

83

CHANGES IN POLICY

As in the prior decade, the opponents of bilingual education also sought legislative changes to this policy. Between 1995 and 2001, several pieces of legislation aimed at eliminating or modifying the federal bilingual education bill were introduced.

One of the most publicized efforts to eliminate bilingual education was submitted by House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, R-TX. In March and April of 1998 DeLay drafted and introduced legislation that would have removed the federal mandate on bilingual education by abolishing the Education Department’s Office of Bilingual Education and effectively ended federal involvement in this program. This legislation, English for Children Act, was modeled after the proposition to be voted upon by California voters in the general election in November of 1998. If enacted, it would have voided the consent decrees that encouraged the establishment of bilingual programs in return for federal funding. More specifically, it would have effectively ended federal funding for about 750 bilingual programs nationwide that allowed the teaching of immigrant children in their native language until they learned English. It also would have saved the government an estimated $215 million a year. Once these decrees were voided, state and local school officials would decide for themselves whether they wanted to continue funding bilingual education programs.23 LULAC as well as Gene Green and Sheila Jackson, both members of Congress from the Houston area, denounced DeLay’s bill.24

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Medium 9781626567856

1 Personal Branding 101

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

All of us need to understand the importance of branding. We are CEOs of our own companies: Me Inc.
Tom Peters

When I ask authors how they feel about online marketing, the answer I get most often is, “I feel overwhelmed.” I understand that feeling, but it doesn’t have to be that way.

There has never been a better time to be an author, because for the first time authors have direct access to their readers. While there is more competition in the marketplace, there is also more opportunity.

The biggest challenge for most of my clients is finding the time to build their brands and market their books while writing the best book possible. To thrive in today’s competitive markets, personal branding is more important than ever. Your ability to successfully execute your online marketing plan will help you capture and hold your reader’s attention.

By reading this book you will have already taken the first step toward accepting your role as the marketing director of your career. You can begin your online marketing work as soon as you have an idea for your book. You will find that it is easier to get an agent and/or a publisher and certainly easier to build your audience if you have already built a personal brand online.

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Medium 9781936764976

PART II The Reading and Writing Connection

Richard E Ferdig Solution Tree Press ePub

PART II

The Reading and Writing Connection

Educators have long noted the complex relationship between reading and writing (Coker & Lewis, 2008; Pearson & Tierney, 1984). Obviously, there are differences: reading requires students to make “mental representations of words produced by others,” while writing necessitates that they “formulate their own thoughts” and “transcribe those mental representations into words” (Coker & Lewis, 2008, p. 233). However, there is an important interplay between the two cognitive processes. Many educators are interested in how deepening this relationship helps students grow as both readers and writers.

Professional writers point to reading as critical to their growth as writers. The importance of reading has been found to be effective for instruction as well. Two research meta-analyses (Graham & Perin, 2007c; Hillocks, 1986) support the idea that through close readings of texts, students can develop effective writing techniques. Studying quality examples allows students to read and analyze what makes a piece of writing “good.” Students can then emulate these elements in their own writing. Well-known practitioners such as Kelly Gallagher (2006) and Penny Kittle (2008) have examined the power of explicitly teaching students to deconstruct text to inform writing. They have noted that this not only teaches students about specific features of writing but allows them to create specific goals for their writing and empowers them to recognize the intentional decisions writers make.

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Medium 9781523094073

16. Men Versus Women: Clash of the Communication Styles

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

THE ULTIMATE US/THEM DILEMMA

Over the years I’ve developed a growing appreciation for the complexity of human communication. I have deepened my awareness of how meaning exists outside of the actual words spoken and resides in the intricacies of the human mind. Perhaps most importantly, I have learned how minds can learn and how minds can change.

Here’s the story of a simple comment made in passing that carried major freight, demonstrating that it’s not just what you say, or how you say it, but how you hear it.

I had to measure the hearing acuity of all the subjects used in my dissertation research for my doctorate (you don’t want to know). Not only that, I was expected to calibrate the audiometer to ensure that the instrument was delivering accurate results. I needed to set up an equipment chain of calibration devices that included an oscilloscope. Our basement lab at graduate school had only one oscilloscope, which was already installed in a calibration setup by one of the male doctoral students, and he would not let me borrow it. I would have to wait to complete my research preparation until he was done using the instrument.

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Medium 9780253019417

7 The Poetics of Language Revitalization: Text, Performance, and Change

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

ETHNOPOETIC PATHWAYS

Gerald L. Carr and Barbra Meek

The term performance has reference to the realization of known traditional material, but the emphasis is on the constitution of a social event, quite likely with emergent properties. . . . Two latter considerations will be essential—the performance as situated in a context [and] the performance as emergent, as unfolding or arising within that context.

—Dell Hymes ([1975] 1981, 81)

COLLECTING TEXTS FROM Native American cultures has been a central part of American anthropology since its Boasian beginnings. The Americanist tradition, as this program has been called by Regna Darnell and others (see Valentine and Darnell 1999), differentiated itself from its British counterpart by emphasizing, among other things, the necessity of creating texts (Malinowski’s [1935] emphasis on collecting texts being a notable exception). This textualizing tradition targeted Native American/First Nation cultures; its adherents were urged on to “salvage ethnography” by the belief that indigenous peoples would soon succumb to the colonizing forces of the US and Canadian governments. Texts—including mythological narratives, life histories, and elicited linguistic paradigms—would provide materials for the documentation of both the culture and the language of the vanishing tribes. But it was not just for archiving the peculiarities of soon-to-be extinct cultures that texts were to be collected. (En)textualizing practices reflect the Americanists’ theoretical focus on studying language and culture together. In the first few decades of the twentieth century, Boas and his students amassed a huge number of texts, many of which would be subjected to new analytical tools by later anthropologists.

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Medium 9781626567856

10 To Blog or Not to Blog

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

It’s none of their business that you have to learn to write. Let them think you were born that way.
Ernest Hemingway

Developing a personal brand online is crucial to your success as an author, and blogging is a critical element of that plan. I know it’s not always easy to find the time, and sometimes it seems so irrelevant compared to your other priorities. Almost every one of my clients moans when I mention blogging. Usually they have just finished writing the book and the last thing they want to do is to write more. Some of my clients are CEOs of large companies, and others are masters of the universe in their fields, and I am almost embarrassed to ask them to take time out of their busy days to blog. One of my favorite responses came from a client who is a neurosurgeon. When we started talking about blogging, he started to laugh and then asked if he should save someone’s life or write a blog. It’s all relative, isn’t it? Thankfully, our doctor loved to write and found it relaxing.

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Medium 9781574416367

A Father’s Scars For Creigh Deeds, Tragedy Leaves Unending Questions

Gayle Reaves, Editor UNT Press ePub
Medium 9781622500291

At the Supermarket 1

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

AT THE SUPERMARKET I

A. Who’s who at the supermarket? Read

the list of supermarket employees on the left. Write a letter by each number to match the employees with the things they use or manage.

1. _____ checker

a. meat

2. _____ carry-out person

b. flowers

3. _____ store manager

c. cash register

4. _____ butcher

d. customers and personnel

5. _____ produce manager

e. fruits and vegetables

6. _____ baker

f. prescription drugs

7. _____ florist

g. bread, pies, cakes

8. _____ pharmacist

h. shopping carts and bags of groceries

B. Supermarket ads aim to make products sound appealing. Match

each descriptive phrase with the product it best describes. Write a letter after each number.

1. _____ hen laid

a. produce

2. _____ ranch raised

b. beef

3. _____ freshly baked

c. bread

4. _____ sweet and ripe

d. eggs

5. _____ dairy fresh

e. milk

6. _____ nursery grown

f. customer service

7. _____ friendly and helpful

g. flowers

CHALLENGE!  Think of five items you often buy at

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Medium 9781622500291

The U.S. Military 2

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

THE U.S. MILITARY II

A. How good is your “military vocabulary”?

Circle the listed words where you find them in the box. Words may go up, down, across, backward, or diagonally. Check off each word as you find it.

___ enlist

___ decorations

___ unit

___ draft

___ infantry

___ rank

___ induct

___ artillery

___ corps

___ salute

___ veteran

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B. Underline the word that correctly completes each sentence.

1. To serve their country and gain experience, many young

Americans ( enlist / instruct ) in the U.S. military.

2. During the Vietnam War, conscription—better known as the

( daft / draft )—called many young men to duty.

3. To quickly build its forces, the Army had to ( induce / induct ) as many new soldiers as possible.

4. As a mandatory show of respect, enlisted personnel ( salute / salvage ) officers of all ( ranks / tanks ).

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Medium 9781574411713

3: Conclusion

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

70

CONTESTED POLICY

and on the amount of non-English languages one could use in bilingual education (less than half a day; less than one hour per day). Ironically, while they limited the types of students who could enroll in bilingual education programs, opponents expanded the coverage to include the diverse groups of immigrants coming to this country, especially those from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia.65

Although all of these changes impacted the character of bilingual education, none was more significant than the redefinition of this policy allowing the funding of English-only alternatives to native language instruction. In 1978 only bilingual education programs were fundable.66

In 1984, federal policy allowed an English-only alternative to native language instruction.67 Officially, five programs were fundable. Three of these were instructional programs for LEP children: Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE), Developmental Bilingual Education (DBE), and

Special Alternative Instructional Programs (SAIP). The first two allowed for native language instruction; the latter did not. In defense of the program, supporters of bilingual education managed to insert a provision stipulating that only ten percent of total funds for this policy could be used for this English-only method.68 In 1988 this policy was amended to allow up to twenty-five percent of total bilingual education funds for establishing English-only instructional programs. The amended bill also stipulated that one hundred percent of any new funds above $130 million had to be devoted to English-only methods.69

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Medium 9781622500291

First Aid

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

FIRST AID

First aid is emergency treatment for someone who is injured or ill. It is used until medical help is available. The vocabulary words in this exercise appear in most first aid manuals.

A. The medical problems on the left may require first aid. Draw a line to match each condition with its description.

a. word used to describe any bodily injury

b. broken or cracked bone

3. trauma

c. condition of a patient who is no longer aware; cannot feel or think

4. wound

d. injury in which the skin or other tissue is torn or cut

e. dangerous condition that often follows severe injury or illness; signaled by a drop in blood pressure

fracture

1.

2. unconsciousness

5. shock

B. Circle word(s) to complete the sentences about first aid treatments.

Use a dictionary if you need help.

1.

To restart someone’s breathing or heartbeat is to

( resuscitate / puncture ) him or her.

2. Immediate care is often provided by an EMT, or

( emergency medical technician / excellent medical teacher ).

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3: Increasing Attacks Against Bilingual Education

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

56

CONTESTED POLICY

INCREASING ATTACKS AGAINST BILINGUAL EDUCATION

The first major strategy raised questions about the goals, effectiveness, and consequences of federal bilingual education. Its emphasis was on challenging the need for sustained native language instruction. The primary attack against bilingual education from the beginning was aimed at questioning its effectiveness. During the late 1970s, opponents began to argue that bilingual education was not effective in teaching limitedEnglish-proficient (LEP) children English or in improving their academic achievement. Opponents also called for the enactment of a new policy that would consider alternatives to primary language instruction, especially English Immersion and English as a Second Language (ESL) approaches.4 This emerging opposition was limited to a few individuals; it was not yet fully organized.

Serious opposition to bilingual education originated in 1981 with the appearance of several reports issued by the Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation (OPBE). This office, in response to a request by the

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Medium 9781622500291

Graduations

Saddleback Educational Publishing Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

name

_________________________________________

date ____________________________

GRADUATIONS

A. Pay attention to the boldfaced words as you read the paragraph about a high school graduation.

Then complete the definitions with those words.

Demetrius has completed his studies at King High School. He will receive his diploma at the graduation exercise. During this special ceremony, he will wear a cap and gown in the school colors. Because he is an excellent student, Demetrius is graduating with honors.

1. A ____________________ is a certificate that says a student has completed the course of study at a school or college.

2. Any traditional act done according to a set of rules and in a serious way can be called a ____________________.

3. To graduate with ____________________ means to receive special praise, awards, or certificates for having very high grades.

4. A ____________________ is a special ceremony in which a school honors its graduates and gives them their diplomas.

5. A ____________________ is the long robe and flat, square hat traditionally worn by graduates.

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Medium 9781523094073

8. Being More Attractive

Fleming, Carol Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

YOU KNOW WHAT GRANDMA SAID ABOUT FLIES AND HONEY!

People have many other people they can choose to talk to. Looking good increases the odds that they will choose you. Like flies to honey. When you look sharp:

• You feel great (confident).

• Other people sense your respect for the event and for yourself.

• You are credited with more positive attributes than you can imagine.

This chapter makes the case for looking good in social situations. It is about how and why to make the effort to spruce up, to dress appropriately for the occasion, and to use your appearance to encourage conversation. This chapter is not about dressing up, dressing to impress other people, spending a lot of money, or being uncomfortable.

People size each other up lickety-split, by which I mean milliseconds. We are very, very good at interpreting what we see, and the better you look (remember, it’s relative!) the more credit people give you. I would take advantage of that if I were you.

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