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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER SIX. An Attempt to Understand Panoan Ethnogenesis in Relation to Long-Term Patterns and Transformations of Regional Interaction in Western Amazonia

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Alf Hornborg and Love Eriksen

This chapter will explore the regional context and reproduction of the Panoan ethnolinguistic family in western Amazonia. The argument is a specific case within a more general project1 aiming to build a database for correlating the geography, linguistics, material culture (e.g., ceramic styles, rock-art styles, horticultural systems, etc.), trade routes, and political projects of indigenous Amazonia over time (Eriksen 2011). We believe that correlations thus established can be used to test or at least illuminate various hypotheses on the emergence and history of specific ethnolinguistic groups. The Panoan language family provides an appropriate illustration of this more general perspective. In the area occupied by these groups, archaeological, linguistic, historical, and ethnological data jointly suggest that the sharp ethnic contrast between highland Quechua speakers and lowland Panoans for a very long time has been mediated by Arawakan groups occupying the Andean foothills and western margins of Amazonia. These sub-Andean Arawak speakers, we argue, represent the western reaches of a pan-Amazonian network of long-distance trade that once used a proto-Arawakan language as a lingua franca.2

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Medium 9781538106228

20th-Century Bronx Childhood

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

20th-Century Bronx Childhood

Recalling the Faces and Voices

Janet Butler Munch

Professor and Special Collections Librarian, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York, janet.munch@lehman.cuny.edu

Abstract A popular photographic exhibit on childhood, originally featured in the Lehman College Art Gallery in the Bronx, New York, was brought to life two decades later through a library digitization grant. The website Childhood in the Bronx (http://www.lehman.edu/library/childhood-bronx/home.htm) features 61 photographs of boys and girls with family or friends, at play, on streets, and in parks, schools, shelters, hospitals, and other locales. Oral history sound excerpts about their childhood, not heard in the original exhibit, complement the 18 vintage photographs shown. The combination of images with the spoken word enhances the user’s sensory experience with deeper meaning and enjoyment. This article discusses how the project was accomplished and what can be learned from the Lehman digitization team’s experience.

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Medium 9781936757114

Appendix 4: Discarded/modified Metadata Elements

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9781442276147

Engineering a Digitization Workflow to Accommodate Crowdsourcing

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Engineering a Digitization Workflow to Accommodate Crowdsourcing

Riccardo Ferrante

Smithsonian Institution Archives, ferranter@si.edu

Abstract Utilizing crowdsourcing to make an organization’s cultural heritage material more accessible can be a cumbersome and resource-intensive process. Without a digitization workflow designed to facilitate the use of image sets in multiple ways on a variety of platforms, large-scale crowdsourcing would be out of reach for the Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA). However, such a workflow can also be a natural extension of regular operations. SIA’s incorporation of crowdsourcing preparation into its normal digital preservation and access operations demonstrates how an organization can achieve higher levels of audience engagement and acquire high-quality enriched data while avoiding heavy impacts to existing staff resources. This brief article outlines digitization workflows, material selection, and the underpinning principles and practices that the SIA employs and offers these as one possibility for organizations to consider before embarking on such a project.

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 6 – Mindset and body language

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

The content for this next chapter is pulled together by answering some of the most common questions from mentoring clients. By this point, as they start to ask these questions, Im delighted - it means no more monkeys getting in the way; they just want to get on and become a good speaker.

Obviously theres more depth to each and every technique but in the interest of keeping this book from becoming an encyclopaedia I thought Id just summarize them so you can begin to practice the ideas yourself.

I could talk for hours on this topic in fact I often do in training courses. But this isnt the book for that. This books about taming the monkeys - and now theyre tamed you might have a few Green ones left that are genuine and telling the truth. Because you may have avoided speaking for so long its very likely that you have a few questions or missing skills. Youve been so busy before worrying about your monkeys you probably didnt get much of a chance to focus on:

Each of these is important, and your mindset is the most important, which is why you needed to clear away the less positive monkeys to make room for new, helpful thoughts. Your body language will mostly come from your mindset, so now youre feeling more positive your body language will express that too. However you may need to unlearn some bad habits, so lets take a look at what to do instead of that old behaviour.

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 7 – Preparation, structure & practice

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub

Now weve taken a look at helpful mindsets, lets cover some tips and techniques for structuring your content and preparing and practicing for your presentation or talk. Lets face it most people have never learnt to do any of these things, so having a technique that you know works for each step will be more than helpful! There are many ways in which you can approach these things and I want to share some of the best and simplest ways Ive come across so far.

First lets look at the preparation side of the presentation an aspect thats often totally missed by some! Preparation is important and, no matter how time-pressured you are, a little preparation goes a long way. In here youll find some helpful tips on how to prepare thoroughly and also how to create a structure for your talk even if it is at the last-minute!

Consider your audience

One of the first things I ask my mentoring clients before they tell me all about their presentation is Whos in the audience? or Whos your ideal audience?. So many times I see people just open up their laptops and start to write a presentation before theyve considered the audience or the structure they need to follow. Many new clients I work with have forgotten that the audience is a key ingredient they used to be so worried about what their monkeys would say that they forgot to think about what the audience wants and needs.

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Medium 9781442271340

Growing FLORES for the Museum

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub
Elizabeth (Elee) Wood, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Museum Studies, Director, Museum Studies Program, Public Scholar of Museums, Families, and Learning, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis; eljwood@iupui.edu Alysha Zemanek Graduate Student, Public History Program, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis; azemanek@iupui.edu Laura Weiss Audience Research Associate at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Laura.Weiss@philamuseum.org Christian G. Carron Director of Collections, The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis; ChrisC@childrensmuseum.org Abstract The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis, founded in 1925, is one of few children’s museums with a substantial collection. The changing needs of family audiences, and the museum’s shift in direction toward a family learning mission, began to raise several questions for the collections and curatorial staff regarding the selection of objects that would hold the greatest potential for use with family audiences. The questions led to the development of the Family Learning Object Rating and Evaluation System (FLORES). This case study describes the development of the rating instrument and strategies the team took to fine-tune its use through input from curators and museum visitor preferences. By drawing on inherent object qualities as well as visitor preferences, museums can find ways to better understand the visitor-object relationship and in turn move toward more intentional selection and inclusion of objects in exhibition planning. See All Chapters
Medium 9781626567856

14 Monitor and Adjust

Burke, Fauzia Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

Efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction.
John F. Kennedy

Like many things in life, planning is key for an effective strategy. View your online presence just as you already view important relationships—you have to check in, touch base, and give updates to keep your relationships going. So you don’t just want to pop up randomly in the social media world and then disappear or go silent for a few months. To build your following you have to stay the course.

Monitor the data from your website, newsletter, and social networking, and adjust as you go. I am often asked what I know for sure in the book publishing, book marketing, and digital marketing industry. While there isn’t one magic formula for every author and every book, there are some specific steps you can take to carve out your niche, build your brand, and create a community. Let’s review them:

The age of the generalist is over. Find your niche, hone your skills, develop your audience, and be brilliant. Be a specialist. It’s better to have deep knowledge of a narrow topic than to have shallow knowledge of a great many topics. It is easier to build a brand if you define your expertise and become the master of that niche. Maybe your audience will not be huge, but every person who needs that information will look to you first.

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Medium 9781936757114

Future-proofing Recommendations

Brian O'Leary Book Industry Study Group ePub
Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 8 - Laws of Sanskrit reflecting natural laws?

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

8.1 There have been several threads running through this book: the nature of human language; its relation to the natural laws of the universe; the basic elements of language and how they come together to form meaningful speech. These threads are united by a common theme, the relation of language to truth. Such a general theme has been given focus by considering the Advaitic view of truth and by concentrating on the Sanskrit language, although by no means exclusively. I hope that by this stage it will be apparent that there is much in Sanskrit which expresses Advaitic principles. What remains is to draw these threads together.

Although much has been said in previous chapters about links between Advaitic principles and Sanskrit, this has only occasionally addressed the question of links between laws of language and laws of science. When laws of physics are considered, they seem very differently expressed from chemical or biological laws, let alone laws of language. A grammatical sutra appears to have little in common with a law of thermodynamics, or the law describing how the area of a right-angled triangle is calculated. The nature of these fields is different, and the laws are expressed in quite different terms. However, if the question is rephrased to speak of principles rather than laws, this opens up a more fruitful line of enquiry. The principles which began to be examined explicitly in chapter 2, and then implicitly in subsequent chapters, were unity, sound, lawfulness, consciousness, reflectivity and stability. Examination of them can provide indications of commonality in these apparently different fields.

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Medium 9780253019417

3 “Grow with That, Walk with That”: Hymes, Dialogicality, and Text Collections

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

M. Eleanor Nevins

THIS ESSAY REFLECTS upon Dell Hymes’s contribution to dialogic anthropology and to the interpretation of Americanist text collections. I will show how Hymes’s concerns for communicative relativity, genre, and poetics enable new understandings of dialogic relations hidden in the documentary record of the Americanist tradition and in ethnographic research encounters more broadly. Dennis Tedlock (1979) and Bruce Mannheim have identified dialogism as a way to address what they describe as the “phenomenological critique” of anthropology (Mannheim and Tedlock 1995, 3; cf. Fabian 1971). They find promise in bridging the theoretical concerns of Bakhtin with the Americanist tradition’s documentary practice of transcribing stories, songs, speeches, and other long stretches of indigenous consultants’ speech. While I follow them in these respects, I expand the role they assign to the ethnography of speaking. The latter is limited, in their view, by its reliance on synchronic structure and a static, normative relation of competence drawn between individual and collective.

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Medium 9780870819018

13. Usage—Conjunct Order

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

The conjunct order, as described briefly in chapter 2, occurs primarily in subordinate clauses that express things like the background to or consequence of the action in the main clause. In this chapter, information is presented on the various more specific uses of the conjunct order beyond the prototypical uses described earlier.

The simple conjunct verbs look exactly like the affirmative order verbs in Arapaho as far as their person and number inflectional suffixes. They are distinguished only by sets of preverbs that are limited to subordinate clauses. Many of these express temporal and/or aspectual distinctions. The primary Arapaho simple conjunct order preverbs of this type are:

All of these preverbs are used with adverbial subordinate clauses. Before presenting examples of these preverbs in clauses, we offer an overall analysis of their function, concentrating on /toh/, /tih/, and /ei’i/. The fundamental distinction between these preverbs is between /toh/ on the one hand and /tih/ and /ei’i/ on the other. The distinction is based on a judgment of the relevance of the given background event referred to by the conjunct verb for the action in the main clause, as suggested by the parenthetical remarks in the above list. /Toh/ marks maximal logical relevance or connectedness between the actions of the main and subordinate clauses and is used in cause-and-effect statements. On the other hand, /tih/ and /ei’i/ mark events that are less clearly related to or necessary for the events in the main clause where there is no clear causal connection. The distinction between /tih/ and /ei’i/ is that the former marks the imperfective aspect, whereas the latter marks the perfective aspect. Background actions occurring in the present tense seem to require /toh/ obligatorily (and thus to be relevant by default), whereas actions in the past can be marked by any of the three preverbs. Note that /tih/ often occurs with the imperfective marker /ii/, which seems initially strange given the analysis just presented of its aspectual meaning. When the imperfective marker is used, this gives one of two additional senses to the verb: a background habitual aspect or a background ongoing aspect. Examples of the different temporal/aspectual usages follow.

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Medium 9780253019417

10 Contested Mobilities: On the Politics and Ethnopoetics of Circulation

Edited by Paul V Kroskrity and Anthony Indiana University Press ePub

Charles L. Briggs

LIKE FRANZ BOAS and Edward Sapir, Dell Hymes connected linguistic anthropology with social/cultural anthropology. The terms he coined and the perspectives he advanced drew on wider anthropological perspectives, thus bringing linguistic anthropologists into larger conversations and enabling work in linguistic anthropology to gain greater visibility among colleagues with different subdisciplinary allegiances. I would argue that this is precisely the move that has long fostered new spurts of creativity within the subdiscipline and greater visibility for linguistic anthropologists. Work on performance inaugurated in the 1970s by Hymes (1981) and Richard Bauman (1977) energized not only anthropology but also linguistics, communication, and literary studies; the cross-fertilization between linguistic anthropology and folkloristics at this juncture was crucial, as has been true at other points as well. Ideologies of language (Kroskrity 2000; Schieffelin et al. 1998) suddenly transported linguistic anthropology from the relative doldrums of the 1980s to a period when new positions opened up and anthropologists came to see that linguistic anthropologists had a great deal to offer to studies on such topics as colonialism (Hanks 2010; Irvine 2001; Keane 2007), media anthropology (Spitulnik 2002), and more. A crucial feature of these points of intersection is that they did not simply “borrow” from adjacent fields but critically revised concepts in social/cultural anthropology as well as assumptions underpinning linguistic anthropology.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN. Captive Identities, or the Genesis of Subordinate Quasi-Ethnic Collectivities in the American Tropics

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Fernando Santos-Granero

Situations in which different social groups come into close contact and become engaged in a power struggle constitute an especially propitious terrain for the unfolding of processes of ethnogenesis. This is particularly true of colonial situations, where ethnogenesis has been characterized “as a creative adaptation to a general history of violent changes” (Hill 1996:1). In the Americas, the economic, demographic, cultural, and political processes triggered by the presence and pressures of colonial agents have undoubtedly affected indigenous peoples, leading to the disappearance of some identities, the emergence of new ones, and the transformation and reinvention of most. Thus, much of the literature on ethnogenesis in the Americas deals with situations of conflict derived from colonial encounters in what has been labeled the “tribal zone” (Ferguson and Whitehead 1992; Anderson 1999; Schwartz and Salomon 1999; Heckenberger 2001). This chapter focuses instead on processes of ethnogenesis resulting from the activities of native tropical American peoples engaged in large-scale slave raiding and/or the subjugation of enemy peoples as servant groups during pre-colonial and early colonial times (see also Santos-Granero 2009b). It is thus concerned with ethnogenesis as the result of native- rather than foreign-induced sociopolitical dynamics. In such situations, captors were faced with the problem of how to incorporate large numbers of war captives and servant populations, whereas the latter were faced with the dilemma of resisting or giving in to the forces of assimilation. The tensions derived from this relationship had important consequences with regard to the identities of both masters and servants. Through the examination of three historical cases—Taíno/Naborey, Tukano/Makú, and Chiriguaná/Chané—I will assess the role of Amerindian forms of slavery and servitude in the transformation of existing identities and the production of new ones, a process that, from an Amerindian point of view, involves the transformation of less-than-human subordinates into “real people” and, eventually, into friends and kin. In other words, I propose to determine the role of relations of extreme dependence in the genesis of subordinate, quasi-ethnic collectivities and identities.

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Medium 9781574411713

3: Undermining Policy and Practice

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF

RETRENCHMENT AND REDEFINITION, 1980–1988

65

Congress and in state legislatures and ballot initiatives throughout the country. Because of its national membership, it played an influential role in developing arguments against federal bilingual education and in helping to repeal or modify this policy.

UNDERMINING POLICY AND PRACTICE

The diverse opposition not only questioned various aspects of federal bilingual education, it sought legislative and administrative changes in this policy, in its funding, and in the federal government’s role. The supporters of bilingual education also contested these actions.

Opposition within the federal government came primarily from elected officials in the executive and legislative branch of government.

The former I refer to as executive opponents, the latter as congressional opponents.

Executive opponents, led by two Republican presidents, guided the efforts to weaken federal support for bilingual education. Ronald Reagan initiated the campaign against bilingual education in 1980.38 A primary objective of his administration was to limit the role of the federal government.39 In keeping with this philosophy, Reagan and his congressional allies mounted an attack against bilingual education.40

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