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Medium 9781442265790

“The Most Wonderful Collection of Original Documents in the United States”

Collections ePub

Jenny Marie Forsythe

Graduate Student in the Department of Comparative Literature, University of California, Los Angeles, 450 Humanities Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095; jmforsythe@gmail.com

Susan Tucker

Archivist Emeritus, Newcomb Archives, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; susannah@tulane.edu

Abstract Heloise Hulse Cruzat (1862–1931) and Laura Louise Porteous (1875– 1952) worked in New Orleans during the first half of the twentieth century to transcribe, translate, and index the Louisiana Historical Society’s (LHS) vast collection of French and Spanish colonial judicial records. This essay places the body of their work for the LHS in national perspective, describes their lives in the context of evolving roles for women in New Orleans cultural institutions, and considers the significance of their work for past and future scholars.1

A cast of men in Louisiana—leaders born and educated in the northeastern U.S. and France as well as influential native residents of the francophone and anglophone sectors of New Orleans—founded the Louisiana Historical Society (LHS) in 1836. Almost immediately, they began collecting colonial records, but it was not until the early twentieth century that they gained sustained intellectual and physical control of the documents.2

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Medium 9781908372307

Chapter 1 – Monkey spirals

Dee Clayton M-Y Books Ltd ePub
Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 3 - Basic elements of language as evident in Sanskrit

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

Over the next few chapters attention is concentrated on how languages are constituted, with particular reference to the Sanskrit language, and how this may relate to Advaita. The constituents range from alphabets, through grammatically recognised parts of words, words themselves and different types of words, relationships between words, to sentences and finally to meaning.

Modern linguistics, the study of language, addresses all these matters, grouped into three subjects, which themselves each divide into two. It may help to identify what these subjects are called. The three subjects concern sound, structure and meaning, which relate to pronunciation, grammar and semantics respectively. The study of pronunciation divides into phonetics and phonology. Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, especially of their production, transmission and reception, while phonology addresses how sounds are organised to convey words and meaning. The study of grammar divides into morphology and syntax. Morphology relates to word formation and is the study of the smallest meaningful unit of grammar, a morpheme, while syntax relates to word combination and the formation and structure of sentences. The study of semantics divides into lexicology, which addresses vocabulary, and into the analysis of text or discourse.

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Medium 9780870819018

11. Usage—Non-affirmative Order

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

As seen in the chapter on verbal inflections (chapter 3), the non-affirmative order is used in negative statements and in questions. But the non-affirmative-order inflections are used in numerous other constructions besides the negative and yes/no interrogative. In this section, we look in detail at the various other uses. In most cases, a specific particle, proclitic, or preverb requires the use of the non-affirmative.

The most common use of the non-affirmative in addition to yes/no interrogation and negation is in wh- question constructions. Wh- questions are constructed using roots meaning ‘why?’, ‘how?’, ‘when?’, and so forth, in conjunction with the non-affirmative order. The question roots can occur as preverbs, in which case they occupy the same position as the negative preverb within the verb and take derivational /-i/ as with other preverbs; they can also occur as verb initials (as in examples 6 and 9). Note that the yes/no interrogative marker koo= is not used with these forms.

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Medium 9781626560475


Karen Hough Berrett-Koehler Publishers ePub

There’s just too much going on in presentations: information to remember, slides crammed with data, your pulse racing, and all those rotten rules to follow. Focus, people, focus! You need to peel away the excess stuff that gets in the way of efficient, authentic presenting.

Let’s put on our geek hats and consider why this matters. Neuroscience is uncovering more and more information about the importance of focus. David Rock and Jeffrey Schwartz have done insanely cool research into how our brains connect to our leadership abilities and to our everyday human behavior. As we dump behaviors that stand in our way (i.e., break old rules) and replace them with new ways to focus our thoughts and energy, we are actually rewiring our brains. Being ourselves becomes easier and easier if we focus on it.

Over time, paying enough attention to any specific brain connection keeps the relevant circuitry open and dynamically alive. These circuits can then eventually become not just chemical links but stable, physical changes in the brain’s structure… the brain changes as a function of where an individual puts his or her attention. The power is in the focus.1

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Medium 9780874216592

Epilogue: Ten Years Later

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

I sweated through the work of this research project alone. But I always knew I must go back to Carla, Tim’s freshman writing teacher, for two reasons: Her read of the manuscript would be another means to triangulate the data, and I owed her the right to comment on my analyses and interpretations of her courses. So I sent her the manuscript when it was a solid second draft. What resulted was a five-hour conversation that we agreed to tape and use as the basis for this epilogue. Here, you may read the edited version of the transcript, which we collaborated on. The italicized portions represent those sections I felt were most germane to the arguments of this book.

Anne: What were some of your thoughts when you read the manuscript?

Carla: Tim was atypical in some important ways. He was really good at expressive writing. That was where his talent was. Each student has his own particular strengths and weaknesses as a writer and usually you need their strengths to find their weaknesses as well. So, yeah, he was not uniquely talented as an expressive writer, but talented, and really enjoyed it. So it doesn’t surprise me that he ran into some conflicts as he got further into his majors.

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Medium 9781622500277


Elliott Quinley Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice


The following items should always be capitalized:

• the first word in a sentence

An X-ray will be required.

• names of persons, places, streets, and organizations

Sandra Day O’Connor Paris, France

Oak Street

The United Nations

• the first word in a direct quotation “We’re hungry!” the children shouted.

• names of languages, specific school courses, documents, and important historical events

Spanish     Advanced Algebra     Emancipation Proclamation     Civil War

A. Rewrite the sentences, adding or deleting capital letters as necessary.

1. during world war II, many Citizens of Europe went hungry.


2. Have You tried the new greek restaurant on Tenth avenue?


3. Martin said, “this school doesn’t offer many History Courses.”


4. The internal Revenue service collects Federal Taxes.

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Medium 9781607320944

CHAPTER TEN. Linguistic Diversity Zones and Cartographic Modeling: GIS as a Method for Understanding the Prehistory of Lowland South America

Alf Hornborg University Press of Colorado ePub

Östen Dahl, J. Christopher Gillam, David G. Anderson, José Iriarte, and Silvia M. Copé

The vast geographic scale, time depth, linguistic variability, and inherent complexity of long-term cultural trajectories influencing social ethnogenesis in lowland South America have presented scholars with many challenges in the past century (see Hornborg and Hill, this volume). However, it is this multifaceted character of the problem that lends itself to meaningful interpretations of ethnic identity and transformation in Amazonia. Traditional methods that focus on specific localities or groups and then extrapolate to the broader area often create generalization where differentiation is due. With few exceptions, our ability as anthropologists to manage and manipulate vast quantities of cultural and environmental data has lagged behind the technological advances of recent decades. Nonetheless, progress is being made on the technological side as user-friendly applications become more mainstream in the academic setting.

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Medium 9780874216592

Chapter 6 - New Directions for University Writing Instruction

Anne Beaufort Utah State University Press ePub

As I begin this final chapter, I wish first to honor the acts of courage and integrity of all of Tim’s teachers to teach him well, as well as Tim’s own dedication to learning and to making a meaningful contribution to society. I am privileged that these individuals have allowed me to get to know them and to try, through this research, to provide suggestions for how we all might teach writing better. And to all who read this for the sake of this same enterprise of teaching well and learning well, I say, we are in this inquiry together. Knowing readers will make their own connections and draw their own conclusions from this work, I offer final thoughts only as catalyst for furthering the inquiry we are in together.

It seems to me that three things need to be noted at the end of this case study.

First: a developmental model for understanding writers’ growth, for designing curriculum and assessment measures and for training teachers (whether writing teachers or teachers in other disciplines) and tutors needs to encompass the five knowledge and skill domains used here to frame the analysis of a writer’s growth. To focus on one or several aspects of writing expertise to the exclusion of the others represents less than a full view of the developmental process for gaining writing expertise. This theoretical lens can be useful not only in designing curriculum and understanding what the causes are for individual students’ writing problems, but also in designing tools for assessing writing development.

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Medium 9781574411713

3: Undermining Policy and Practice

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



Congress and in state legislatures and ballot initiatives throughout the country. Because of its national membership, it played an influential role in developing arguments against federal bilingual education and in helping to repeal or modify this policy.


The diverse opposition not only questioned various aspects of federal bilingual education, it sought legislative and administrative changes in this policy, in its funding, and in the federal government’s role. The supporters of bilingual education also contested these actions.

Opposition within the federal government came primarily from elected officials in the executive and legislative branch of government.

The former I refer to as executive opponents, the latter as congressional opponents.

Executive opponents, led by two Republican presidents, guided the efforts to weaken federal support for bilingual education. Ronald Reagan initiated the campaign against bilingual education in 1980.38 A primary objective of his administration was to limit the role of the federal government.39 In keeping with this philosophy, Reagan and his congressional allies mounted an attack against bilingual education.40

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Medium 9780870819018

6. Derivation—Verb Medials and Concrete Finals

Andrew Cowell University Press of Colorado ePub

In this chapter, we discuss both medials and concrete finals. There are close parallels between these two morpheme classes. Many Arapaho concrete finals contain a lexical element and an abstract element that corresponds to the derivational suffixes described in chapter 5. The TA concrete final /xoh/ contains the element /xo/ ‘to convey s.o.’ and the causative /h/. The element /xo/ appears in other concrete finals such as AI /xotii/ ‘to convey s.t.’. Similarly, medials are lexical forms, which are often followed by abstract finals. Thus, complex Arapaho verb stems prototypically show an overall structure of LEXICAL INITIAL + LEXICAL “MIDDLE” + ABSTRACT FINAL.

Note, however, that the lexical element involved in a concrete final normally occurs in strict relationship with a single abstract final element—it does not freely combine with other verb finals. Thus, /xoh/ is effectively a single, fixed unit—a TA concrete final—and /xotii/ is similarly an AI concrete final (both are examples of what Valentine 2001:326 calls “binary” concrete finals). In contrast, medials freely combine with a wide range of other abstract finals, as well as with concrete finals, as for example the medial /et/ ‘ear’:

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Medium 9781442277229

Mutual Belonging as a Collecting Criterion: African American Art at the Muskegon Museum of Art

Decker, Juilee Rowman & Littlefield Publishers ePub

Janet Stiles Tyson

Independent Art Historian, stiles.tyson@gmail.com

Abstract This article analyzes the development of a collection of African American art at the Muskegon Museum of Art in terms of a relationship of mutual belonging with the city’s African American public. When the museum opened as the Hackley Art Gallery in 1912, the city’s population was more than 99% European American. Lack of an African American public and lack of cultural discourse that encouraged representation of diversity meant that even the one significant African American artwork owned by the museum was not displayed as relevant to African Americans. Today, Muskegon’s population is approximately 58% European American, or white, and 32% African American. The museum now collects and displays African American art as relevant not only to African Americans but also to all of its public. But this shift in collection management occurred only after an important member of the African American community held the museum accountable to that community.

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Medium 9780856832710

Chapter 6 - Sound, Word and Meaning What is meaning?

Paul Douglas Shepheard-Walwyn ePub

This chapter is an exploration of the relationship between sound, word and meaning, and in particular of how to understand meaning. Meaning appears to be the most important aspect of language. After all, unless what is said conveys meaning, there is no point in saying it. It does not count as language. Is there such a thing as true meaning? In the search for truth are we not searching for meaning? Yet meaning is a most elusive thing to pin down. For a start, meaning (noun) and mean (verb) can be understood in a variety of ways.

Consider the following sentences:

He means to visit Edinburgh. (intends)

When he lifts his hand it means Yes. (indicates)

He means what he says. (conveys seriousness)

What is the meaning of life? (purpose, point)

What is the meaning of the word charity? (definition)

What does Rousseau mean when he says All men are born free? (conveys significance)

Not all of these uses are directly relevant to language as a conveyor of meaning, but certainly the last four are, as they are all concerned with words and sentences. The usual place to look for meaning is a dictionary, but even a small dictionary (Collins), gives nine entries for mean as a verb and five for meaning as a noun. Descriptions such as the sense or significance of a word or sentence, the purpose behind speech, action etc, the inner, symbolic or true interpretation, value or message are most relevant to language, but like most dictionary definitions, they are little more than alternative words or phrases for the word under consideration.

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Medium 9781574411713

4: Conclusion

Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. University of North Texas Press PDF



Given that state governments are likely to experience budget deficits over the next several years while the number of ELLs continues to grow we approach this shift in policy with caution. Unless the schools receive increased resources to serve these additional ELLs, then the funds could end up being spread too thinly among schools to be effective. Thus, we believe that proper implementation of this legislation means that the Congress and the Bush Administration must close the loop by providing states the resources and technical assistance they need to provide ELLs with a quality education. In addition, they must more effectively monitor implementation of the program to ensure that the states are able to meet the ambitious goal.45


The passage of this bill means that after several decades of attacking and undermining this policy the opponents have finally succeeded in repealing bilingual education and in replacing it with an English-only one. The forces of conservatism, assimilation, and ignorance, in other words, have triumphed over pluralism and over enlightened pedagogy. Is this, then, the beginning of the end for bilingualism in the United States or is this only a temporary setback? Nobody really knows at this point. But if history is any guide, we are bound to see the clash between contending groups with competing notions of assimilation, ethnicity, empowerment, social change, and pedagogy continue and probably escalate in the years ahead. Contestation and contradiction have and will continue to shape the content of school language policies in the years to come for they are central to the policy development process. It might be appropriate here to end this history with the words of Josué M. González, one of the most important and influential advocates of bilingual education in the nation. Recently, in reflecting on the demise of federal bilingual education policy and on the federal government’s support for this policy, he noted that this temporary setback will not have a dampening effect on bilingualism or on dual language instruction. In the wake of this demise,

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Medium 9781622500253

The Writing Process: Paraphrasing and Summarizing/ Final Project: Essay

Emily Hutchinson Saddleback Educational Publishing PDF

Basic Skills Practice

The Writing Process:

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Paraphrasing and summarizing—what’s the difference between the two?

Read these definitions:

Paraphrasing is the act of restating an author’s idea in different words.

The purpose of paraphrasing is to clarify the author’s meaning for the reader.

Summarizing is the act of briefly stating the main ideas and supporting details presented in a longer piece of writing.

Here is an example of an author’s original words followed by a paraphrase:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters.” (Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose) paraphrase: She saw the stage coming from below, possibly carrying mail.

Here is the entire original paragraph and a summary of it:

“Down the mountain, moving beyond a curtain of quivering air, she saw the stage coming, perhaps with letters. If she started in five minutes, she would arrive at the

Cornish Camp post office at about the same time as the stage. But the post office was in the company store, where there were always loiterers—teamsters, drifters, men hunting work—whom Oliver did not want her to encounter alone. And Ewing, the manager of the store, was a man she thought insolent. She must wait another two hours, till Oliver came home, to know whether there was mail. If the truth were known, these days she always looked at his hands, for the gleam of paper, before she looked at his face.” summary: She saw the stage coming, possibly with mail. She could go to the Cornish

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